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LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFQRNIA. 



BIOLOGY 

LIBRARY 

G 




Andre & Sleigh, Ltd., Bushey. 



KITES. 

From a Sketch by J. WOLF. 



A MANUAL OF 

PAL^ARCTIC BIRDS 



BY 



H. E. DRESSER, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. 

AUTHOR OF "THE BIRDS OF EUROPE," ETC., ETC. 




PART II 
LONDON 

PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR AT 3 HANOVER SQUARE, W. 




A<\ 







RICHARD CLAY AND SONS, LIMITED, 

BRKAD STREET HILL, B.C., AND 

BUNGAY, SUFFOLK. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX TO PART II 



PAGE 

GYPsfulvus(0mZ.) .... 499 

,, himalayensis, Hume . . 499 

Vultur monachus, Linn. . . . 500 

Neophron percnopterus (Linn.), 501 

Grypaettis barbatus (Linn.) . . 502 

Circus aerugiiiosus (Linn.) . . 503 

,,' Spilonotus, Kaup . . . 504 

,, eineraceus (Montag.) . . 505 

,,' swainsoni, Smith . . . 506 

cyaneus (Linn.) . . . 507 

melanoleucus (Forster) . 508 

Buteo vulgaris, Leach .... 509 

zimmermannse, Ehmcke . 510 
desertorum (Daud) . .511 

leucocephalus (Hodgs.) . 511 

ferox (S. G. Gmel.) . . 512 

Butastur indicus ( Gmel. ) . . . 513 

Archibutio lagopus (Gmel.) . . 514 

,, hemiptilopus, Blyth. 515 

Hieraetus pennatus (Gould) . . 515 

fasciatus (Vieill.) . . 516 

Aquila hiaculata (Gmel.) . . . 517 

pomarina, Brehm . . 518 

,, nipalensis, Hodgs. . . 519 

,, rapax ( Temm. ) ... 520 

,, heliaca, Savigny . . . 521- 

,, adalberti, L. Brehm . . 522, 

,, chrysaetus (Linn.) . . 522 

Haliaetus leucoryph us (Pall.) . 523 

albicilla (Linn.) . . 524 

,, leucocephalus (Linn.) 525 

pelagicus (Pall. ) . . 526 

,, branickii, Tacz. . . 526 

Circaetus gallicus (Gmel.) . . 527 

Spizaetus nipalensis (Hodgs. ) . 528 

Astur palumbarius (Linn. ) . . 529 

,, badius (Gmel.) .... 530 

,, ' brevipes (Severtz.) . . . 531 

Accipiter nisus (Linn. ) . . . 531 

' virgatus(Tem??i.) . . 532 

Melierax polyzonus (Rilpp.) . . 533 

Milvus ictinus, Savigny ... 534 

,,' Inigrans (Bodd.) . . . 535 



Milvus melanotis, Temm. and 

Schlegel 536 

eegyptius (Gmel.) . . . 537 

Elanus cserule'us (Desf.) . . . 537 

Pernis apivorus (Linn.) . . . 538 

Falco gyrfalco, Linn. . . .- . 539 

candicans, Gmel. . . . 540 

islandus, Gmel 541 

lorenzi Menzbier .... 542 

altaicus (Menzbier) . . . 542 

cherrug, J. E. Gray . . 543 

milvipes, Hodgs. . . . 544 

peregrinus, Tunstall . . 544 

punicus, Levaill. junr. . 545 

barbarus, Linn 546 

feldeggi, Schlegel ... 546 

sesalon, Tunstall . . . 547 

subbuteo, Linn. . . . 548 

eleonoras, Gen6 .... 549 

vespertinus, Linn. . . . 550 

amurensis, Radde . . . 551 

tinnunculus, Linn. . . . 552 

cenchris, Naum. . . . 553 

Pandion haliaetus (Linn. ) . . 554 

Phalacrocorax carbo (Linn.) . 555 
, , filamentosus ( Temm. 

and Schlegel) . . 556 

bicristatus Pall. . 557 

perspicillatus, Pall. 557 

pelagicus, Pall. . . 558 

graculus (Linn.) . 558 

africanus (Gmel.) . 559 

pygmseus (Pall.) . 560 

Sula bassana (Linn. ) . . . . 561 

Pelecanus onocrotalus, Linn. . 562 

,, roseus, Gmel. . . . 563 

,, crispus, Bruch. . . 563 

Ardea cinerea, Linn 564 

,, purpurea, Linn. . . . 565 
,, nielanocephala, Vig. and 

Childr 566 

,, alba, Linn 566 

,, intermedia, Wagl. . . 567 



195344 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX TO PART II 



PAGE 

Ardea timoriensis, Cuv. . . . 568 

garzetta, Linn. . . . 568 

ibis, Linn ...... 569 

coromanda (Bodd.) . . 570 

ralloides, Scop ..... 571 

grayi, Sykes ..... 572 

bacchus, Bp ..... 572 

Nycticorax griseus (Linn. ) . . 573 

Gorsachius goisagi (Temm. ) . . 574 

Ardetta javanica (Horsf.) . . 575 

,, minuta (Linn.) . . . 575 

,, sinensis (Gmel.) . . . 576 

,, cinnamomea (Gmel.) . 577 

,, eurythma, Swinh. . . 578 

Botaurus stellaris (Linn. ) . . 578 

lentiginosus (Alontag.}. 579 

Ciconia alba, Bechst ..... 580 

,, boyciana, Swinh. . . 581 

,, nigra, (Linn.) .... 581 

Platalea leucorodia, Linn. . . 582 

,, minor, Temm.&Schlegel. 583 

Ibis aethiopica(Za#z..) . . . . 584 

melanocephala (Loth.) . . 584 

nippon, Temm ..... 585 

,, eremita (Linn. ) .... 586 

Plegadis falcinellus (Linn.) . . 586 

Phcenicopterus roseus, Pall. . 587 

Anser ferus, Schaeff. . . . . 588 



fabalis (Lath. ) 
middendorffi, Severtz. 
brachyrhynchus, Baill. 
albifrons(co^.). . . 
gambeli, Hartl. .. 
erythropus (Linn. ) . 
indicus (Lath. ) . . . 
cygnoides (Linn.) . . 
Branta bernicla (Linn.) . . 
nigricans (Laivr.) . 
hutchinsi (Richardson) 
leucopsis (Bechst. ) . 
ruficollis(PaZZ.) . . 
Chenhyperboreus(PaZZ.) . 
canagica (Sevastanoff) . 
Cygnus olor (Gmel.) ... 
,, musicus, Bechst. . . 
bewicki, Yarrell .. 
Tadorna cornuta (S. G. Gmel. ) 
casarca (Linn. ) . . 



589 
590 
590 
591 
592 
592 
593 
593 
594 
595 
595 
596 
596 
597 
598 
598 
599 
600 
601 
602 
603 
Anas boscas, Linn ..... 604 

zonorhyncha, Swinh. . . 605 
Chaulelasmus streperus (Linn. ). 605 
Spatula clypeata (Linn.) . . . 606 
Marmaronetta angustirostris 

(Mtnttr.) ....... 607 

Eunetta falcata (Gcorgi) ... 608 

Querquedula circia (Linn. ) . . 609 

,, discors (Linn.) . 610. 



Nettion crecca (Linn. ) . . . 

,, carolinense (Gmel. ) . . 

,, formosum (Georgi) . . 

Dafila acuta (Linn.) .... 

Mareca penelope (Linn. ) . . 

,, americana (Gmel.) . . 

^thyiarufma (Pall.) . . . . 

,, ferina (Linn.) . . . 

,, ma,rila,(Linn.) . . . 

,, fuligula (Linn.) . . . 

nyroca (Giild.) . . . 

,, bseri (Radde) .... 

Clangula glaucion (Linn. ) . . 

,, islandica (Gmel.) . . 

,, albeola (Linn. ) . . . 

Cosmonetta histrionica (Linn. ) . 

Harelda glacialis (Linn. ) . . . 

(Edemia f usca (Linn. ) . . . . 

,, carbo(Pa.) . . . . 

nigra (Linn.). . . . 

,, americana, Swains, and 

Richardson .... 

,, perspicillata (Linn. ) . 

Somateria stelleri (Pall. ) . . . 

,, mollissima (Linn. ) 

v-nigrum, G. JR. Gray 

, , spectabilis (Linn. ) 

,, fischeri (Brandt) . . 

Erismatura leucocephala (Scop. ) 

Mergus merganser, Linn. 

,, serrator, Linn. . . . 

,, cucullatus, Linn. . . 

,, albellus, Linn. . . . 

Sphenocercus sieboldi (Temm.) . 

Columba livia, Bonn 

,, intermedia, Strickl. . 
,, rupestris, Bp. . . . 
,, leuconota, Vig. . . 
,, oenas, Linn. . . . 
,, eversmanni, Bp. . . 
,, laurivora, Webb and 
Berthelot. . . . 
,, bollii, Godman . . . 
,, trocaz, Heineken . . 
,, palumbus, Linn. . . 
,, casiotis (Bp. ) . . . 
, , ianthina ( Temm. ) . . 
Turtur communis, Sclby . . . 
,, isabellinus, Bp. . . . 
ferrago (Eversm.) . . . 
orientalis (Lath. ) . . . 
decaocta (Frivaldsky) 
senegalensis (Linn.) . . 
cambayensis (Gmel. ) . . 
suratensis (Gmel.) . . 
tranquebaricus (fferm. ) . 
Pterocles arenarius (Pall.) , . 
,, coronatus, Licht. , . 



PAGE 

611 
612 
612 
613 
614 
615 
616 
617 
618 
619 
620 
621 
621 
622 
623 
624 
625 
626 
627 
627 



629 
630 
631 
632 
632 
633 
634 
635 
636 
637 
638 
639 
639 
640 
641 
641 
642 
642 

643 
644 
644 
645 
646 
646 
646 
647 
648 
648 
649 
650 
650 
651 
651 
652 
653 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX TO PART II 



PAGE 

Pterocles alchata (Linn. ) . . 654 

,, senegallus (Linn.) . 655 

,, exustus (Temm.) . . 656. 

Syrrhaptes paradoxus (Pall. ) . 657 

tibetanus, Gould . 658 

Phaeianus colchicus, Linn. . . 658 

,, talischensis, Lorenz. . 660 

,, principalis, Sclater . 660 

,, shawi, Elliot ... 660 

,, persicus, Severtz. . . 661 

,, zarafschanicus, Tar- 

novski 661 

,, tarimensis, Prjev. . 662 

,, chrysomelas, Severtz. 662 

,, etrauchi, Prjev. . . 663 

,, berezowskyi, Rothschild 663 

vlangali, Prjev. . . 664 

versicolor, Vieill. . . 664 

,, mongolicus, Brandt . 665 

,, semitorquatus, Severtz. 665 

torquatus, Gmel. . . 665 

hagenbecki, Rothschild 666 

,, satchuensis, Prjev. . 667 

,, scemmerringi, Temm. 667 

,, scintillans, Gould. . 667 

,, ijimae, Dresser . . . 668 

Chrysolophus pictus (Linn.) . 668 

a,mhersti&(Leadb. ) 669 

Pucrasia xanthospila, Gray . . 670 

,, castanea, Gould. . . 670 

,, meyeri, Madarasz . . 671 

Crossoptilum tibetanum, Hodgs. 671 

,, leucurum, Seebohm 671 

,, mantchuricum, 

Swinh. ... 672 

,, auritum (Pall.) . 672 

,, harmani, Elwes . 673 

Lophophoms refulgens, Temm. 673 

1'huysi, Verr. . . 674 

Ithagenes crneutns (Hardw.) . 675 

,, sinensis, David . . 675 

geoffroyi, Verr. . . 676 

Caccabis saxatilis ( WolfJs Meyer) 677 

,, chucar (Gray) . . . 678 

magna, Prjev. ... 678 

,, rufa(Zwrc.) . . . 679 

,, petrosa (Gmel.) . . . 679 

Ammoperdix bor.hami (Fraser) . 680 

Francolinus vulgaris, Steph. . . 681 

,, bicalcaratus, Linn. 682 

Perdix cinerea, Lath 682 

daurica(PaZZ.). ... 683 

, , hodgsonise, Hodge. . . 684 

,, sifanica, Prjev. . . . 684 

Coturnix commums,Bonnaterre 685 

,, japonica, Temm. and 

Schlegel 686 

Tetraophasis obscurus (Verr.) . 686 



PAGE 

Tetraophasis szechenii, Madarasz 687 

Tetraogallus caucasicu8 (Pall.) . 688 

caspius (S. 0. Gmel. ) 689 

,, hirnalayensis, Gray 690 

tibetanus, Gould. . 690 

,, altaicus (Gebler) . 691 

Lagopus albus (Gmel.) . . . 692 

scoticus (Lath.) . . . 693 

,, mutus (Moutin.) . . 693 

rupestris (Gmel.) . . 694 

hyperbore\ia,Sundewall 695 

Tetrao urogallus, Linn. . . . 695 

,, uralensis, Severtz. and 

Menzbier 696 

parvirostris, Bp. . . . 697 

kamtschaticus, Kiftlitz . 697 

tetrix, Linn 698 

mlokosiewiczi, Tacz. . 699 

falcipennis, Hartl. . . 700 

Tetrastesbonasia(iw*.) . . 700 

Tetrastes griseiventris, Menzbier 701 

,, severtzovi, Prjev. . . 702 

Turnix sylvatica (Desfont. ) . . 703 

,, blanfordi, Blyth ... 704 

Rallus aquaticus, Linn. . . . 704 

indicus, Blyth .... 705 

Porzana maruetta (Leach) . . 706 

bailloni(F^.). . . 707 

pusilla (Pall.) ... 708 

parva (Scop. ) . . . . 708 

exquisita, Swinh. . . 709 

fusca (Linn.) .... 710 

paykulli (Ljungh.) . . 710 

Crex pratensis, Bechst. . . . 711 

Porphyrio ceeruleus ( Vandelli) . 712 
, , madagascariensis 

(Lath.) . . -713 

,, poliocephalus (Lath.) 713 
,, alleni, T. R. ff. 

Thompson . . . 714 

Gallinula chloropus (Linn. ) . . 715 

Fulica atra, Linn 716 

cristata, Gmel. . . . 717 

Grus communis, Bechst. . . . 717 

nigrieollis, Prjev. . . . 718 

japonensis (P.L.S.Muller) 719 

monachus, Temm. . . . 720 

canadensis (Linn. ) . . . 720 

collaris, Bodd 721 

virgo (Linn.) 721 

vipio, Pall 722 

leucogeranus, Pall. . . . 723 

Otis tarda, Linn 723 

,, dybowskii, Tacz. . . . 724 

Tetrax eampestris, Leach . . . 725 

Houbara undulata (Jacq. ) . . 726 
,, macqueenii (Gray 'and 

Hardw.) . . . . 727 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX TO PART II 



(Edicnemus scolopax^. G-, Gmd. ) 

Glareola pratincola (Linn.) . . 

,,- orientalis, Leach . . 

,, melanoptera, Nordm. . 

Cursorius gallicus (Gmel.) . . 

Charadrius pluvialis, Linn. . . 
,, dominicus, P. L. S. 

Miiller '. . . . 

Squatarola helvetica (Linn. ) . 

JEgialitis mongola (Pall. ) . . 

geoffroyi (JVagl.) . . 
pyrrhothorax, Gould. 

asiatica (rail.). . . 

vereda (Gould) . . . 

oantiana (Lath. ) . . 

hiaticula (Linn. ) . . 

placida (Gray). . . 

semipalmata (Bp. ) . 

curonica (Gmel. ) . . 

vocifera (Linn.) . . 

peeuaria ( Temm. ) . . 

Eudromias morinellus (Linn.) . 

Pluvianus segyptius (Linn.) . . 

Hoplopterus spinosus (Linn.) . 

Chettusia gregaria (Pall.) . . 

,, leuoura (Licht. ) . . 

Lobivanellus indicus (Bodd.) . 

,, cinereus (Blyth) . 

Vanellus vulgaris, Bechst. . . 

Strepsilas interpres (Linn. ) .. . 

Hsematopus ostralegus Linn. . 

,, moquini, Bp. . . 

Recurvirostra avocetta, Linn. . 

Himantopus candidus, Bonnat . 
Phalaropus hyperboreus (Linn.) 

* fulicarius (Linn.) . 

Scoldpax rusticula (Linn.) . . 

Rostratula capensis (Linn. ) . . 

Gallinago major (Gmel) . . . 

caelestis (Frenzel) . . 

stenura (Kuhl.) . . 

megala, Swinh. . . 

australis (Lath.) . . 



, gallinula (Linn.) . 
Limicola platyrhyncha (Tcmm.) 
,, sibirica, Dresser . . 
Tringa maculate, Vieill. . . . 

acuminate (Horsf.) . . 

bairdi {Coues) .... 

fusoicollis, Vieill. . . 

alpina, Linn 

americana (0. L. Brehm) 

minuta, Leisl 

ruficollis, Pall. . . . 

subminuta, Middendorff . 

minutilla, Vieill. . . 

temmincki, Leisl. . . 



PA-OE 

727 
728 
729 
730 
730 
731 

732 
733 
734 
735 
735 
736 
736 
737 
738 
739 

740 

740 
741 
742 
743 
744 
745 
745 
746 
747 
748 
749 
750 
751 
752 
752 
753 
754 
755 
756 
757 
758 
759 
761 
762 
762 
763 
763 
764 
765 
766 
767 
767 
768 
769 
770 
770 
771 
772 
772 
773 



Tringa subarquata (Giild.) . . 
camitus, Linn. . . . 
crassirostris, Temm. and 

Schlegel 

striata, Linn 

couesi (Ridgway) . . . 
occidentalis (Lawr.) . . 
Calidris arenaria (m?i.) . . . 
Eurynorhynchus pygmseus 

(Linn.) 

Machetes pugnax (Linn. ) . . 
Tringitee rufescens ( Vieill. ) . 
Bartramia longicauda (Bechst.). 
Totanus calidris (Linn.) . . . 
fuscus (Linn.) . . . 
glottis (Linn.) ... 
guttifer, Nordm. . . 
slagnatilis, Bechst. . . 
flavipes (Gmel.) ... 
ochropus, (Linn.) . . 
solitarius ( IVilson) . . 
glareola (Gmel.) ... 
hypoleucus (Linn.) . . 
macularius (Linn.) . 
brevipes Vieill. . . . 
incanus (Gmel.) ... 
Terekia cinerea (Giild.) . . . 
Macrorhamphus griseus (Gmel.) 
,, semipalmatus, 

Jerdon . . . 

Limosa lapponica (Linn.) . . 
,, baueri, Naum. . . . 
,, belgica (Gmel.) ... 
Numenius borealis (Forster) . . 
minutus, Gould . . 
phseopus (Linn.) . . 
variegatus (Scopoli) . 
tenuirostris, Vieill. . 
arquatus (Linn.) . . 
cyanopus, Vieill. . 
Ibidorhynchus struthersi, Vigors 
Hydrochelidon nigra (Linn.) . 
,, leucoptera^e/zms. ) 



Sterna macrura, Naum. 
fluviatilis, Naum. 
longipennis, Nordm. 
dougalli, Montag. . 
media, Horsf. . . 
cantiaca, Gmel. 
oaspia, Pall. 
maxima, Bodd. 
anglica, Montag. . 
minuta, Linn. . 
sinensis, Ghnel. 
aleutica, Baird 
fuliginosa, Gmel. . 
ansestheta, Scop. . 



PAGE 

774 
775 

776 
776 

777 
778 
779 

780 
780 
782 
782 
783 
784 
786 
787 
787 
788 
789 
790 
790 
791 
792 
793 
794 
794 
795 

796 
797 
798 
798 
800 
800 
801 
802 
802 
803 
804 
805 
805 
806 
807 
808 
809 
810 
810 
811 
812 
813 
814 
814 
815 
816 
817 
818 
818 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX TO PART II 



PAGE 

Anoue stolidus (Linn.} . . . 819 

Xema sabinii (J. Sabinc) . . . 820 

Rhodostethia rosea (Macgill. ) . 821 

Pagophila ebitrnea (Phipps) . . 821 

Rissa tridactyla (JWnw.) ... 822 

., brevirostris (Bruch.) . . 823 

Larus ridibundus, Linn. . . . 824 

bmnneicephalus, Jcrdon 825 

melanocephalus, Natlerer 825 

Philadelphia (Ord) . . 826 

ichthyaetus, Pall. ... 827 

saundersi (Swinh.) . . 827 

minutus, Pall 828 

carms, Linn 829 

gelastes, Thienem . . . 830. 

audouini, Payraudeau . 831 

crassirostris, Vieill. . . 8.32 

argentatus. GmeL . . . 832 

cachinnans, Pall. . . . 833 

vegse, Stejn 834 

fuscus, Linn 834 

affinis, Rcinhardt . . . 835 

schistisagus, Stejn. . . 836 

marinus, Linn 836 

glaucus, Fabricius . . 837 

leucopterus, Faber . . 838 

glaucescens, Naum. . . 838 

Stercorarius catarrhactes(Zt/m.) 839 

,, pomatorhinus( Temm. ) 840* 

,, crepidatus, Banks . 841 

., parasiticus (Linn.) . 842 

Procellaria pelagica, Linn. . . 843 

Oceanodroma leucorrhoa( Vieill. ) 844 

,, castro (Harcourt) . 845 

, , f uliginosa ( Gmel. ) . 846 

,, triBtnmi, Stejn. . 846 

,, mo\iorhis(Swinh. ). 847 

furcata, (Gmel.) . 847 

Oceanites oceamcus (Kuhl.) . . 848 

Pelagodroma marina (Lath. ) . 849 

Pnffinus anglorum (Temm.} . . 849 

yelkonanus (Acerbi) . 850 

gravis (O'Reilly) . . 851 

tawevLB (Gmel.) . . . 851 

kuhli (Boie) .... 852 

leucomelas, Temm. . . 852 

carneipes, Gould . . 853 

tenuirostris (Temm.) . 853 

obscurns (Gmel.) . . 854 



PAGE 

Puffinus assimilis. Gould . . 854 

CEstrelata haesitata (Kuhl.) . . 855 

mollis (Gould). . . 855 

brevipes (Peale) . . 856 

,, longirostris, Stejn. . 856 

Bulweria columbina ( Webb and 

Bertholet) ...... 857 

Fulmarus glacialis (Linn.) . . 858 

,, glupischa, Stejn. . . 858 

Diomedea albatrus, Pall. . . 859 

,, nigripes, Aud. . . 859 

,, melanophrys, Boie . 860 

Alca torda, Linn ...... 861 

,, impennis, Linn ..... 862 

,, troile (Linn.) ..... 862 

,, \omvia, (Pall.) .... 863 

Mergulns alle (Linn. ) . . . . 864 

Uria grylle, Linn ...... 864 

' 



mandti, Licht 
columba (Pall.) 



,, snowi (Stejn.) ..... 
Brachyrhamphus perdix (Pall. ). 
} , brevirostris 

( Vigors) . . 
Synthliborhamphus antiquus 

(Gmel.) . 

, , wumizusume 

(Temm.). 

Simor hy nchus cristatellus( Pall. ) 
pvgmseus (Gmel.) 



psittaculus( Pall. ) 

Cerorhyncha monocerata (Pall. ) 
Lunda cirrhata (Pall. ) . . . 
Fratercula arctica (Linn. ) . . 
,, corniculata (Naum. ) 
Colymbus septentrionalis, Linn. 
arcticus, Linn. . . 
glacialis, Linn. . . 
adainsi, G. JR. Gray . 
Podic pes cristatus (Linn. ) . . 
griseigena (Bodd. ) . . 
auritus (Linn.) . . 
nigricollis,.Z. L.Brehm. 
fluviatilis ( Tunstall) . 
Myiophoneus temmincki, Vigors 
Troglodytes fumigatus, Temm. . 



865 
866 
866 

867 
867 

868 
868 

869 
869 

870 
870 
871 
871 
872 
873 
873 
874 
875 
876 
877 
877 
878 
879 
880 
881 
883 
884 




4 " 



GYPS, Savigny, 1870. 

710. GRIFFON VULTURE. 

GYPS FULVUS. 

Gyps fulvus (Gmel.), Syst. Xat, i. p. 249 (1788) ; (Xaura.), i. p. 162, 
Taf. 2, xiii. Taf. 338 ; (Gould), B. of E. i. pi. 1 ; Newton, i. p. 1 ; 
Dresser, v. p. 373, pis. 319, 320 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 5 ; 
Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 320 ; Saunders, p. 311 ; Lilford, 
i. p. 77, pi. 39 ; G. hispaniolensis Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 6 
(1874) ; G. fulvescem Hume, Ibis, 1869, p. 356. 

Vautour Griffon, French ; Griffo, Portug. ; Buitre, Span. ; 
Grifone, Ital. ; Gclnsegeier, German ; Bjelogolovoi Griff ] Russ. ; 
Nissr, Arab, ; Enisser, Moor. 

ad. (S. Europe). Head and neck sparingly covered with white hairs ; 
ruff composed of white down, which is more profuse on the hind-neck ; 
upper parts stone-buff, the middle of the larger wing-coverts darker ; wings 
and tail darker, the former washed with grey ; under parts stone-buff, the 
crop patch darker, with lighter stripes ; bill slate ; iris hazel ; legs light 
brown. Culmen 3'4, wing 30'0, tail 14'9, tarsus 4'0 inch. Sexes alike. 
The young birds have the feathers on the back, scapulars, and wing-coverts 
pointed, the ruff feathers elongate, and fawn-coloured. 

Hctb. Southern Europe ; of rare occurrence in Central and 
Northern Europe ; has once been obtained in Ireland ; Africa 
south to Nubia; Asia east to Nepal and Sikhim, south to 
Khandish and the Deccan. 

Is essentially a carrion eater, and will feed on any refuse. It 
hunts by sight alone, and does not discover a carcass if covered 
with grass or boughs. On the ground it is heavy and inert, 
and where carrion is plentiful will gorge to excess. On the 
wing however it is active and even graceful. It breeds in 
communities in the rocks, constructing a carelessly built nest. 
of sticks lined with grass which is placed on the bare rock, and 
from February to April it deposits a single egg, or sometimes 
two, which are white, rather rough in shell, but occasionally, 
though rarely, the egg is slightly spotted with red. In size 
they average 3'63 by 2'72. 

711. HIMALAYAN GRIFFON. 
GYPS HIMALAYENSIS. 

Gyps himalayensis, Hume, Eough Notes, p. 12 (1869) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. i. p. 8 ; Blanford, F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 321 ; G. 
nivicola, Severtzoff, Turk. Jevot. p. 111. pi. vii. (1873). 

L L 



500 GYPSVULTUR 



Zaigan Tasso, Mongol. ; Gutincar, Tangut. 

ad. (Nepal). Differs chiefly from G. fulvus in having the shaft- 
stripes on the lower plumage very broad and the fourth, and not the third 
primary longest ; upper parts pale isabelline white tinged with brown, 
and with obsolete pale shaft-stripes, the lower back whitish, the rump and 
upper tail-coverts buff; quills and tail blackish brown, the inner 
secondaries fulvous at the tips ; crop-patch brownish with, paler stripes ; 
rest of under parts light brownish buff with broad whitish shaft stripes ; 
under tail-coverts pale buff ; bill pale horny green ; cere pale brown ; 
legs dingy greenish grey ; iris brownish yellow. Culmen 3 '7, wing 30, 
tail 15-5, tarsus 4*6 inch. Sexes alike. The young are dark brown 
strongly striped with whitish, and the wing and tail-feathers are nearlv 
black. 

Hob. The Himalayas from Cabul to Bhutan, Turkestan, 
Kan-su, Koko-nor, and Northern Tibet. 

Is essentially a mountain bird, only descending to lower 
altitudes when compelled to do so in search of food, and in 
its general habits it agrees closely with G. fulvus. It breeds at 
high altitudes from late in December to early in March, con- 
structing a platform of sticks in the most inaccessible parts of 
the rocks, usually on the face of a cliff, and occasionally it will 
take possession of a deserted Eagle's nest. Only a single egg is 
deposited, which is greyish white usually blotched and stained 
with reddish brown, and measures about 376 by 2*75. 

VULTUE, Linn., 1766. 

712. BLACK VULTURE. 

VULTUR MONACHUS. 

Valtur monachus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 122 (1766) ; Dresser, v. p. 383> 
pi. 321 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 3 ; Blanford, F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iii. p. 317 ; V. cinereus, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 247 (1788) ; 
Naum. i. p. 155, Taf. i. ; Gould, B. of E. i. pi. 2. 

Vautour arrian, French ; Pica osso, Portug. ; Buitre negro, 
Span. ; Avvoltoio nero, Ital. ; Kuttengeicr, German ; Graff rib, 
Dan. ; Ghernoburui Griff,. Russ. ; Kdla-gidh, Hindu. 

ad. (S. E. Europe). Head and neck covered with hair-like feathers, 
ruff brownish ; general colour of the plumage brownish, the quills and 
tail-feathers blackish brown ; bill dark horn ; cere pale mauve, naked 
skin of the neck livid flesh colour ; legs and feet pearly white ; iris brown. 
Culmen 3 -3, wing 30 '0, tail 17 '0, tarsus 4 - inch. The young bird is- 
much darker, blackish brown in colour, wings and tail nearly black. 



VUL TUR NEOPHRON 501 



Hal. Southern Europe ; a rare straggler to the northern 
parts of Continental Europe ; Xorth Africa, rarer in the western 
portions, in East Africa south to Nubia ; Asia Minor and Central 
Asia to India and China. 

In habits it resembles the Griffon, and like that bird is a 
carrion eater. It breeds about the same time as the Griffon, 
but unlike that species almost always places its nest in a tree, 
"more seldom on a cliff. The riest is a bulky structure of boughs 
and sticks, lined with small twigs and wool, and one egg is 
deposited, very rarely two, which is white, richly marked with 
dark red, and the average size is 3'51 by 276. Eggs from 
Eastern Europe are as a rule less richly marked than those from 
Spain. 

NEOPHRON, Savigny, 1810. 

713. EGYPTIAN VULTURE. 

NEOPHRON PERCNOPTERUS. 

Neophron percnopterus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 123 (1766); (Naiim.) i. 
p. 170, Taf. 3 ; (Hewitson), i. p. 5. pi. 2 ; Gould, B. of E. i. pi. 3 ; 
Newton, i. p. 6 ; Dresser, v. p. 391, pi. 322 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. i. p. 17 ; Blanford, F. Brit. Incl. Birds, iii. p. 327 ; Saunders, 
p. 313 ; Lilford, i. p. 83, pi. 40. 

Vautour d'Egypte, French ; Abutre, Portug. ; Alimoclio, Span. ; 
Capovacca/o, Ital. ; Schmutziger Aasvogel, German ; Stervatnik, 
Buss. ; Edkhma, Arab. ; Bekhama, Moor. ; Ak-laba, Turk. ; 
Kusgun, Tartar. 

< ad. (Spain). General colour white, tinged with creamy buff ; fore- 
part of the head and throat bare ; feathers on the occiput and back of the 
neck elongated, lanceolate, tinged with creamy buff ; primaries blackish 
margined with greyish buff on the outer web ; secondaries varied, dark 
brown and buff ; tail white ; bare part of the head yellow ; beak yellow 
at the base, otherwise dusky blackish ; legs and feet dark flesh-colour, 
claws black ; iris deep red. Culmen 2'8, wing 19'2, tail 10*0, tarsus 3'4 
inch. Sexes alike. The young bird is blackish brown, the feathers tipped 
with fulvous, the bare part of the head with scattered blackish brown 
tufts ; bare portions of the head livid ; bill dusky yellowish at the base ; 
legs livid greyish ; iris brown. 

Hob. Southern Europe, of rare occurrence north of the 
Alps; has twice occurred in England; Madeira, the Canaries, 
and Cape Verde Islands ; Africa south to the Cape of Good 
Hope ; Asia east to Western India. There it meets with. 

L L 2 



502 NEOPHRON G YPAETUS 



N. ginginianus, which replaces it further east, and which is 
distinguishable by having the bill entirely yellow, and being 
smaller in size. 

Like its allies it is a carrion feeder, and as nothing is too 
offensive for its palate it is, in southern climes, a most useful 
scavenger. Except when collected round a carcase it is usually 
to be seen singly or in pairs, never in flocks, and it likewise 
breeds in scattered pairs. Its nest, which is generally placed 
on a cliff, seldom on a tree, is a clumsy structure of sticks and 
grass, lined with grass, rags, or any other available soft material, 
and its eggs, 2 in number, occasionally however only 1, are 
deposited in April or May, and are richly blotched with rusty 
red or dark red on a white or yellowish white ground, and in 
-size average 2 '5 7 by 2*01. 

GYPAETUS, Storr, 1874. 

714. BEARDED VULTURE. 

GYPAETUS BARBATUS. 

Gijpaetus larlatus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 123 (1766) ; Naum. i. p. 180, 
Taf. 4, 5 ; Gould, B. of E. i. pi. 4 ; Dresser, v. p. 401, pis. 323, 324, 
325 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 228 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, 
iii. p. 328. 

Gypaete des Alpes, French ; Quebranta-huesos, Span. ; Avvoltojo 
barbuto, Ital. ; Lcimmergeier, German ; Jagnjatnik, Russ. ;. 
Tochligoturan, Tartar ; Bou-lachiah, Arab. ; Argul, Hindu. 

$ ad. (Spain). Crown and neck creamy white washed with rust- 
colour ; bristles on the chin, lores, and a broad line passing over and 
round the eye deep black ; upper parts blackish grey with a metallic 
gloss, the upper back and wing-coverts with a yellowish central line on 
the feathers ; quills blackish grey washed with slate-grey ; tail slate-grey 
margined with blackish brown, and wedge-shaped ; under parts rich light 
rusty yellow, the throat and neck washed with rusty red ; bill bluish horn, 
blackish at the tip ; feet plumbeous ; iris pale orange, the sclerotic 
membrane blood-red. Culmen 3*8, wing 31'0, tail 20'0, tarsus 4-1 inch. 
Sexes alike. The young bird of the year has the head, neck, and upper 
parts blackish brown, and the under parts dull rufous buff or brownish 
grey. 

Hob. The mountains of Southern Europe and North Africa ; 
is still found in the French and Spanish Pyrenees, but is 
nearly if not quite extinct in the Alps and Tyrol ; Bosnia, 
^Greece, Turkey, the Caucasus, and Asia Minor ; the Himalaya 



G YPAETUS CIRCUS 503 

as far east as Sikhim ; North China, Tibet, Mongolia, and 
Dauria. 

Inhabits the higher mountain ranges, and is solitary in its 
habits. It feeds on carrion, refuse, etc., like the Vultures, and 
though it is said to attack lambs and kids and even goats and 
chamois, it is doubtful if this is the case, except when the 
animal is weakly or in a dying state ; it is a cowardly bird, and 
will allow itself to be bullied by a Falcon not. a fourth of its 
size. Its note is a feeble, querulous cry. It breeds in the high 
mountains in a cave or on a shelf of the cliff, its nest being a 
bulky structure of sticks, etc., lined with wool, hair, or any soft 
material, and from the end of December to May, according to 
locality, it deposits 2 eggs, dull yellowish or rusty orange in 
colour, measuring about 318 by 2*47. 



CIRCUS, Lacep., 1851. 

715. MARSH-HARRIER. 

CIRCUS ^RUGINOSUS. 

Circus ceruginosus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 130 (1766) : Gould, B. of Gt, 
Brit. i. pis. 24, 25 ; Hewitson, i. p. 44, pi. xvi. fig. 1 ; Newton, i. 
p. 127 ; Dresser, v. p. 415, pis. 326, 327 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
i. p. 69 ; Radde. Orn. Caucas. p. 106, Taf. iii. ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iii. p. 387 ; Saunders, p. 315 ; Lilford, i. p. 67, pis. 34, 35 ; 
C. rufus (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 266 (1788) ; (Natim.), i., p. 378, 
Taf. 37, 38, fig. 1 /Gould, B. of. E. pi. 32. 

Busard des marais, French ; Aguilucho, Span. ; Milhano, 
Portug. ; Falco di padule, Ital. ; Rohrweihe, German : Rielwouw, 
Dutch ; Rodbrun Kjcerlwg, Dan. ; Rostbrun Karrhok, Swed. ; 
Kamyschevoi Lun, Russ. ; Kamysch-Kara^axtw, Hedia, Moor.; 
Bouschrada, Arab. ; Kular, Kulesir, Hindu. 

ad. (Spain). Crown and nape yellowish white striped with 
chocolate and blackish brown ; back and scapulars blackish chocolate 
slightly marked with dark fulvous ; tail ashy grey tipped with yellowish 
buff ; primaries blackish brown, the inner ones marked with ashy grey, 
secondaries and larger wing-coverts dark silvery grey ; smaller coverts 
blackish chocolate marked with whitish ; chin dirty white ; breast 
yellowish white marked with reddish brown ; rest of under part& 
rusty brown striped or marked with darker brown ; bill horn ; legs and 
cere yellow ; iris lemon yellow. Culmen 1'32, wing 14'8, tail 8'9, tarsus 
3'3 inch. The old female is rather larger than the male, has the crown, 
nape, and chin creamy white, the two former striated with blackish ; back 
white marked with umber, the rump ochreous ; wings and tail dark brown 



504 CIRCUS 



white with a creamy white margin along the edge of the wing ; throat warm 
ash-brown ; rest of the under parts dark brown with a white band marked 
with brown across the breast. The young birds are dark chocolate-brown, 
the crown, nape, chin, and upper throat warm orange-buff, but they vary a 
good deal as regards the amount of buff on the head, and as in other 
Harriers dark blackish varieties occur, one figured by Dr. Kadde (I.e.} being 
all dark brown, the upper parts with rufous margins to the feathers, and 
the tail grey washed with pale brown. 

Hob. Europe ; in Sweden seldom found above 60 N. Lat., 
and of very rare occurrence in Norway and Finland; Great 
Britain ; Africa as far south as the Transvaal ; Asia east as far 
as China and Japan and throughout India and Ceylon ; in 
winter south to the Philippines. 

Is essentially a marsh-haunting bird, and is generally to be 
met with in damp swampy places, especially where water-birds 
breed in numbers. In the northern portions of its range it is 
a migrant but a resident in the south. As a rule it is a silent 
bird, but in the breeding season the male may be heard uttering 
a clear, loud call keew, that of the female being a clear prolonged 
shrill pee-ep. It feeds on frogs, small snakes, small mammals, 
young birds, and eggs, and is very destructive to the breeding 
colonies of water-birds. Being however cowardly and not 
possessing much power of night it will not attack any but the 
smaller or weakly birds, and it is doubtful if it dare even attack 
a rat. Its nest, which is a carelessly constructed bulky structure 
of sticks, reeds, and flags, is placed on the ground or on the 
masses of half floating marsh herbage, and its eggs, 4 to 5, 
.seldom 6 in number, are usually laid in April or May, and are 
unspotted, greenish or blue-greenish-white in colour, rather 
roundish in shape, and measure about 1*95 by 1*51. 

716. EASTERN MARSH-HARRIER. 
CIRCUS SPILONOTUS. 

Circus spilonotus, Kaup. in Jardine's Contrib. Orn. 1850, p. 59 ; Swinhoe, 
Ibis, 1863, pi. v. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 58 ; David and 
Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 29 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 388 ; Tacz. 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 112. 

Khoulda, in Darasun. 

ad. (Siberia). Differs from the very old male of C. a'ruginosus chiefly 
in lacking nil the rufous tinge on the upper tail-coverts and all the under 
parts ; crown, nape, forepart of the back, scapulars, and edge of the wing 
white tinged with buff and streaked with blackish brown : back and 
inner secondaries blackish brown sparingly spotted or blotched with dull 
white ; outer primaries blackish ; the rest of the wing silvery grey ; upper 



CIRCUS 505 



tail-coverts white faintly barred with grey ; tail grey with a brownish tinge, 
the outer feathers whiter ; under parts white, the chin, throat, and breast 
.streaked with blackish brown ; soft parts as in C. ccrufjinoms. Culmen 
1*6, wing 15*5, tail 9'25, tarsus 3*5 inch. The female is larger and differs 
from that of C. (cruginosus in having the crown blackish brown marked 
with rufous buff, and the tail with dark bands which are nearly obsolete in 
very old birds. The young bird closely resembles that of C. (cruginosus. 

Hal. Of doubtful occurrence in India; South-east Siberia, 
Mongolia, China, Burma, and Japan, south to the Philippines 
and the Malay peninsula. 

In habits it closely resembles C. ccruginosus, but is said to be 
more kite-like in appearance. Its food is similar to that of the 
Marsh-Harrier, and like that species it feeds largely on the 
eggs of ground-nesting birds. Its nest, which is placed in 
damp marshy places, often on masses of floating herbage, is 
a clumsy structure of dry herbage, and the eggs, which are 
usually deposited in June, are white tinged with greenish blue 
and measure about 1'90 by 1*50. 



717. MONTAGU'S HARRIER. 
CIRCUS CINERACEUS. 

Circus cineraceus (Montag.), Orn. Diet. i. sheet K. 3. (1802) ; (Naum.) 
i. p. 402, Taf. 40 ; Gould, B. of E. i. pi. 35 ; Hewitson, i. p. 49, 
pi. xvi. fig. 3 ; Newton, i. p. 38 ; Dresser, v. p. 423, pi. 328 ; 
Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 383 ; Saunders, p. 319 ; 
Lilford, i. p. 73, pis. 37, 38 ; C. cinerarius. Leach, Syst. Cat. 
Mam. etc. Brit. Mus. p. 9. (1816) ; C. cmerascens, Steph. Gen. 
Zool. xiii. p. 41 (1825) ; Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. i. pi. xxvii ; 
C. pygargus, Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 64 ; David and 
Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 28 (nee. Linn.) ; C. montagui. Vieill. Nouv. 
Diet. xxxi. p. 411 (1819). 

Busard cendre, French ; Aguicn cagadeira, Portug. ; Cenizo, 
Span. ; Albanclla minor e, Ital. ; Wiesenweihe, German ; Graauwe 
Kuikendief, Dutch ; Greta Kjaerhog, Dan. ; Mindre Ktirrliok, 
Swed. ; Lugovoi Lun, Russ. ; Bouschrada, Arab. ; Dastmal, 
Hindu. ; Pandouvi, Beng. 

<J ad. (Spain). Head, neck, breast, and upper parts ashy blue-grey 
darker on the upper parts ; secondaries with two hidden and one con- 
spicuous blackish bar ; primaries black ; tail ashy blue-grey ; the outer 
feathers paler and barred with reddish ; under parts greyish white striped 
with chestnut-red ; bill blackish horn ; cere, iris, and legs yellow. 
Culmen T05, wing 14'8, tail lO'O, tarsus 2'5 inch. The female is some- 



506 CIRCUS 



what larger and has the upper parts brown varied with rusty rufous, 
the quills and middle tail-feathers tinged with grey and barred 
with blackish brown ; the outer tail-feathers greyish white tinged 
with rufous and barred with brown ; under parts warm ochreous striped 
with rusty brown. Young birds have the under parts tinged with rufous 
and unstriped. This species is subject to melanism and uniform blackish 
brown varieties are occasionally met with. 

Hob. A summer visitor to the British Islands and Continental 
Europe generally, more numerous in the south. Of occasional 
occurrence in Sweden, and has once been obtained in Finland ; 
Africa south to Cape Colony : Asia east to China, wintering in 
India and Ceylon. 

Like its allies it affects open plains and marshes, and never 
perches or roosts in a tree, but passes the night on the ground 
amongst the^ grass or aquatic plants. It flies low and quarters 
the ground carefully. It feeds on insects, mice, small reptiles, 
small birds, and the eggs of ground-nesting species, and in 
Spain wherever there were colonies of Terns, Stilts, etc., I found 
nests of this Harrier. The nest is placed on the ground or on 
floating masses of reeds, and is constructed of grass and flags of 
less coarse materials and better made than that of the Hen- 
Harrier, and the eggs, 4 to 6 in number, are usually deposited 
in May and resemble those of C. ceruginosus but are smaller, 
measuring about 1*49 by 1'25. 

718. PALLID HAERIER. 
CIRCUS SWAINSONI. 

Circus swainsoni, Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Journ. i. p. 384 (1830) ; Dresser, 
v. p. 441, pi. 330 ; ? C. macrourus (S. G. Gmel.) N. Com. Petr. xv. 
p. 439 (1771) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 67 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iii.p. 381 ; C. pallidus, Sykes, P.Z.S. 1832, p. 80 ; Gould, B. of 
E. i. pi. 34 ; Naum. xiii. p. 154, Taf. 348. 

Busard pdle, French ; Albanella chiara, Ital. ; Steppenweihe, 
German ; Steppehog, Dan. ; EleJc Kdrrhok, Swed. ; Stepnoi Lun, 
Russ. ; Ach-Asalagan, Tartar. ; Dastmal, Hindu. 

ad. (India). Upper parts blue- grey, the head paler ; upper tail- 
coverts white barred with dark blue-grey; middle tail-featheis blue- 
grey, the rest white barred with dark blue-grey ; primaries pale at the 
base becoming blackish towards the tip, the first dark ashy blue ; under 
parts white, the flanks indistinctly striped ; bill blackish ; cere, iris, and 
legs yellow. Culmen 1-15, wing 13'8, tail 9'2, tarsus 2'9 inch. The 
female resembles that of C. cineraceus but is paler and less rufous, and the 
ruff is more distinctly defined. 



CIRCUS 507 

Hob. Central, Southern, and Eastern Europe, of rare occur- 
rence in Scandinavia, and only twice recorded from Finland; 
Africa in winter, south to the Cape ; Asia, throughout India,. 
Ceylon and Burma east to the Yangtse river in China. 

In habits it resembles the Hen-Harrier but is less of a 
marsh -bird and frequents the steppes, fields, etc. ; its flight is 
slow, a few beats of the wings alternating with a sailing motion, 
and it usually perches on the ground, on a mound or stone. 
Its food consists of insects, reptiles, small rodents, and birds, 
especially when the last are weakly or wounded. Its nest is a 
depression in the ground lined with grass-bents and leaves, and 
its eggs, 4 to 5 in number, are deposited in May and are bluish 
white, roundish in shape, and sometimes marked or spotted 
with rich deep red. In size they average 1*68 by T34. 

The chief distinctions between the European Harriers are as 
follows : 

C. ccruginosus. The ruff is interrupted in front* and the 
folded wings do not reach to the end of the tail. 

C. cineraceus. Ruff interrupted in front ; first four primaries- 
only emarginate on the outer web, the emargination on the 
second fully an inch beyond the wing-coverts; flanks striped 
with rufous in the adult male. 

C. swainsoni. Ruff complete ; emargination on the second 
primary close to and almost hidden by the wing-coverts ; the 
four first primaries only emarginate on the outer web ; upper 
tail-coverts in the adult male white barred with grey. 

C. cyaneus. First five primaries emarginate on the outer 
web ; ruff complete and not interrupted ; upper tail-coverts in 
the adult male white. 

719. HEN-HARRIER. 
CIRCUS CYANEUS. 

Circus cyaneus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i.^ p. 126 (1766) ; Gould, B. of E. L 
pi. 33 ; He\vitson, i. p. 47, pi. xvi. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. i. 
pi. 26 ; Newton, i. p. 132 ; Dresser, v. p. 431, pi. 329 ; Sharpe, 
Cat, B. Br. Mus. i. p. 52 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 27 ? 
Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, in. p. 384 ; Saunders, p. 317 ; Lilford, i. 
p. 69, pi. 36 ; C. pyyargus, Naum. i. p. 391, Taf. 38, fig. 2, Taf. 39. 

Busard St. Martin, French ; Pilharatos, Portug. ; Am de San 
Martin, Span. ; Albanella reale, Ital. ; Kornweike, German ; 
Blaauwe Kuikcndief, Dutch ; Blaa Kjcerhog, Dan. and Norweg. ; 
Bld-Karrlwk, Swed. ; SinihaitJ&a, Finn. ; Polevoi Lun, Russ. ;. 
Bou-hasin, Moor. 



508 CIRCUS 



ad. (Scotland). Upper parts and middle tail-feathers ashy blue- 
grey, rather darker on the back ; primaries blackish ; upper tail-coverts 
white ; lateral tail-feathers greyish white, narrowly barred with brownish ; 
breast paler than the head, the rest of the under parts gradually fading to 
white ; bill blackish horn ; cere, iris, and legs yellow. Culmen I'l, wing 
13*4, tail 8 '9, tarsus 2 '62 inch. The female has the forehead and a faint 
superciliary stripe buff ; upper parts dark brown, the head and neck 
striped, the back well marked with warm buff ; upper tail-coverts white, 
sparsely dotted with rufous ; tail dark brown with a light tip, barred with 
greyish brown and rufous buff ; under parts buff striped with dull brown 
and reddish brown ; iris brown ; legs and cere yellow. 

Hal. Europe generally, from Lapland to the Mediterranean ; 
British Islands ; Africa south to Abyssinia ; Asia east through 
India to China, Tibet, Mongolia, Japan, and Siberia, and 
southward to the central provinces of India. 

Frequents open places, heaths, plains, and marshes, and is 
not found in the woodlands. Its flight is graceful, not high 
.above the ground, and it will hover every now and again 
when quartering. It feeds on small mammals and birds, 
insects, reptiles, etc , and like its allies it feeds largely on the 
eggs of ground-nesting birds. Its nest is a depression in the 
ground, frequently in a damp locality, and consists merely of a 
few sticks and heather-bents with a little dry grass. The eggs, 
4 to 5 in number, are generally deposited late in May, and are 
bluish white, usually unmarked, and measure about 1*81 by 
1-39. I have, however, seen eggs slightly, and others somewhat 
boldly, marked with dark red. 

720. PIED HARRIER. 
CIRCUS MELANOLEUCUS. 

Circus melanoleucus (Forster), Ind. Zool. p. 12, pi. ii. (1781) : David and 
Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 29 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 61 ; Tacz. 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 120 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 385. 

Pahatai, Hindu. ; Tliane-Kya, Burm. 

ad. (India). Head, neck, breast;, back, the middle wing-coverts, and 
a band to the end of the wing glossy black ; scapulars black marked with 
grey ; outer primaries black but not so glossy ; rump and upper tail- 
coverts white ; the latter faintly barred with grey ; tail grey tipped with 
white ; edge of wing and least wing-coverts white, the rest of the wing 
grey ; lower breast and under parts with the under wing-coverts pure 
white ; bill bluish at the base, otherwise blackish ; cere dusky yellow ; 
legs orange-yellow ; iris bright yellow. Culmen TO, wing 13'7, tail 8'5, 
tarsus 3-2 inch. The female is larger, has the black in the plumage replaced 



CIRCUS BUTEO 509 

by dark brown, the crown and nape feathers with rufous margins, the ruff 
of dull white feathers with brown shaft-stripes well defined, the tail grey 
with blackish brown cross-bars, and the under parts white, the throat and 
breast broadly, the abdomen narrowly striped with dark brown. The 
young bird has the under parts rufous brown darker streaked, the nuchal 
patch whitish, streaked with brown, the outer tail-feathers rufous in 
ground colour and no grey on the wings. 

Hal. The eastern part of India; Burma; Mongolia; south- 
eastern Siberia ; northern China ; Cochin China ; Siam ; 
Malacca, and the Philippines. 

Affects the plains, especially damp swampy localities, and 
rice-fields. Its food, like that of its allies, consists of reptiles, 
frogs, insects, small rodents, and birds. Its nest, a somewhat 
slight structure resembling that of C. cineraccus, is placed 
on the ground, usually in a damp or swampy locality, and the 
eggs, 4 to 5 in number, which are usually deposited in June 
resemble those of C. cineraceus, and measure about 1*69 
by 1-37. 

BUTEO, Cuvier (1800). 

721. THE BUZZARD. 

BUTEO VULGARIS. 

Buteo vulfjar'iSj Leach) Syst. Cat. Marnm. &c. p. 10 (1816) ; Gould, 
B. of E. i. pi. 14 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. pi. 6 ; Hewitson, i. p. 38, 
pi. xiv. figs. 1, 2 ; Newton, i. p. 109 ; Dresser, v. p. 449, pi. 
331 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 186 ; Saunders, p. 321 ; 
Lilford, i. p. 16. pi. 9; Falco buteo, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 127; 
(1766); Nauni. i. p. 3i6, Taf. 32, 33; B. plumipes, Hodgs. P.Z.S. 
1845, p. 37 ; Sharpe, torn. cit. p. 180 ; B. japonicus (Temm. and 
Schlegel), Faun. Jap. Aves,p. 16, pis. vi. vi.b. (1850) ; B.desertorum, 
Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 393 (partim, nee. Daud.). 

Busc commune, French ; Minhoto, Portug. ; Pellet, Arpclla, 
Span. ; Pojana, Ital. ; Mciusebussard, German ; Buizerd, Dutch ; 
Musvaag, Dan. and Norweg. ; Ormvrdk, Swed. ; Kaarmehaukka, 
Finn. ; OWcnovennui Saritcha, Russ. 

< ad. (Germany). Upper parts dark earth-brown with a faint metallic 
gloss and slightly varied with dull reddish brown, the forehead and nape 
marked with dull white ; quills blackish brown on the outer web, the 
basal half of the inner web white barred and marbled with brown ; tail 
dark brown tipped with light brown, and barred with greyish brown ; 
under parts dark brown marked and barred with yellowish white and dull 
white, the throat and sides of head whiter ; beak blackish horn lighter at 



510 BUTEO 



the base ; cere and legs yellow, the tarsus bare or sometimes partly 
feathered in front ; iris brown. Culmen 1'3, wing 14*8, tail 8'8, tarsus 
3'1 inch. Female similar but somewhat larger. This species is subject to 
extreme variety, from nearly white to almost uniform blackish brown, and 
the feathering on the tarsus is also extremely variable, but is oftener seen 
on eastern specimens. 

Hob. Europe generally, north as far as Trondhjem and 
Kajana ; British Islands ; Madeira, Canary, and Cape Verde 
Islands ; rare in N. Africa ; Asia as far east as Japan, India 
and Ceylon in winter. 

Is a migrant in the northern portion of its range, but as 
a rule a resident in the southern part. It is somewhat 
heavy and lazy, seldom attacking any but jxmng, weakly, or 
small birds, or mammals, its food consisting chiefly of small 
rodents, reptiles, large insects, larvae, and even carrion. It 
may often be seen at a considerable altitude, circling on the 
wing with ease, and uttering its clear, loud, mewing cry. It 
frequents both the woodland and the open heaths and rocky 
localities. It is a somewhat early breeder and nests either in 
the rocks or on non-evergreen trees, sometimes high up and at 
others at no great altitude. The nest is constructed of boughs 
and twigs, lined with grass, wool, moss, and even a few feathers, 
or sometimes a deserted crow's nest is repaired and utilized. 
The eggs, 2 to 4 in number, are deposited from late in March 
to May and are bluish white, sometimes almost unmarked but 
generally tolerably well marked and blotched with violet-grey,, 
or rarely pale brown shell-markings and reddish brown surface- 
spots, roundish in shape, and measure about 2*21 by 1*81. 

722. SUBSP. BUTEO ZIMMERMANN^E. 

Buteo zimmermannce, Ehmcke, Ber. Febr. Sitz. Allg. Deutsche Orn. 
Gesellsch. No. 2 (1893) ; Kleinschmidt, Orn. Monatsschr. 1898 r 
p. 214, Taf. x. 

$ ad. (Type). Differs from the adult of B. vnlgar'is in being smaller,, 
and very rufous in tone of colour, and from that of B. desertorum 
in having the abdomen and under tail-coverts white, distinctly barred with 
rufous, the tail also being distinctly barred. (Bill damaged), wing 14*32, 
tail 8'25, tarsus 2*90 inch. The young birds of B. vulgaris, B, desertorum r 
and of the present subspecies are much alike. 

Hob. Eastern Germany and North Russia as far north as. 
Archangel. 

In habits it does not appear to differ from B. mdgaris. 



BUTEO 511 



723. SUBSP. BUTEO DESERTORUM. 

Butco desertorum (Baud.), Traite d' Orn. ii. p. 162, (1800) ; Layard, 
B. of S. Afr. p. 9 ; Shelley, B. of Egypt, p. 201 ; Dresser, v. p. 457, 
pi. 832 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 179 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iii. p. 393 (partim) ; B. cirtensis, Levaill jr. Expl. Sc. de 
1'Alg. pi. 3. (1850) ; J5. menetriesi, Bogd. Ptitsui. Kavkaza, p. 45 
(1879). 

Baffa, Arab. 

ad. (N. Africa). Differs from B. vulgaris in being as a rule smaller, 
in having the feathers on the upper parts margined with rusty red, the tail 
with a blackish brown subterminal band, the middle feathers rusty red 
with obsolete bars, and the under parts pale rufous, most of the feathers 
with dark centres. Culmen 1*4, wing 14'5, tail 8'2, tarsus 2'7 inch. The 
female is similar but rather larger. The young bird resembles B. vulgaris 
but is smaller, has the upper parts marked with rufous and the thigh- 
feathers slightly marked with rufous. 

Hob. South-eastern Europe ; of accidental occurrence in 
south-western Europe, but in eastern Europe as far north as 
Archangel ; Africa south to the Cape Colony ; Asia as far east 
as India where it is a winter visitant. 

In habits it resembles Buteo vulgaris, of which species it is 
a rufous, desert form, and in fact Mr. Blanford (I.e.) unites the 
two specifically, a course which I do not feel justified in 
following. The African Buzzard is said to be a more graceful 
and active bird than B. vulgaris and more of an insect feeder, 
on the shores of the Bosphorus feeding chiefly on grasshoppers, 
when in the autumn these latter abound. 

Its nest is placed in a tree at no great altitude, or else in a 
convenient cleft in a rock and is constructed of sticks and 
twigs, lined with grass and wool. The eggs, 2 to 3 in number, 
are usually deposited in April, and resemble those of B. 
vulgaris, but are, as a rule, less marked with reddish-brown 
than those, and measure about 2 '08 by 1'65. 

724. UPLAND BUZZARD. 
BUTEO LEUCOCEPHALUS. 

Buteo leucoccphalus (Hodgson), P.Z.S. 1845, p. 37 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iii. p. 392 ; B. aquilinus, Blyth, J.A.S. Beng. xiv. p. 176 
(1845) ; B. hemllasius, Temm. and Schlegel. Faun. Jap. Aves, 
p. 18, pi. vii. (1850) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 182 ; David 
and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 19, pi. 9 ; (Tacz.) F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 60 ; 
B. ferox, Sharpe, torn. cit. p. 178.pl. viii. (1874 partim, nee. Gmel.) 



512 BUTEO 



ad. (Dauria). Head and neck white broadly but sparingly streaked 
with pale brown ; upper parts pale dull earth-brown some of the feathers 
with pale margins ; quills dark brown the basal portion of the inner webs 
white ; tail greyish barred with dark brown ; under parts white streaked 
with brown ; tarsus feathered in front from one- to two-thirds of its 
length ; bill bluish horn ; cere greenish yellow ; legs and feet wax- 
yellow ; iris light buff. Culmen 1'9, wing 19*15, tail 10'75, tarsus 37 
inch. Male similar but somewhat smaller. 

Hob. Kashmir, Sikhim, Tibet, China, Eastern Siberia;. 
Japan as an accidental visitant. 

Is nearly related to B. ferox and bears much the same 
relation to that species as B. mdgaris does to B. desertorum. 

In habits also it resembles that species, and is generally to 
be met with in the open country. It breeds commonly in south- 
eastern Siberia, in Dauria on the steppes near the Onon river, 
and in the vicinity of Argoun, the nest being placed on a rock. 
The eggs 2 to 4 in number are usually deposited in May and 
vary, from white very sparingly marked, to bluish white or white 
with a faint reddish tinge richly spotted and blotched with 
reddish brown, and in size average 2'44 by T92. 

725. LONG-LEGGED BUZZARD. 
BUTEO FEROXo 

Buteo ferox (S. Gr. Gmel.), N. Comm. Petrop. xv. p. 442, tab. x. (1769) ; 
Shelley, B. of Egypt, p. 201, pi. ix ; Dresser, v. p. 463, pi. 333 ; 
Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 390 ; B. rufinus (Cretzschm), in 
Hupp. Atlas, p. 40, Taf. 27 (1826) ; B. leuciirus, Naum. in Nauman- 
nia, 1853, p. 256, pi. 5 ; B. nigricans, Severtz. Turk. Jevot. pp. 63 
and 112 (1873). 

Weissschwanzigcr Adlerlussard, German; Slepnoi Sarytsch, 
Russ. ; Zardj Tartar ; Chuhumar, Hindu. 

$ ad. (S. Kussia). Crown and nape creamy rufous and brown the 
white bases of the feathers showing through ; upper parts dark brown 
margined with tawny rufous, the dull grey bases of the wing-coverts 
showing here and there ; quills dark brown, the outer web washed with 
silvery grey, the basal part of the inner web of the primaries white ; tail 
creamy white at the base, darkening to creamy rufous towards the tip ; 
sides of head, chin, throat, and upper breast creamy white washed 
with rufous, the two first with dark shaft-stripes ; lower breast and under 
parts tawny rufous mixed with brown, the flanks and sides chestnut ; 
under tail-coverts creamy rufous ; bill horn-blue, darker towards the tip ; 
cere yellowish green ; legs dull lemon-yello.w ; iris tawny yellowish. 



BUTEO BUTASTUR 5 1 3 



Culmen 1*8, wing 16'7, tail 9'5, tarsus 3'7 inch ; tarsus feathered to about 2 
inches from the base of the toes. Female similar but rather larger. 
Young birds are darker and browner, have the under parts dull rufous 
striped with blackish brown, and the tail grey barred with blackish brown 
and slightly marked and tipped with rufous. This species is also subject 
to melanism, and very dark varieties are sometimes met with. 

Hob. South-eastern Europe, south through Asia Minor and 
Palestine ; East Africa, south to Nubia and 'Abyssinia ; Central 
Asia, Persia ; the Himalayas east to Sikhim and N. W. India 
in winter. 

In general habits it resembles B. vulgaris but is a heavier 
and more sluggish bird, frequenting open plains and steppes, 
and feeds on small mammals, lizards, and snakes, or, where 
there is water, on frogs. Its nest is constructed of grass or 
flags, lined with hair, wool, or rags, and is generally placed 
on the ground or on a rock, though occasionally on a tree. 
The eggs, 3 or 4, occasionally 5 in number, are usually deposited 
in April are white faintly clouded with reddish, and more 
or less spotted and blotched with rich brownish red, in size 
averaging 2'32 by T82. 

BUTASTUR, Hodgson, 1843. 

726. GREY-FACED BUZZARD-EAGLE. 
BUTASTUR INDICUS. 

Butastur mdicus (Ginel.), Syst. Nat, i. p. 264 (1788) ; Shavpe, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. i. p. 297 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 365 ; Seebohm,, 
B. Jap. Emp. p. 196 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 69. 

Sashiba, Hachikuma, Japan. 

ad. (Japan). Head and neck greyish ; sides of forehead and lores 
white with black bristles ; upper parts brown, the feathers with dark 
shafts, the nape marked with white ; wing-coverts and secondaries externally 
more or less marked with rufous ; quills brown, the inner webs reddish 
brown, tipped with blackish and barred with brown ; tail brown above 
with blackish cross-bars, and whity brown below ; throat Vhite with one 
median and two lateral dark stripes ; under parts ashy brown tinged with 
rufous, the upper breast with a few white spots ; lower breast and abdomen 
sparsely barred with brown ; under tail-coverts white ; base, of bill and 
cere orange yellow, the end of the bill black ; legs feet and iris bright yellow. 
Culmen "1-3, wing 13'0, tail 77, tarsus 2 '2 inch. Sexes alike. 

Hob. South-eastern Siberia, where it is of rare occurrence in 
the Ussuri country ; Japan ; China ; Tenasserim ; Malacca ; the 
Malayan islands south to New Guinea. 



BUT ASTUR ARCHIBUTEO 



I do not find anything on record respecting the habits of 
this species, except that the Abbe David states that it breeds 
regularly in the mountains near Pekin, that its flight is swift 
-and easy, unlike that of the true Buzzards, and that its cry 
consists of two notes and is also quite characteristic. 

Mr. Alan Owston of Yokohama says that it breeds at Fuji, 
the Sagami Hills, Oiso, Fukushima, and Iwaki in Japan, 
nesting on " Momi," " Momiso," and pine trees, at 20 to 150 
feet from the ground, and that he received its eggs, 4 in 
number, taken from the 16th to the 20th May. 

ARCHIBUTEO, Brehm, 1828. 
727. ROUGH-LEGGED BUZZARD. 
ARCHIBUTEO LAGOPUS. 

Archibuteo lagopus (GmeL), Syst. Nat. i. p. 260 (1788) ; Naum. i. p. 359 
Taf. 34 ; (Hewitson), i. p. 39, pi. xiv. fig. 3 ; (Gould), B. of E. i. 
pi. 15 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. i. pi. viii. ; (Newton), i. p. 115 ; Dresser, 
v. p. 471, pis. 334, 335 ; Sharpe, CaJ. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 196 ; Tacz. 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 56 ; (Saunders), p. 323 ; Kidgway, p. 240 ; Lilford, 
i. p. 19, pi. 10; Newton, Ootheca Wolleyana, i. p. 121, pis. v, vi. 

Btise pattue, French; Poiana calzata, Ital. ; Rauhfuss-Bussard, 
German ; Ruigpoot Buizerd, Dutch ; Laaderibenet Musevaagc, 
Dan. ; Fjeldvaage, Norw. ; Fjellvrdk, Swed. ; Poaimas, Biekkan, 
Lapp. ; Piekana, Finn. ; Kaniuk machnogii, Russ. 

ad. (Sweden). Crown and nape creamy white, boldly striped and 
blotched with dark brown ; upper parts dark brown, marked with creamy 
white and pale rufous, the lower back and rump almost uniform dark 
brown ; quills dark brown, the basal half of the inner web white ; tail 
white, becoming greyish towards the end, cross barred with blackish brown ; 
throat and upper breast brown, varied with pale rufous and creamy white ; 
lower breast creamy white, sparingly barred with dark brown ; rest of the 
under parts with the legs white, tinged with rufous, and boldly barred with 
blackish brown ; tarsus feathered in front and on the sides to the base of 
.the toes ; bill blackish horn, bluish at the base ; feet yellow ; iris brown. 
Oulmen 1-4, wing 17'0, tail 9*5, tarsus 2'8 inch. Female similar, but rather 
larger. The young bird is darker, and has the throat, breast, and belly 
striped, not barred, the lower parts almost uniform dark brown. 

Hob. Northern Europe and Asia, breeding from 56 N. lat. 
up to the extreme north in Europe, and Kamchatka in Asia ; 
in winter and on passage visiting Great Britain, Central, and 
even Southern Europe, Southern Siberia and Japan ; has 
occurred in Alaska. 



A RCHIB UTEOHIERA ETUS 5 1 5 



Differs in habits from B. vulgaris, in that it is more a bird 
of the open, rocky country, and does not frequent woodlands. 
Its cry is the same but deeper and more melancholy in tone. It 
feeds on lemmings, and other small mammals, frogs, lizards, even 
insects, and also on young birds. Its nest is either in a tree 
standing in the open, placed on the ground, or on a cliff or 
rock, and is constructed of sticks lined with grass, and 3 to 4, 
sometimes 5 eggs are deposited, usually in May or June, but 
in a year when lemming were very numerous, fresh eggs were 
taken in Norway as late as the 9th September. These re- 
semble the eggs of B. vulgaris, but are often more richly 
coloured, and measure about 2*25 by 175. 

728. HIMALAYAN ROUGH-LEGGED BUZZARD. 
ARCHIBUTEO HEMIPTILOPUS. 

Archiluteo hcmiptllopus, Blyth, J.A.S.B. xv. p. 1 (1846) ; Blanf. F. Brit. 

Incl. Birds, iii. p. 395 ; A. strophiatus ; Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. 

p. 81 (1844 descr. nulla) ; Gray Cat. M. &c. Coll. Hodgs. p. 39 

(1846, descr. nulla) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 199 pi. vii. 

fig. 2 ; Berezovski and Bianchi, Ptitz. Gan-su, p. 32. 
$ ad. (Nepal). Upper parts brown, the feathers on the nape and upper 
liiu-.k margined with rufous, the base of the nuchal feathers white ; upper 
tail-coverts with rufous or buff bars and tips ; tail above brown, tinged 
with rufous, below whitish, with dark bars ; under parts white, marked 
with brown on the throat and breast ; flanks and thigh feathers brown ; 
bill dusky horn, the base of the mandible laterally yellowish ; toes and 
nuked part of tarsus livid waxy. Culnien 1'9, wing 19'75, tail ll'O, tarsus 
3-45 inch. 

Hob. Sikhim, Nepal, and Kulu ; Shanghai in China ; Ordos ; 
south-west and south-east Kan-su,and the Amdos plateau; Tibet. 

I find nothing on record respecting the habits or nidification 
of the present species. Like some of the Buzzards it appears 
to be subject to partial melanism. 

HIERAETUS, Kaup, 1844. 

729. BOOTED EAGLE. 
HIERAETUS PENNATUS. 

Hieraetus pennatus (Gould), Syst, Nat. i. p. 272 (1788) ; (Naum.), xiii. 
p. 58, Taf. 343 ; (Gould), B. of E. i. pi. 9 ; (Dresser), v. p. 481, 
pis. 336, 337, 351, fig. 2 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 253 ; 
Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 344 ; (Tacz.) F. O. Sib. 0. p. 25, 
//. minutus (Brehm), Vog. Deutschl. p. 29, Taf. 2, fig. 2 (1831). 

M M 



516 HIERAETUS 



Aigle botte, French ; Aguia pequena, Portug. ; AguilucJw,. 
Aguila calzada, Span. ; Aquila minorc, Ital. ; Zwergadler, 
German. 

<$ ad. (Spain). Forehead and lores \vliite ; head and neck warm sandy 
isabelline, streaked with brown ; upper parts dark earth-brown, the 
scapulars and wing-coverts varied with sandy grey ; quills dark brown, 
secondaries tipped with whitish brown ; tail dark brown, tipped with pale 
isabelline, the outer feathers with obsolete darker bars ; under parts white,, 
the breast streaked with reddish brown, flanks also faintly striped ; legs 
feathered to the toes ; bill bluish at the base, black at the tip ; cere and 
feet wax yellow ; iris light hazel. Culmen 1*5, wing 14'0, tail 8*5, tarsus 
2'6 inch. Female similar but larger. This Eagle is subject to considerable 
variation in both sexes, some being darker and more rufous, others again 
blackish brown, and others again have a white shoulder patch more or less 
developed. Young birds are generally more rufous than the adult. 

Hob. Southern Europe, rarer in Central Europe, commoner 
in the south-east and south-west ; Africa south to the Cape ; 
Asia Minor, Central Asia, India, Ceylon, and Burma ; of 
accidental occurrence in Dauria. 

Frequents the woodlands and in its general habits somewhat 
resembles the Buzzards but is more active and predacious. It 
feeds on small mammals and birds, and is graceful and elegant 
on the wing, and not a shy bird. Its cry is a clear ke, ke, ke. 
It selects a high deciduous tree for its nest, constructing it of 
sticks with fresh green leaves or fresh pine-twigs for a lining. 
The eggs, usually two in number, are deposited late in 
April or in May, and are white tinged with greenish, rarely 
faintly marked with rufous, and are rather more coarse in grain 
of shell than those of the Goshawk ; in size they average about 
2-21 by 1-79. 

730. BONELLI'S EAGLE. 
HIERAETUS FASCIATUS. 

Ilieraetus fasciatus (Vieill.), Mem. Linn. Soc. Paris, p. 152 (1822) ; 
(Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 250; (Dresser), v. p. 575, pis. 351,. 
tig. 1, 352, 353 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 342 ; H. lonellii 
(Temm.) PI. Col. i. pi. 288 (1824) ; Naum. xiii. p. 33, Taf. 341 ; 
Gould, B. of E. i. pi. 7. 

Aigle a queue barrtfe, French ; Aguila perdicera, Span. ; Aguila 
del Bonelli, Ital. ; HabicJits-Adkr, German ; Morangi, tTindu. : 
Agab, Arab. ; Tcir-Thum, Moor. 

ad. (Morocco). Upper parts dark brown, the feathers on the head 
and back white on the basal portion ; dorsal feathers to some extent,. 



HIERA ETUSA Q UILA 5 1 7 



scapulars, and wing-coverts narrowly, and those on the head and nape 
more broadly margined with light brown ; quills deep brown, mottled 
with white on the basal part of the inner web ; middle tail feathers 
brownish grey, the rest grey on the inner web, all with six or seven cross 
bars, and a broad subterminal band of blackish ; under parts white, striped 
with blackish brown, the abdomen, thighs, and legs washed with warm 
buff ; legs feathered to the toes ; bill dull bluish at the base, otherwise 
black ; cere and feet yellow ; iris orange-brown. Culmen 2*1, wing 18'6, 
tail 1T6, tarsus 3-8 inch. Female similar but larger. The young bird 
has the upper parts umber brown, and the under parts dull reddish, striped 
with blackish. 

Hal. Southern Europe ; Africa south to Damaraland, 
commoner in the west than in the east ; Arabia ; Asia Minor, 
and Asia east to India. 

Resembles the Goshawk more than the true Eagles, stronger 
and swifter on the wing, its flight somewhat resembling that of 
the Goshawk. It is essentially a clean feeder, disdaining 
carrion, and preying on water-fowl, rabbits, and birds of various 
kinds as large as the Little Bustard. Its nest is usually 
placed on the shelf or in a fissure of a cliff, and is constructed 
of sticks and boughs with a lining of fresh green twigs and 
leaves, and in February or March two eggs are deposited which 
are white with a faint blue greenish tinge sparingly marked 
with rusty red, somewhat smooth in texture of shell and in size 
averaging 2'65 by 2'02. 



AQUILA, Briss., 1760. 

731. GREATER SPOTTED EAGLE. 

AQUILA MACULATA. 

Aquila maculata (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 258 (1788) ; Blanf. F. Brit 
Ind. Birds, iii. p. 340 ; Saunders, p. 325 ; A. ncevia, Gmel. 1 (Naum.), 
i. p. 217, Taf. 10, 11 ; Gould, B. of E. i. pi. 8 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. i. 
pi. 3 ; Hewitson, i. p. 18. pi. 5 ; Newton, i. p. 20 ; Lilford, i. p. 3, 
pis. 3, 4, 5 ; A. clanga, Pall. Zoogr. K.A. i. p. 351 (1811) ; Naum. 
xiii. pis. 342, 346 ; Dresser, v. p. 499, pi. 339 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. i. p. 248 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 22. 

Aigle eriard, French ; Schreiadler, German ; Storre-Skrikorn. 
Swed. ; Podorlik bolschoi, Russ. ; Kaljanga, Hindu. 

t$ ad. (India). Entire plumage blackish brown, the mantle with a 
metallic purplish gloss ; quills blackish ; tail unbarred, the middle feathers 
tinged with grey ; upper and under tail-coverts marked with white ; bill 

M M 2 



518 AQUILA 



dark horn ; cere and feet yellow ; iris brown. Culmen 2'35, wing 20'2, 
tail 1 1 *0, tarsus 4*45 inch. Female similar, but larger. The young bird differs 
in being profusely spotted with greyish or brownish buff, the scapulars 
and larger coverts having large ovate spots, the lesser coverts smaller drop- 
shaped spots ; secondaries broadly tipped with greyish ; feathers on the 
rump and upper tail-coverts with the terminal portion brownish buff ; 
under parts deep brown, striped with tawny brown ; tarsal feathers dark 
brown, marked with creamy white ; under tail-coverts creamy buff. 

Hob. Central and Southern Europe, straying occasionally to 
Northern Europe and Great Britain ; Africa, south to Kordofan 
and Abyssinia; Asia, east throughout India and Northern 
Burma ; South Eastern Siberia as a rare straggler. 

In habits this is a heavy somewhat sluggish bird frequent- 
ing open places as well as wooded tracts and damp marshy 
localities. It feeds on frogs, reptiles, large insects, fish, &c., 
and does not disdain carrion. Its note is a yelping cry jeb, jeb, 
jeb. Its nest which is constructed of sticks and dry branches 
intermixed with grass and leaves, is usually placed on a tree, 
sometimes however on a high bush, and in April or May two 
eggs are deposited which are white, somewhat sparingly marked 
with violet grey shell-markings and dark red surface-spots, and 
in size average about 2 '65 by 2*33. 

Aquila fulvescens Gray (Aq. boecki von Homeyer) is a pale 
variety of the present species (cf. Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Club. x. 
p. 51.) and not a distinct species. 

732. LESSER SPOTTED EAGLE. 
AQUILA POMARINA. 

Aqulla po marina Brehm, Vog. Deutsclil. p. 27 (1831) ; Dresser, v. p. 491, 
pi. 338 ; A. maculata, Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. p. 246 (1874, nee. 
Gmel.) ; A. rufonuchalis ; Brooks, Stray Feathers, iv. p. 269 (1875). 

Kleiner Schreiadlcr, German ; Mindre Skrikorn, Swed ; Podorlik 
Malaya, Russ. 

$ ad. (Pomefania). Differs from A, maculata in being smaller, the 
plumage earth-brown, with the tips of the feathers somewhat paler, the 
crown and nape warm creamy brown, the tail darker brown, the outer 
leathers tipped with dark grey and with obsolete light bars ; tarsal feathers 
dull brown and light brown intermixed. Culmen 1-8, wing 177, tail 9'5, 
tarsus 3*8 inch. The young bird is brown, with a chocolate tinge and much 
less spotted than A. maculata; crown and hind-neck dotted with small 
ochreous rufescent spots, the nape with a large ochreous rufous patch ; 
;back and lesser wing-coverts dotted with small spots ; secondaries tipped 



AQUILA 519 



with, greyish, the inner ones with large terminal irregularly ovate greyish 
spots ; tail blackish brown, washed with grey and tipped with ashy grey ; 
under parts striped with rufescent ochreous ; tarsi sparsely spotted with 
creamy white ; under tail-coverts creamy ochreous. 

Hub. Eastern Europe, of rare occurrence in Scandinavia and 
in west-central Europe ; Asia Minor and Syria on passage, 
ranging south in East Africa to Nubia in winter. 

In habits it much resembles the Buzzards and like them is 
somewhat heavy and sluggish. It feeds to a large extent on 
frogs, and hence is often found near water, also on reptiles of 
various kinds, small mammals, and like its larger ally does not 
hesitate to feed on carrion when obtainable. Its nest which 
resembles that of the Common Buzzard is placed on a tree, but. 
it occasionally makes use of the deserted nest of some other 
bird of prey. The eggs, two in number, are white, usually 
marked with pale violet grey shell-spots or blotches, and 
generally boldly blotched with dark red surface-markings and 
in size average about 2'49 by 1*97. 



733. STEPPE EAGLE. 
AQUILA NIPALENSIS. 

Aquila nipalensis Hodgs. As. Ees. xviii. part 2, p. 13, pi. i. (1832) ; 
Dresser, v. p. 507, pi. 340 ; A. bifasciata, J. E. Gray, 111. Ind. Zool. 
i. pi. 17 (1830-34 nee. Brehm) ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. 
p. 336; A. orientalis. Cab. J. f. O. 1854, p. 369; A. amurensis, 
Swinh. P.Z.S. 1871, p. 338 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 201 ; A. mogil- 
nik, Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 240 (1874 nee. Gmel.). 

Steppen Adler, German ; Podorlik, Russ. ; Karagush, Bashkir. 



ad. (S. Russia). Upper parts dull earth-brown, darker on the 
scapulars and inner secondaries paler on the nape ; quills and larger scapu- 
lars blackish brown ; tail blackish brown, narrowly tipped with light brown, 
and with obsoletely marbled ashy grey bars ; under parts dull earth-brown, 
tinged with rufous on the lower abdomen ; bill bluish horn ; cere, gape, 
and feet pale yellow ; iris brown. Culrnen 2'4, wing 20'5, tail 10*7, tarsus 
3'7 inch. Female similar but larger. The young bird is dark earth -brown, 
with a faint purplish tinge above and below, has two conspicuous rufous 
ochreous wing-bars, the upper tail-coverts bright ochreous fawn, and the 
tail is broadly tipped with dull rufescent ochreous. From the Spotted 
Eagles this species is readily distinguishable in having a vertical and not 
a round nostril. 



520 AQUILA 



Hob. Eastern and South-eastern Europe ; North-east Africa ; 
Asia east to South Eastern Siberia ; Mongolia and China ; in 
winter visiting Northern India, Assam, and Burma. 

In habits this is a heavy bird, frequenting the Steppes 
and open country and feeding on small mammals, reptiles, and 
carrion, sometimes capturing small birds. Its nest, which is 
invariably placed on the ground, frequently on a low mound, is 
constructed of twigs and boughs lined with grass, plant-stems, 
or wool, and the eggs 2, rarely 3 in number, are usually 
deposited in May, and are white with violet grey shell-markings 
and deep red surface-spots and blotches, and are as a rule not 
richly marked though sometimes they are as well and boldly 
marked as those of A. pomarina. In size they average 2*66 
by 2-35. 

734. TAWNY EAGLE. 
AQUILA RAP AX. 

Aquila rapax (Temm.), PL Col. i. livr. 76, pi. 445 (1828) ; Blanf. Geol. 
and Zool. Abyss, p. 295 ; Dresser, v. p. 513, pi. 341 ; Sharpe. Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. p. 242 ; A. ncevioides (Cuv.), Kegne Anim. i. p. 326 
(1829) ; A. albicans, Riipp. Neue Wirbelth., p. 34, pi. 13 (1835) ; 
von Erlanger J. f. 0. 1898 Taf. vii. 

Sagr cl arneb, Arabic ; Chok. Coo Vogel, in S. Africa. 

<j? ad. (Africa). Head, neck, back, and rump creamy ochreous, sparingly 
marked with deep brown ; scapulars and wing-coverts- deep brown, with a 
purplish gloss and blotched with pale ochreous brown ; quills blackish 
brown, secondaries with obsolete greyish bars on the inner web ; tail deep 
brown, tinged with grey, the middle feathers obsoletely barred ; under 
parts warm creamy ochreous, the throat, flanks, and abdomen broadly 
striped with warm brown ; bill horn-blue ; cere and feet yellow ; iris 
brown. Culmen 2'5, wing 20'0, tail lO'O, tarsus 3'6 inch. The male is similar 
but smaller. The adult bird varies from the above to warm rufous brown 
above and below, the tail and wings blackish brown, and the young bird is 
pale brownish isabelline, but slightly striated, the quills and tail deep 
blackish brown, the latter tipped with fulvous. 

Hob. Africa generally, south to the Cape Colony ; Turkey and 
Palestine ; of doubtful occurrence in south-western Europe. 

In habits it differs but little from its allies and is a some- 
what heavy bird, preferring carrion, frogs, fish, and even 
worms, to hunting after larger birds and mammals, but it 
will capture hares and rabbits, and often robs the sportsman 



AQUILA 521 



of wounded game. Its call-note is (fide von Erlanger) ichtiok, 
ichtioh. Its nest is a large heavy structure of boughs, twigs, and 
dry grass, and is placed on a tree. The eggs, which are 
deposited in April or May, in Abyssinia in June or August, and 
on the Blue Nile in January, are white, more or less richly 
spotted and blotched with pale purplish red and deep rufous 
and measure about 2*81 by 2'22. 

There are two forms of this eagle, one tawny, and the other 
allicans) pale clay ochreous, but intermediate specimens 
occur. 

735. IMPERIAL EAGLE. 
AQUILA HELIACA. 

Aqnila Jieltaca, Savigiiy. Obs. Ois. de 1'JBgypte, p. 82, pi. xii. (1809) ; 
Gould, B. of E. i. pi. 5 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 238 ; Tacx. 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 17 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 334 ; A. ifti- 
perialis (Bechst.) Orn. Taschenb. p. 553 (1812) ; (Naum.) i. p. 201, 
Ttif. 6, 7 ; A. crassipes, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 81 (1844),-; 
A. moyilmk (Gmel.) Nov. Com. Petrop. xv. p. 445 (1771) ? ; Dresser, 
v. p. 521, pis. 343, 344. 

Aiglc Imperial, French; Kaiseradler, German; Aquila 
imperiale, Ital. ; Mogilnik, Kamgousch, Russ. ; Akctb, Urga, 
Persian ; lumiz, Hindu. ; Frus, Bengal. 

ad, (Bulgaria). Head and neck above dull yellowish isabelline, the 
forehead marked with dark brown, the nape tinged with rufous ; rest of the 
plumage blackish brown, some of the scapulars pure white ; tail dark 
grey, with a broad terminal blackish brown band, and finally tipped with 
light brown ; under tail-coverts light brown ; bill bluish, darker at the 
tip; cere and feet pale yellow; iris brownish yellow. Culmen 2'85, 
wing 23*5, tail 11 '6, tarsus, 3*9 inch. Female similar but larger. The 
young bird is brownish yellow, striped with dark earth-brown ; wings 
and tail dark brown, the latter tipped with light brown ; secon daries 
tipped with yellowish white; chin and throat unstriped. Between this 
plumage and the adult all stages are to fee met with. 

Hob. South-eastern Europe ; Asia Minor and Palestine ; 
east Africa south to Nubia and Abyssinia ; Asia east to south- 
eastern Siberia, Mongolia, and China; in India no further 
east than Bengal (Furreedpore). 

In habits this Eagle is a heavy and sluggish bird, and 
resembles a Buzzard more than any nearer allied species. 

It frequents the plains and steppes, where it feeds on small 
mammals and birds, frogs, lizards, and carrion. Its nest, which 
is placed in a tree is a heavy structure of boughs and sticks, 



522 AQU1LA 



lined with twigs, grass, wool, or other soft material, or with 
green leaves, and in April or May 2 eggs are deposited, w r hich 
are dull white somewhat sparingly clouded with pale purplish 
red, and blotched with pale rufous, and average in size 2'95 
by 2'28. 

I still believe that Gmelin's Falco mogilnik is referable to 
this species, but as ornithologists hold such different views on 
this subject I have deemed it advisable to use Savigny's name 
heliaca about which there can be no doubt. 

736. WHITE-SHOULDERED EAGLE. 
AQUILA ADALBERTI. 

Aquila adalberti L. Brehm, Ber. Yer. Deutsch. Orn. Gesellscli. xiii. 
Beitr. vii. p. 55 (1860) ; Dresser, v. p. 517, pis. 342, 343 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. p. 239 ; A. leucolena, Dresser, P.Z.S. 1872, p. 864. 

Aguila real, Aguila imperial, Span. ; Aguia, Portug. 

$ ad. (Spain). Differs from A. heliaca in having the forehead and 
crown umber-brown, the rest of the crown and nape light sandy brown, 
the whole edge of the wings with a broad band of white, the scapulars 
dark brown, and the sides of the face and of the neck light sandy brown, 
washed with rufous. Culmen 3*1, wing 24*4, tail 13'8, tarsus 4'15 inch. 
Male similar but smaller. The young bird differs from that of A. heliaca 
in being pale sandy isabelline, tinged with rufous and unstriped. 

Hob. The Iberian peninsula, and north-west Africa. 

In habits and nidification it does not differ from A. heliaca 
and its eggs are also similar to those of that species. 

737. GOLDEN EAGLE. 
AQUILA CHRYSAETUS. 

Aquila chrysaetus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 125 (1766) ; Naum. xiii. 
Taf. 339 ; Hewitson, i. p. 8, pi. iii. pi. iv. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of E. i. 
pi. 6 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. i. pi. 2 ; Newton, i. p. 11 ; id. Ootheca 
Wolleyana, pp. 8-43, pis. ii.-iv. ; Dresser, v. p. 533, pi. 345 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. p. 235 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 10 ; Blanf. F. Brit. 
Ind. Birds, iii. p. 333 ; Saunders, p. 327 ; Lilford, i. p. 3, pi. 3 ; 
Kidgway, Man. N. Am. B. p. 242 ; A. fulva (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. 
p. 125 (1766) ; (Naum.) i. p. 208, Taf. 8, 9 ; A. melanaetos (Grael.), 
Syst. Nat. i. p. 254 (1788) ; A. canadensls (Gmel.), torn. cit. p. 256 ; 
A. larthelemyi, Jaub. Bev. and Mag. Zool. 1852 p. 545. 

Aigle royal, French ; Aguia real, Portug. ; Aguila real, 
Spain. Aquila reale, Ital. ; Steinadler, Goldadhr, German; 



A Q UILAHA LI A ETUS 5 2 3 



Steen Arend, Dutch ; Kongcorn, Stenorn, Dan. and Norweg. : 
Kungsorn, Swed. ; Maa-kotka, Kokko, Finn.: Koaskim, Lapp.; 
Bjerkut, Cholsan, Russ. ; Agdob-kakala, Arab. ; Ogab, Moor. \ 
Muriari, Hindu. ; Inu-ivashi, Jap. 

ad. (N. Russia). Forehead and cheeks deep brown ; crown, nape,, 
and hind -neck rufous buff; upper parts deep brown, with a faint purplish 
gloss, many of the feathers with lighter tips ; quills blackish brown ; tail 
blackish brown, on the basal portion irregularly barred with dark grey ;. 
under parts blackish brown ; the feathers on the tarsus rufous creamy 
buff ; bill dark horn ; cere and feet yellow ; iris rich hazel brown. Cul- 
men 2*8, wing 23'6, tail 13'5, tarsus 4'2 inch. The female is similar but larger. 
The young bird has the upper parts more uniformly dark ; crown and 
nape dark brown, the feathers with greyish buff tips ; lower back and 
rump varied with white ; the basal two-thirds of the tail white, sparingly 
marbled with pale brown ; tarsal feathers dull white, sparingly streaked 
and marbled with brown. 

Hcib. The mountainous portions of Europe generally, north 
into Lapland ; British Islands ; North Africa ; Asia east ta 
China, north to Dauria, south to the Himalayas ; North 
America from the Arctic regions south to the Hudson river 
and New Mexico. 

Frequents the mountains in preference to the plains, and is 
a more powerful bird than A. lieliaca, and though it will feed 
on carrion when an opportunity occurs, yet its usual prey 
consists of hares, rabbits, lambs, fawns, and birds, also rats 
and other small mammals. On the wing it is graceful and 
powerful and soars in circles with ease in search of its prey. 
Its cry is a loud yelp uttered several times in succession. It 
nests on rocks or trees making a bulky nest of boughs and sticks 
lined with fern, moss, grass, wool, or any suitable soft material, and 
in March or April deposits 2, sometimes 3, and but rarely 4 white 
eggs, sometimes unmarked but usually more or less richly 
spotted and blotched with violet-grey shell-markings, and rich 
dark surface-spots and blotches, and in size average 2'89 by 
2*41. All the eggs I have received from near Archangel are 
pure white. 

HALIAETUS, Savigny, 1810. 

738. PALLAS'S SEA-EAGLE. 

HALIAETUS LEUCORYPHUS. 

Hallaetua leucoryphus (Pall.) Keis. Kuss. Reichs i. p. 454 (1771) ;; 
Dresser, v. p. 545, pi. 346 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 308 ; 
Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 366 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 43 j //. 
macei (Temm.), PL Col. i. pis. 8, 223 (1824). 



524 HALIAETUS 



Bieloklovoi-orlan, Russ. ; Machurang, Hindu. 

(J ad. (S. Russia). Forehead, sides of head and neck, chin, and throat 
pale yellowish white ; crown, nape, and hind-neck warm rufous isabelline, 
or rufescent ochreous ; rest of upper parts umber-brown ; tail dark brown, 
with a broad white cross band. ; under parts dark reddish brown ; bill 
dark plumbeous ; cere light plumbeous ; tarsus nearly bare, dull white ; 
feet dull white ; iris greyish yellow. Culmen 2'7, wing 22'0, tail 11 '7, 
tarsus 3'85 inch. Female similar but larger. The young bird has the 
upper parts nearly uniform brown, the head and neck dark fulvous brown, 
streaked with sandy brown ; tail dark brown, with an ashy tinge ; under 
parts lighter fulvousibrown, some of the breast-feathers with pale margins. 

Hob. European Russia, not ranging far north ; Turkey, Asia 
Minor, and Central Asia, east to southern Siberia. Mongolia, and 
northern China ; northern India and Burma. 

Is essentially a frequenter of rivers, marshes, tidal 'creeks, 
and lakes, and feeds on fish, which it captures near the surface 
of the water, water-fowl, and snakes, frogs, etc , but its chief 
food consists of fish. Its cry is a shrill half croak, half scream, 
somewhat harsh in tone. It places its nest on a lofty tree, 
constructing it of sticks and boughs, lining it with twigs and 
green leaves, rushes and straw, and from December to January 
^in India) 2 or 3, seldom 4 eggs are deposited, which are white 
and in size measure about 2'81 by 2*16. 

739. SEA-EAGLE. 
HALIAETUS ALB 1C ILL A. 

Haliaetus albicilla (Linn.), Syst, Nat. i. p. 123 (1766); (Naum.), i. 
p. 224, Taf. 12, 13, 14 ; Hewitson, i. p. 15, pi. iv. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. 
of ^E. i. pi. 10 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit, i. pi. 4 ; Newton, i. p. 25 ; 
id. Ootheca Wolleyana, pp. 45-58 ; Dresser, v. p. 551, pis. 347, 348 ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 302 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 29 ; Blanf. 
F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 369 ; Ridgway, p. 243 ; Saunders, 
p. 327 ; Lilford, i. p. 8, pi. 6. 

Pygargue a queue blanche, French ; Aguila pigargo, Span. ; 
Aquila di Mare, Ital. ; Seeadler, German ; Zee- ar end, Dutch ; 
Cm, Icel. ; ffavom, Dan. and Norweg. ; Hafsorn, Swed. ; 
Mcri-kotka, Finn. ; Biclochvost, Russ. ; 0-jirv-washi, Jap. 

ad. (S. Russia). Head, upper neck, and throat creamy white, the 
base and shafts of the feathers dark brown ; rest of the body and wings 
dark brown, marked here and there with brownish white ; the quills 
blackish ; tail nearly wedge-shape, dark brown at the extreme bases, other- 
wise white ; bill and cere pale yellow, the former bluish at the tip ; legs 



HALIAETUS 525 



-chiefly unfeathered, light yellow ; iris straw yellow. Culmen 3*6, wing 26'5, 
tail 12'5, tarsus 4'2 inch. Female larger, and darker on the head and neck. 
The young bird has the entire plumage blackish brown, varied with fulvous, 
the tail dark brown ; bill blackish ; cere yellowish brown ; legs and feet 
dull yellowish ; iris brown. 

Hob. Europe generally, north to south Greenland and 
Novaya Zemlya ; North Africa ; Asia Minor and Asia east to 
Japan, north to Kamchatka, south to N.W. India, Sind, and the 
Punjab ; China, Manchuria, and Corea. 

As its name implies it is chiefly an inhabitant of the sea 
coast, large lakes, and rivers, but in some parts is often found 
far inland. Though large and powerful it seldom attacks any 
animal larger than a grouse, hare, or a lamb, but feeds prin- 
cipally on fish, carrion, rabbits, and wild fowl. Its cry is a 
clear shrill yelp, shriller than that of the Golden Eagle. The 
nest is a huge structure of sticks lined with moss and grass, 
and is placed on a cliff, a tree, or, when in a marsh, on the 
ground, and the eggs are laid in April or May in Europe, 
or earlier in the south-eastern portions, and in December and 
January in Egypt. These are two in number and uniform 
unspotted white, rather rough in texture of shell and measure 
about 2*82 by 2'30. 

740. BALD EAGLE. 
HALIAETUS LEUCOCEPHALUS. 

Hallaetus leucocf-pTialus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 124 (1766) ; Wils. Am. 
Orn. iv. p. 89, pi. 36 ; Naum. xiii. Taf. 334, 335 ; Gould, B. of E. 
i. pi. 11 ; Aud. B. N. Am. i. p. 59, pi. 14 ; Ridgway, p. 243 ; Tacz. 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 34 ; Bendire Life Hist. N. Am. B. i. p. 274, pi. ix. 
fig. 7 (egg); H.]nxisJimgtonii (Aud.) Mag. Nat. Hist. i. p. 115 
(1829). 

<J ail. (New Brunswick). Differs from H. albicilla in having the head, 
neck, tail-coverts, and tail pure white, the rest of the plumage blackish 
brown, many of the feathers with paler margins ; bill, cere, legs, feet, and 
iris yellow. Culmen 2'20, wing 25'0, tail 13'2, tarsus 3'35 inch. Female 
similar but larger. The young bird is nearly uniform blackish brown, the 
feathers on the under parts with white bases, which show through here and 
there. 

Hal}. N. America, south to Florida and Mexico ; the 
Commander Islands and Kamchatka. 

In habits it resembles H. albicilla and like, that bird feeds on 
small mammals, carrion, fish, and birds, and often robs the 



26 HALIAETUS 



Osprey of its finny prey. Its nest also resembles that of 
H. albicilla and is usually placed on a tree but sometimes also 
on a cliff or on the ground. Its eggs are also pure white, 2 in 
number, and are deposited from December to April according to 
latitude. They measure about 2'89 by 2'26, but eggs from 
southern latitudes are smaller than those from the high north. 

741. KAMCHATKAN SEA-EAGLE. 
HALIAETUS PELAGICUS. 

Haliaetus pelagicus (Pall.), Zoogr. E. As. i. p. 343 and pi. (1811) ; Temm, 
and Schlegel, Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 11, pi. 4 ; Cassin. B. Calif, 
pp. 31, 110, pi. 6 ; David and Oust, Ois. Chine, p. 13 ; Tacz. F. O. 
Sib. 0. p. 37 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. p. 306 ; (Ridgway), p. 243. 

0-washi, Jap. 

$ ad. General colour dark brown, with a slight greyish tinge, tlie fore- 
head, lesser and median wing-coverts, rump, tail, tail-coverts, and thighs 
white ; nape and hind-neck greyish brown, with paler edges ; bill, cere, 
and feet rich yellow ; tarsus chiefly bare ; iris pale yellow. Culmen 2'49, 
wing 24'0, tail 14'0, tarsus 4'5 inch. Female similar but larger. The young 
bird is dull brown, on the head and under parts with paler streaks, the 
lower back, rump, and tail-coverts marked with white, and the tail white, 
mottled with brown ; thighs and vent feathers slightly mottled with 
white. 

Hal). Kamchatka, eastern and south-eastern Siberia ; rare in 
the Commander Islands ; Mongolia ; North China ; Japan ; of 
accidental occurrence in the Aleutian Islands ? 

In habits it is said to resemble H. albicilla and like that bird 
it feeds on fish and carrion. It places its nest, which is a heavy 
structure of boughs and sticks, lined with grass, on a tree, but 
also occasionally on a rock and in March, April, or May deposits 
2 eggs, which resemble those of H. albicilla but are as a rule 
slightly larger. 

742. COREAN SEA-EAGLE. 
HALIAETUS BRANICKII. 

Haliaetus Iranickii, Tacz. P.Z.S. 1888, p. 451 ; id. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 42. 

< ad. Differs from H. pelagicus in having only the tail and upper 
and under tail-coverts pure white, the rest of the plumage blackish brown, 
the feathers on the crown and neck with a fine central greyish line ; 
beak, cere, bare portion of tarsus and feet rich orange-yellow ; iris white 
with a yellowish tinge. Culmen 3'15, wing 21*62, tail 13*39, tarsus 3'42 
inch. 



HA LI A ETUSCIRCAETUS 527 

Hal. Corea. 

As yet but very little is known about this bird, and it has 
only been obtained in Corea. Nothing is on record respecting 
its habits or nidification. Dr. Puschkin described (Bull. B. O. 
Club, xi. p. 4, 1900) under the name T/ialassaetus macrurus, 
from Yakutsk, a Sea-Eagle closely allied to If. branickii, of which 
I have not seen a specimen a'nd cannot therefore judge as to 
whether it is a good species. 

CIRCAETUS, Vieill., 1816. 

743. SHORT-TOED EAGLE. 

CIRCAETUS GALLICUS. 

Circaetus gallicus (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 295 (1788) ; Gould, B. of E. 
i. pi. 13 ; Dresser, v. p. 563, pis. 349, 350 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. i. p. 280 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Incl. Birds, iii. p. 355 ; C. brachy- 
dactylm (Wolf), Taschenb. deutsch. Vogelk. i. p. 21 (1810) ; Naum. 
i. p. 236, Taf. 15. 

Aigle Jean le blanc, French ; Guincho da tairiha, Portug. ; 
Aguila par da, Aguila del huevo solo, Span. ; Biancone, Ital. ; 
Natternadler, Schlangenadler, German ; A garb abiad, Arab. ; 
Sampmar, Hindu. ; Sapmaril, Beng, 

<$ ad. (Italy). Upper parts dark earth-brown with a faint purplish 
gloss, some of the feathers with darker centres ; quills dark brown on 
outer web and tips, white on inner web, barred on the secondaries ; tail 
brown, with darker bars and tipped with white ; lores, forehead, chin, and 
sides of head covered with long black bristles ; under parts white, the 
throat and breast striped, the flanks sparingly barred with brown ; under 
tail-coverts white ; tarsi bare, covered with almost hexagonal scales, those 
on the feet smaller and rounder ; beak blackish horn ; cere yellowish flesh- 
colour ; legs dirty flesh-colour ; iris yellow. Culmen 2'05, wing 20'4, tail 
11*4, tarsus 4'1 inch. Female similar but larger. The young bird has the 
wing-coverts with paler margins, the throat more marked with brown, the 
lower throat and breast almost uniform dark earth-brown, and the breast 
broadly barred with brown. 

Hob. Southern Europe, rare in central Europe and only a 
straggler further north ; Africa south to Kordofan and Senaar ; 
Palestine and central Asia east to North China, and occurring 
throughout India. 

In habits it has much in common with the Buzzards, and on 
the wing it is very Buzzard-like, but is readily distinguishable by 



528 CIRC AETUS SPIZAETUS 



its white under parts. It feeds on snakes, lizards, crabs, frogs, 
large insects, small mammals and weakly birds, and to some 
extent on fish. Its note is a plaintive, rather wild cry. It is a 
tree-breeder, but its nest has been found on the ground. The 
nest is constructed of sticks and twigs lined with coarse grass, 
and it lays, in April or May, a single egg which is roundish 
in shape, white with a faint greenish tinge, the shell rather 
rough and granulated, and measures about 2 P 65 by 2*19. 



SPIZAETUS, Vieill., 1816. 

744. NEPALESE HAWK EAGLE. 

SPIZAETUS NEPALENSIS. 

Spizaetus nepalensis (Hodgson), J.A.S.B. v. p. 229, pi. 7 (1836) ; Sharpe,. 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 267 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 352 ; 
S. orientalis, Temm. and Schlegel, Faun. Jap. Aves, pi. 3 (1850). 

Kanda-panthiong, Lepcha. ; Kuma-taka, Jap. 

<J ad. (India). Crown and sides of head blackish ; crest 3 to 4 inches 
long narrowly tipped with white ; upper parts dark brown ; quills with 
somewhat indistinct bars ; rump and upper tail-coverts barred brown and 
white ; tail greyish brown with blackish bands ; throat white with a 
central blackish stripe ; breast buffy white broadly striped with blackish 
brown ; rest of under parts brown barred with white ; bill black ; cere hoary 
black ; feet dull yellowish white ; iris yellow ; legs feathered to the 
base of the middle toe. Culmen T9, wing 17*0, tail 12'5, tarsus 4'2 inch. 
Female similar but rather larger. The young k bird has the crown and 
sides of head warm isabelline, spotted and striped with blackish brown - 
rest of the upper parts earthy brown, some of the feathers with pale 
margins ; tail earth-brown, whitish at the extreme base and with broad 
dark bars ; entire under parts warm rufous buff with a few blackish 
brown short stripes on the breast. 

Hal). The Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan, visiting the 
plains of Northern India in the cold season ; China ; Mongolia ; 
Japan. 

This is a forest-haunting species, and preys on small mammals, 
pheasants, and other game birds. It breeds in the Himalayas, 
and in Japan, placing its nest, which is a bulky structure of 
sticks, on a tree, and from January to May the eggs, 2 in 
number, are deposited. These are greenish white, sparingly 
marked with pale purple and reddish brown and measure about 
2-7 by 2-2. 



ASTUK 529 



ASTUR, Laccpede, 1801. 

745. GOSHAWK. 
ASTUR PALUMBARIUS. 

Astur palumlarius (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 130 (1766) ; (Naum.) i. 
p. 249, Taf. 17, 18 ; Hewitson, i. p. 34, pi. xi ; Gould, B. of E. i. 
pi. 17 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. i. pi. 10 ; Newton, i. p. 83 ; id. Ootheca 
Wolleyana, i. p. 73 ; Dresser, v. p. 587, pi. 354 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. i. p. 95 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 397 ; Tacz. F. O. 
Sib. O.p. 98 ; Saunders, p. 331 ; Lilford, i. p. 59, pis. 28, 29. 

Autour, French ; Agor, Portug. ; Azor, Span. ; Astore, Ital. ; 
Huhnerhalicht , German ; Havik, Dutch ; Duelwg, Dan. and 
Norweg. ; Dufhok, Swed. ; Koppelohaukka, Kyyhkyhankka, Finn. ; 
Ydstrebutnyatnik, Russ. ; L'AUi, Arab. ; d-Boz, Moor. ; Tartan, 
Pers. ; Jarra $ , Baz $ , Hindu. ; Q-taka, Jap. 

ad. (N. Russia). Upper parts dark ashy slate, blacker on the head v 
the nape marked with white ; quills dark brown tinged with ashy, 
obsoletely barred on the outer web, mottled with greyish white on the 
inner web ; tail ashy brown tipped with white, and with four dark browiF 
bands ; a line above and a long patch behind the eye white ; under parts 
white, the throat indistinctly barred with grey and finely streaked with 
blackish ; rest of under parts except the under tail-coverts barred with slate- 
grey ; bill bluish horn ; cere greenish yellow ; leg yellow ; iris orange- 
yellow. Culmen 1'4, wing 13'0, tail lO'O, tarsus 3'1 inch. Female similar 
but larger, somewhat browner above, and more broadly barred below. The 
young bird is warm brown above, the head and nape with broad light 
reddish brown, the back and wings with narrow yellowish white margins ; 
quills and tail distinctly barred ; under parts buffy white striped with 
dark brown. 

Hal. Europe generally, north as far as the forest extends ;.. 
of rare occurrence now in Great Britain ; North Africa in 
winter; Asia generally, east to Japan, north to Kamchatka, 
south to the Himalayas, and northern China. 

Is a bird of the forest and woodlands, and of the lowlands 
not occurring in the mountains. On the wing it is swift and 
active, and threads through the forest trees with ease, being 
able to overtake and capture pigeons as well as game birds. 
To p$ultry and game it is a veritable scourge. Its nest is 
placed on a tree, generally at a considerable altitude, and is- 
constructed of sticks and twigs, lined with finer twigs, and 
sometimes garnished with fresh foliage. The eggs 3 to 4 in 
number are white with a faint blue-green tinge, occasionally 



530 ASTUR 



faintly marked with colour, are laid in April or May, and 
measure about 2*43 by 1*80. Specimens from Asia, and espe- 
cially from Kamchatka (^4. candidissimus, Dyb.), are very pale 
and may almost be considered as a subspecies. In North 
America the Goshawk is replaced by Astur atricapillus (Wils.) 
which differs in having the under parts closely freckled, not 
barred or narrowly vermiculated with ashy brown. This species 
is said to have been once obtained in Scotland, and once in 
Ireland. 

746. SHIKRA. 
ASTUR BADIUS. 

Astur badius (Ginel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 280 (1788) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. i. p. 109 ; (Dresser), ix. p. 273, pi. 693 ; Blaiif. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iii. p. 398 ; A. dussumieri, Temm. PI. Col. i. pis. 308, 336 
(1824) ; A. cenchroides, Severtz. Turk. Jevot. p. 113 (1873). 

Kyrgui, Tekke ; Shikra $ Chipka J , Hindu. ; Kurula-goya, 
Cing. ; Thane, Burm. 

ad. (India). Upper parts ashy grey ; quills blackish towards the 
tip ; outer tail-feathers with blackish bars ; sides of head tinged with, 
rufous ; chin whitish ; under parts rusty red narrowly barred with white ; 
bill dusky black ; cere, legs, and iris yellow. Gape 07, wing 7'5, tail 6'3, 
tarsus 2'0 inch. Female similar but larger. The young bird is brown 
above, the feathers at first with rufous edges ; conspicuous white bars on 
the head and nape ; all the tail-feathers barred ; under parts white with 
large elongate brown spots; usually a median brown stripe on the 
throat. 

Hob. Transcaspia ; Persia ; Turkestan ; the whole of India 
and Ceylon ; Burma ; Siam ; Cambodia, and southern China. 

Extremely active and courageous in its habits this Hawk will 
attack birds larger than itself. It inhabits the plains, as well 
as the hills up to an altitude of about 5000 feet, and is not to 
be found in the thick forests or in the desert. Its flight is 
steady and direct, but it sometimes soars and circles at a con- 
siderable altitude. Its note is a shrill two-note whistle or 
scream. It feeds on mice, insects, small reptiles, and birds, and 
will also take toll from the poultry yards. Its nest is a some- 
what loose structure of small sticks, lined with fine roots, and is 
placed at a considerable altitude in a tree, and its eggs, usually 
4, but occasionally 5 in number, are bluish white, very seldom 
faintly marked with colour, and in size average about T55 
bv 1-22. 



ASTURA CCIPITER 53 1 



747. LEVANT SPARROW-HAWK. 
ASTUR BREVIPES. 

Astur brevipes, Severtz. Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. xxxiii. p. 234, tab. i, 
ii. iii. (1850) ; (Dresser), v. p. 633, pis. 359, 360 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. i. p. Ill ; (Seidensacher), Ver. Zool. Bot. Gesell. 1864, 
taf. i. (egg) ; A. gurneyi (Bree.), B. of Ear. iv. p. 185 (1863). 

Basha, Pers. 

$ ad. (Macedonia). Differs from A. Radius in being larger, in having 
the under parts much more broadly and boldly barred, and as a rule with 
darker brown and not rufous bars. Culmen 0'85, wing 8'9, tail 7'0, tarsus 
2-15 inch. The female is not much larger than the male, whereas in A. 
badius the difference in size between the sexes is considerable. 

Hob. South-eastern Europe ; Greece ; Southern Russia ; 
Palestine ; Asia Minor ; Transcaspia ; Persia. 

This, the western representative of A. badius, differs but 
little from that bird in its habits and nidification. It frequents 
groves, gardens, and woods, and feeds on small mammals, birds, 
and large insects. Its nest resembles that of the Sparrow 
Hawk and is placed in a tree often tolerably high above the 
ground, and in May it lays 4, sometimes only 3, eggs which 
are greenish white when fresh, but soon fade. In size they 
average 1'57 by 1*25. 



ACCIPITER, Briss., 1760. 

748. SPARROW-HAWK. 

ACCIPITER NISUS. 

Accipiter nisus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 130 (1766) ; (Naum.), u 
p. 258, taf. 19, 20 ; Hewitson, i. p. 35, pi. xii ; Gould, B. of Gt. 
Brit. i. pi. 11 ; Newton, i. p. 88 ; Dresser, v. p. 599, pis. 355 
356, 357, 358 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 132 ; Blanf. F 
Brit. Ind. (Birds, iii. p. 402 ; Saunders, p. [333 ; Lilford, i, 
p. 66, pis. 30, 31, 32, 33 ; A. fringillarius (Savigny), Desc. de 
l'%ypt. Ois. p. 270 (1808); Gould, B. of E. i. pi. 18 ; A. 
pallens, Stejn. Proc. U. S. Mus. xvi. p. 625 (1893) ; A, granti, 
Sharpe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. v. p. 483 (1890). 

L. Epervier, French ; Gravido, Portug. ; Gavilan, Span. ; 
Sparviere, Ital. ; Sperler, German ; Sperwer, Dutch ; Spurvehceg, 
Dan. and Norweg. ; Sparfhok, Swed. ; Varpuishaukka, Nuoli- 

N N 



532 ACCIPITER 



haukka, Finn. ; Jastreb-perepdatnik, Russ. ; ThoUa, Arab. ; Basha, 
Pers. ; Basha $ , Bashin J, Hindu. ; Haitaka, Konori, Jap. 

(J c7. (England). Upper parts dark slate-grey, the nape marked with 
white and a narrow superciliary stripe white ; quills and tail greyish 
brown with dark transverse bands ; under parts rufous white, sometimes 
rich rufous, barred with rufous brown ; bill dark horn-blue ; cere, legs, 
and feet yellow ; iris orange. Culmen 0'65, wing 7'9, tail 6'5, tarsus 2'15 
inch. The female is considerably larger than the male, viz. culmen 0*8, 
wing 9'2, tail 7*2, tarsus 2'4 inch, and the old bird has the under parts 
white, but little tinged with rufous except on the flanks, and barred with 
brown. The young bird is dark brown above with rusty margins to the 
feathers, the quills and tail with dark bars ; below dull white streaked 
and to some extent irregularly barred with dark brown. This species is 
however subject to considerable variation in colour and markings. 

Hal. Europe generally, north to the Arctic Circle; North 
Africa in winter, south to Kordofan and Sennaar ; Asia Minor, 
Palestine, and Asia generally, north to Kamchatka, east to 
Japan, and south to India, Corea, and China. 

Extremely bold, swift, active on the wing and fierce, the 
Sparrow Hawk is not only a terror to small birds, but a sore 
pest to the game preserver and poultry breeder. It frequents 
not only woodlands and plains, but may also be met with in the 
mountains. It feeds chiefly on birds, and will attack a bird as 
large as itself, but its chief food consists of small and young 
birds, Wood Pigeons, young Rabbits, Leverets, etc. Its alarm 
note is a tolerably shrill kirk, kirk, kirk, and in the breeding 
season it utters a soft gu, gu, gu. It usually builds its own 
nest, a somewhat flat structure of sticks lined with finer twigs, 
placed on a tree often at a considerable altitude ; it will, 
however, occasionally make use of a deserted crow's nest. The 
eggs, 4 to 5, sometimes 6 or 7, in number, are deposited in May, 
and are white tinged with pale green or blue, more or less 
blotched and marked with chestnut-red, reddish brown, or dark 
brown, and in size average T55 by 1'27. 



749. BESRA SPARROW-HAWK. 
ACCIPITER VIRGATUS. 

Accipiter virgatus (Temm.),. PL Col. i. pi. 109 (1823) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. i. p. 150 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 404 ; Tacz. 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 110 ; A. gularis (Temm. and Schlegel), Faun. Jap. 
Aves, p. 5, pi. 2 (1850) ; A. stevensoni, Gurney, Ibis, 1863, p. 447, 
pi. xi. 



A CCIP1TERMELIERAX 533 



Besra $ , Dhoti $ , Hindu. ; Ukissa, Cing. ; Tsume, Jap. 

$ ad. (Japan). Upper parts dark slaty brown, the sides of the head 
pale greyish brown washed with rufous ; tail and quills dark banded j 
nape-feathers and scapulars white at the base ; throat white ; under parts 
pale rusty red slightly barred with white, vent and under tail-coverts 
white ; bill lead-grey, blackish at the tip ; cere pale lemon-yellow ; legs 
and feet yellow ; iris bright yellow or orange. Culmen O72, wing 6*3, tail 
5-3, tarsus 2'1 inch. Female larger (wing 7*8, tail 6'4) ; upper parts dark 
brown tinged with grey, the head blackish brown ; tail pale ashy brown 
with broad blackish bands ; under parts white broadly barred with rufous 
brown ; throat white with a broad dark median stripe. 

Hob. The Himalayas and the forests of India and Ceylon, 
north to the southern Baikal district and Dauria, east to China 
and Japan, south to the Indo-Malayan islands. 

Inhabits the forests, and is a bold courageous bird, being 
therefore held in high esteem by Indian falconers. It feeds on 
small birds, and also to some extent on lizards and insects. Its 
nest is placed in a tree and is constructed of sticks without any 
lining, and the eggs, 4 in number, are laid in May, and are white 
spotted and blotched with dark umber-brown and measure about 
1-54 by 119. 

MELIERAX, Gray, 1840. 

750. MANY-BANDED HAWK. 

MELIERAX POLYZONUS. 

Melierax polyzonus (Rlipp.), Neue Wirbelth. p. 36, taf. 15 (1835) ; 
Drake, Ibis, 1869, p. 153 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 88. 

Saqr Schikl, Arab. ; Hatkaadak, Somali. 

ad. (N. Africa). Upper parts slate-grey, the sides of the head darker ; 
larger wing-coverts and outer secondaries freckled with white ; primaries 
blackish, washed with ashy grey ; upper tail-coverts white barred with 
slate-grey ; tail blackish, but white at the extreme base and tip, the outer- 
most feathers banded with white ; throat and breast ash-grey, the rest of the 
under parts white narrowly barred with ash-grey; bill horn-black, the 
base, cere, and legs vermilion ; iris pale umber-brown. Culmen T4, wing 
12'5, tail 9'0, tarsus 3*5 inch. Female similar but rather larger. The 
young bird is dull brown above, the feathers with fulvous or rusty 
margins ; the throat whitish finely streaked with brown ; rest of the 
under parts, upper and under tail-coverts white barred with rusty brown, 
the tail greyish brown banded with dark smoky brown j bill blackish 
horn, at the base bluish ; cere olive-green ; legs yellowish red, iris dull 
brown. 

N N 2 



534 MELIERAXMIL VUS 



Hcib. Northern and north central Africa, north to Arabia 
and Morocco ; an accidental straggler south to Damaraland. 

Frequents woods, groves in the plains, gardens, and is not 
unfrequently seen near villages. Throughout its range it is a 
resident, is generally seen in pairs, and is by no means a shy 
bird. It feeds chiefly on grasshoppers, lizards, frogs, and small 
snakes, less frequently on mice or birds. Its call-note is a 
peculiar melodious whistle, which is generally to be heard in 
the pairing season. 

Its nest is built of dry sticks and is placed high up in a tree r 
and its eggs, which are laid from August to October, are said 
to be bluish white. 

Melierax gabar is said to have occurred in southern Europe,, 
but I can find no authentic instance of its appearance there. 

MILVUS, Cuv., 1800. 

751. THE KITE. 
MILVUS ICTINUS. 

Milvus ictinus, Savigny, Syst. Ois. d'Egypte, p. 28 (1810) ; Newton, 
i. p. 92 ; Dresser, v. p. 643, pi. 361 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
i. p: 319 ; Saunders, p. 335 ; Falco milvus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 
p. 126 (1766); Naurn. i. p. 333, taf. 31; M. regalis, Vieill. 
Faun. Frang. Oiseaux, p. 14, pi. 7, fig. 1 (1821) ; Gould, B. of 
Gt. Brit. i. pi. 22 ; Lilford, p. 25, pi. 13 ; M. vulgaris, Flem. 
Brit. Anim. p. 51 (1828) ; Hewitson, i. p. 36, pi. xiii. ; Gould, B. 
of E. i. pi. 28. 

Milan Eoyal, French; Milhafre, Milano, Portug. ; Milano 
real, Span. ; Nibbio, Ital. ; Eoter Milan, German ; Wouw, Dutch ; 
Glente, Dan. and Norweg. ; Glada, Swed. ; Kokkolintu, Finn. ; 
Korschun canya, Russ. ; Siwdna, Moor. ; Hadayia hamara, Arab. 

( ad. (N. Germany). Head and neck greyish white with ashy brown 
shaft-streaks ; upper parts dark brown broadly margined with rufous ; 
larger quills blackish, some of the inner secondaries with white margins on 
the inner web ; upper tail- coverts rufous ; tail deeply forked, reddish 
brown, with dark bars on the inner webs ; under parts reddish brown 
striped with dark brown, the under tail-coverts reddish white ; beak 
blackish horn, bluish at the base ; cere and legs yellow ; iris yellowish 
white. Culmen 1-9, wing 19'0, tail 14-4, tarsus 2*3 inch. Female similar 
but rather paler and larger. The young bird has 'the crown blackish 
brown marked with white, the upper parts more rufous, the tail browner 
and with obsolete dark bars, the under parts pale rusty red with yellowish 
blotches, and the lower abdomen and under tail-coverts yellowish white. 



MILVUS 535 



Hob. Europe generally, rarer in the east, north to southern 
Norway and Sweden ; rare in Finland and in Great Britain ; 
Canaries, Madeira, and north-west Africa ; southern Russia and 
Palestine. 

Heavy and somewhat sluggish in its habits, it is strong 
though not swift on the wing, and is often seen circling high up 
in the air. During the breeding season it frequents woods and 
groves, but at other times affects the open country. It feeds on 
young birds, small mammals, young hares and rabbits, lizards, 
snakes, frogs and large insects. As a rule it is a silent bird, 
but its cry is a clear heah, he, he, heah. Its nest is placed high 
up in a tree and is large, rather flat, constructed of sticks and 
lined with wool, straw, moss, rags, or an}' soft material. The 
eggs, 3, seldom 4, in number, are deposited in April or May, and 
-are white, with a few violet grey shell-markings and reddish- 
brown surface spots and blotches, and measure about 2*42 
by 1-77. 

752. BLACK KITE. 
MILVUS MIGRANS. 

Milmis migrans (Bodd), Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 28 (1783); Gould, B. of 
Gt. Brit. i. pi. 23 ; Newton, i. p. 97 ; Dresser, v. p. 651, 
pi. 362 ; Saunders, p. 337 ; Lilford, i. p. 27, pi. 14 ; Blanf. F. 
Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 378 ; 3f. ater (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. 
p. 262 (1788); Naum. i. p. 340, taf. 31, fig. 2; J/. niger, Bp. 
Comp. List, p. 4 (1838) ; M. korschun, Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. 
p. 322 (nee. Gmel.) 

Milan noir, French ; Milano negro, Span. ; Niblio nero, Ital. ; 
Schwarzer Milan, German ; Sort Glente, Dan. ; JSrun Glada, 
Swed. ; Korschun, Russ. ; Haddya, Arab. 

$ ad. (Spain). Crown, throat, sides of head, and nape white, the 
forehead narrowly, and the other parts more broadly striped with blackish 
brown ; upper parts dark hair-brown, the t hind-neck with dark stripes, 
and pale margins to some of the wing-coverts ; outer quills blackish, the 
inner ones like the back ; tail dark greyish hair-brown, obsoletely barred 
and slightly forked ; breast clove-brown with blackish stripes ; rest of 
under parts deep ferruginous, each feather with a dark shaft line ; bill 
blackish horn, yellowish at the base of the lower mandible ; cere and legs 
pale yellow ; iris yellowish grey, surrounded by a black line. Culmen 1*6, 
wing 17'0, tail 1T2, tarsus 2'25 inch. Female rather larger, darker and in 
general more rufous in tinge. The young bird is dull brown above and 
below, only rufous on the abdomen, and everywhere the feathers have 



536 MILVUS 



dull yellowish white or honey-yello\v tips giving the bird a spotted 
appearance, these tips being also larger on the crown and nape ; iris dark. 

Hob. Central and southern Europe, of rare occurrence in 
northern Europe ; has once been obtained in England ; Africa 
south to the Cape ; Cape Verde Islands ; Madagascar ; Asia as- 
far east as Afghanistan. 

As a rule it is a shyer bird than the Kite, and more .buoyant 
and graceful on the wing. It frequents woodlands, especially 
near water, and preys on frogs, fish, small mammals, and will 
also feed on offal and carrion. Its cry is a shrill whistling 
call, easily distinguishable to a practised ear from that of M. 
ictinus. Its nest resembles that of the Buzzard, and is placed 
in a tree, and the eggs, from 2 to 4 in number, are deposited 
in April or May, and resemble those of the Kite and Buzzard, 
but are as a rule smaller, averaging in size about 2*0 by 1'64. 

753. BLACK-EARED KITE. 
MILVUS MELANOTIS. 

Milvus melanotis, Temm. and Sclilegel, Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 14, pis. v. 
vb. (1850) ; Dresser, ix. p. 277 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 324 ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 46 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Incl. Birds, iii. p. 377 ; ; 
M. major, Hume, Rough Notes, ii. p. 326 (1870). 

Korschun-tscliernouchey , Russ. ; AchaJc-Koyruk-sa, Mizan-sa,. 
Turki ; Tonibi, Jap. 

< ad. (Siberia). Differs from M. migrans in having the feathers on 
the head margined with rufous brown and not white ; ear-coverts blackish ; ; 
under parts paler and less rufous in colour, and the inner webs of the 
quills white at the base, forming a conspicuous white patch on the under 
wing-surface ; bill bluish ; cere yellowish white ; iris hazel-brown ; legs 
dull china-white. Culmen 1*7, wing 19'3, tail 13*0, tarsus 2*3 inch. 

Hal). From the Perm Government in Russia across Asia to 
Japan ; in Siberia north to 64 N. Lat., south to Mongolia, 
Manchuria, Corea, China, the Himalayas, Burma, and in India 
south to Bombay in the cold season. 

Frequents jungles, groves, and marshes, and in general habits 
resembles M. migrans. and like that species feeds on frogs, fish,, 
small mammals, etc. It breeds from January to May, its 
nest and eggs being similar to those of M. migrans, the latter 
measuring about 2 '31 by 1/8. 



MIL VUS ELANUS 537 

754. YELLOW-BILLED KITE. 
MILVUS .JEGYPTIUS. 

Milvus cegyptius (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 261 (1788) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. i. p. 320 ; Dresser, v. p. 657 ; M. forskdhU (Gmel.), torn. cit. 
p. 263 ; M. parasiticits (Daud.), Traite d'Orn. ii. p. 150 (1800). 

ad. (Egypt). Besembles M. migrans, but the crown is less grey and 
more rufous in tinge, the tail is more deeply forked, and the whole bill as 
well as the cere wax-yellow. Culmen 1'5, wing 16'8, tail 11 '5, tarsus 
2-25 inch. 

Hal). Africa from the Mediterranean south to the Cape 
Colony where, however, it is rare ; Palestine ; of rare occurrence 
north of the Mediterranean in Greece and the Cyclades ; Asia 
Minor. 

In habits it resembles M. migrans, but is bolder and more 
fearless, and frequents the vicinity of towns, villages, camps, &c. 
where it feeds on carrion and offal and also on chickens, rats, 
large insects, and reptiles. It nests on trees, ruins, cliffs, &c., 
making a somewhat loosely constructed nest of sticks lined 
with rags, or any available soft material. The eggs, 2 to 3 in 
number, resemble those of M. migrans, but are a trifle smaller 
and more sparingly marked. 

ELANUS, Savigny, 1810. 

755. BLACK-WINGED KITE. 
ELANUS OflERULEUS. 

Elanus cceruleus (Desf.), Mem. Acad. R. des Sciences, 1787, p. 503, pi. 15 j 
Shelley, B. of Egypt, p. 198 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 336 ; 
Dresser, r. p. 663, pL 363 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 379 ; 
E. melanopterus (Daud.), Traite d'Orn. ii. p. 152 (1800) ; (Naum.), 
xiii. Taf. 347 ; Gould, B. of E. i. pi. 31. 

Aisha-hemika, Moor. ; Saqer el Baz, Kuhieli, Arab. ; Kapassi, 
Hind. ; UTcussa, Cing. 

<J ad. (Egypt). Forehead, lores, a line over the eye, and sides of the 
head white ; feathers round the eye and eyelashes black ; upper parts light 
ashy grey, the tail paler, the outer tail-feathers white ; quills white at 
extreme "base, darker towards the tip ; lesser and median wing-coverts and 
a patch on the outer edge of the wing black ; under parts white ; bill 
bluish horn ; cere and legs yellow ; iris carmine ; tarsus feathered in front 
about half its length. Culmen I/O, wing 11 '6, tail 5'5, tarsus 1-45 inch. 
Female similar. The young bird has the upper parts brown marked with 



F 

THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 



538 ELANUS PERNIS 

rufous and tipped with white, the tail dull ashy grey tipped with white ; 
under parts white, the breast washed with rufous, and slightly streaked 
with fulvous ; iris dull yellowish. 

Hob. The whole of Africa; of rare occurrence in Southern 
Europe (Greece, Spain, Portugal, and France) ; has occurred in 
Germany, Belgium, and has been said to have once been 
obtained in Ireland ; Palestine ; South-western Asia, India, 
Ceylon, and Burma. 

In habits it is said to somewhat resemble the Harriers ; it 
inhabits well wooded cultivated districts, the borders of the 
forest, groves, &c., and is to some extent crepuscular. It feeds 
chiefly on insects, but also on small mammals. Its flight is 
peculiar and varied, and reminds one somewhat of a Gull. In 
North Africa it breeds in March or April and in India at 
almost all seasons, and probably breeds twice in the year. 
The nest is a loose structure of twigs, unlined, or sometimes 
lined with grass, and is placed at some height in a tree. The 
eggs, 3 to 4 in number, are white or yellowish white, richly 
blotched with dark fox-red, and measure about T55 by 1*22. 

PERNIS, Cuvier, 1817. 

756. HONEY BUZZARD. 

PERNIS APIVORUS. 

Pernis apivorus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 130 (1766) ; (Naum.), i. p. 367, 
Taf. 35, 36 ; Hewitson, i. p. 40, pi. xv. ; Gould, B. of E. i. pi. 16 ; 
id. B. of Gt. Brit. i. pi. 9 ; Newton, i. p. 121 ; Dresser, vi. p. 3, pis. 364, 
365, 366 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 344 ; Saunders, p. 339 ; 
Lilforcl, i. p. 21, pis. 11, 12; P. a. orientalis, Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 50. 

BUM "boudrte, French ; Aguila de Moros, Span. ; Falco pecchia- 
juolo, Ital, ; Wespenbussard, German ; Wespendief, Dutch ; 
Hvepsevaage, Dan. ; Hvepsehog, Norweg. ; Itivrdk, Swed. ; 
Mehilaishaukka, Finn. ; Osojed, Mishelovka-pchelojadnaya, Russ. ; 
KhabciB el gram, Moor. 

$ ad. (Germany). Crown and sides of head pale ashy blue, nape 
brownish ; upper parts dark earth-brown, the back tinged with grey ; 
quills tipped with blackish brown ; tail greyish brown with dark brown 
bands ; under parts white, the sides of the breast blotched with brown ; 
bill blackish horn ; cere yellowish at base, otherwise blackish ; edge of 
gape, legs, and iris yellow. Culmen T35, wing 15'8, tail ll'O, tarsus 2*0 inch. 
The old female has the head and nape brown, the throat buffy whit e 



PERNIS FALCO 539 



striped with dark brown, and the rest of the under parts white, broadly 
and closely barred with deep brown. The young bird has the head and 
neck white, slightly marked with dark brown ; upper parts dark brown 
varied with white ; under parts white, the breast with dark shaft stripes ; 
another specimen is almost uniform dark chocolate-brown. 

Hob. Europe generally, north to Lapland, but rarely ; southern 
and central Scandinavia ; Great Britain ; North Africa in winter. 

In general habits it differs from the true Buzzard, is a 
slighter bird, and has a comparatively longer tail. It feeds 
almost exclusively on insects, chiefly on the larvae of wasps and 
bees, but is said by Naumann to feed on buds and vegetable 
matter in the spring and to plunder other birds' nests. Its call- 
note is a shrill kee, kee, kee, but as a rule it is a silent bird. 
Its nest is placed in a tree and is constructed of sticks, lined 
with fresh green foliage. The eggs, 2 to 3, rarely 4, in number, 
-are deposited late in May or in June, and are white so richly 
blotched with rich reddish brown that the ground-colour is 
obscured ; or else marbled with reddish brown on a rich fox- 
red ground, and, measure about 2*3 by 1*64. 



FALCO, Linn., 1766. 

757. GYRFALCON. 
FALCO GYRFALCO. 

Falco gyrfalco, Linn. Syst. Nat, i. p. 130 (1766) ; Naum. xiii. taf. 391 ; 
Gould, B. of Gt. B. i. pi. 16 ; Newton, Ooth. Wolley. p. 87, pi. vfii. 
tab. C. ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 416 ; Dresser, vi. p. 15, pi. 
367 ; Saunders, p. 345 ; Lilford, i. p. 29, pi. 15 ; F. rusticolus gyrfalco, 
Kidgway, p. 246. 

Jagdfalke, German ; Jagtfalk, Dan., Norweg., and Swed. ; 
Eiefsakfalle, Lapp. ; Tunturivalli, Finn. ; Kr edict, Russ. 

$ ad. (Norway). Upper parts dark slate-grey barred with light blue 
.grey, in some places nearly white ; head blackish grey with whitish 
markings on the nape and sides of the neck ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
clear blue-grey barred with slate-blue ; quills dark brown externally 
mottled with grey, the inner webs white with dark bars ; tail slaty brown 
barred with blue-grey and tipped with white ; a broad moustachial stripe 
slaty brown ; under parts white, the breast and abdomen with dark drop- 
shaped stripes, the flanks and under tail- coverts barred with slaty brown ; 
bill blue, becoming black towards the tip ; cere, edge of eyelid, and feet 
yellow ; iris nearly black. Culmen T35, wing 13'6, tail 8'5, tarsus 2'4 inch. 
Female similar but larger. The young bird has the head and neck buffy 



540 FALCO 



white striped with dark brown, the upper parts dark brown with buffy 
white margins, the under parts white, on the throat narrowly and other- 
wise broadly and closely striped with dark brown, sometimes so closely 
that scarcely any white is visible. 

Hob. Northern Scandinavia and Lapland, rarely straying 
down to continental Europe ; has once or twice been obtained 
in England ; of doubtful occurrence in North Asia ; Arctic 
North America. 

Inhabits rocky localities and is a bold powerful bird, swift 
on the wing, and when caught and trained highly esteemed 
for falconry purposes being docile and courageous. It feeds 
on small mammals, such as squirrels, lemmings, &c., and 
birds, especially Willow Grouse and Ptarmigan. Its nest, 
which is constructed of sticks sparingly lined with grass, is 
placed on a rock or a tree, sometimes even on the ground, and 
in April or May 3 to 4 eggs are deposited, which are somewhat 
finer in texture of shell than those of F. islandus, and are sa 
closely spotted or freckled with fox-red or reddish orange on a 
dull white ground that the ground-colour is often entirely 
obscured. In size they measure about 2*29 by 1/81. 

758. GREENLAND FALCON. 
FALCO CANDICANS. 

Falco candicans, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 275 (1788) ; Naum. i. p. 269, Taf.. 
21 ; Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. i. pis. xiii., xiv., xv. ; Newton, i. p. 36 ;, 
(Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 411 ; Dresser, vi. p. 21, pis. 368,. 
369 ; Saunders, p. 341 ; Lilford, i. p. 36, pi. 18 ; Falco islandicus,. 
Lath. Ind. Orn. i. p. 32 (1790) ; Audubon, B. Am. pi. 366 ; Gould,, 
B. of E. i. pi. 19 ; F. islandus, Ridg. p. 244 (nee. Gmel.) ; F. holboelli* 
Sharpe, P.Z.S. 1873, p. 415 ; (id.), Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 415,, 
pi. xiii. 

Kirksoviarsuk-kakortuin ak, Green 1 . 

ad. (Greenland). General colour white, the feathers on the upper 
parts marked with a wide V-shaped black spot towards the tip, quills 
marked with black towards the tip ; tail pure white, under parts slightly 
striated with black on the lower flanks ; bill yellowish, becoming horn- 
blue towards the tip ; legs yellowish ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1'3, 
wing 14'0, tail 8*2, tarsus 2 '7 5 inch. Female similar but larger. The. 
young birds are more or less striped, with broad almost drop-shaped 
blackish brown markings above, and the head and under parts with narrow 
stripes, and the tail is more or less marked with blackish brown ; bill pale 
horn-blue ; legs greyish blue. 



FALCO 541 



Hob. Greenland, straying south to North-west Europe and 
Northern North America, and also found, though rarely, in 
Northern Asia. 

In habits it does not differ from F. gyrfalco, and though like 
that bird strong and swift on the wing it is not held in such 
esteem by falconers as the Gyrfalcon, though in the times when 
falconry was a royal sport, trained birds were of great value 
chiefly for their beauty. It nests on cliffs, its nest and eggs 
resembling those of F. gyrfalco, but the latter are as a rule 
somewhat rougher in texture of shell. 

759. ICELAND FALCON. 

FALCO ISLANDUS. 

Falco islandns, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 271 (1788) ; Naum. i. Taf. 22, 
figs. 1, 2, Taf. 390, fig. 2 ; Hewitson, i. p. 22, pi. vii. ; Gould, B. of 
Gt. Brit. i. pis. 11, 12 ; Newton, i. p. 46 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
i. p. 414, pi. 13, left figure ; Dresser, vi. p. 25, pis. 370, 371 ; 
Saunders, p. 343 ; Lilford, i. p. 31, pis. 16, 17 ; F. rusticolus, Riclg. 
p. 245. 

Falkiy Veidifalki, Valur, Icel. ; Fdlkur, Fseroe ; Islandsk-Falk y 
Dan. 

(J ad. (Iceland). Head and nape dull white striped with slaty black,, 
tipper parts dark brownish slate, barred with buffy white ; the rump and 
upper tail-coverts dull slate-blue, barred with blue-grey ; quills slate-black 
on the outer web marked, and on the inner web barred with buffy white ; 
tail ash-grey barred with brownish slate and tipped with white ; chin and 
upper throat white ; rest of under parts white, the lower throat streaked 
with blackish brown, the breast and abdomen with blackish streaks 
terminating with a drop-shaped spot, the upper flanks with heart-shaped 
marks, the lower flanks and under tail-coverts with bars ; bill horn-blue, 
darker at the tip ; cere and legs yellow ; iris dark brown. Culmen T35, 
wing 14*5, tail 8*9, tarsus 2*3 inch. Female similar but larger. The young 
bird differs from that of F. gyrfalco in having the head lighter, in lacking 
the blackish moustachial streak, and in having the back and tail less marked 
with lighter colour. 

Hob. Iceland and southern Greenland, straying occasionally 
to continental Europe, Great Britain, and the East coast of 
North America. 

In habits it does not differ from F. gyrfalco. Its eggs, 3 
to 4 in number, are laid in May and are yellowish clay- 
coloured, very closely marked with reddish orange, but some 



542 FALCO 



are white somewhat sparingly blotched with reddish orange, 
whilst others are more profusely blotched with dull, almost 
chestnut-red. In size they measure about 2 '28 by 1'81. 

Of Hierofalco uralensis, Severtz and Menzbier (Orn. Geogr. 
Europ. Ross. i. p. 288, 1882) (H. grebnitzkii, Severtz) which 
appears to be very similar to, if not identical with, the present 
species or F. gyrfalco, I have not been able to examine a 
specimen. 

760. LORENZ'S GYRFALCON. 
FALCO LORENZI. 

Falco lorenzi, Menzbier, Bull. B. 0. Club, xi. p. 3 (1900). 

ad. Eesembles the northern Gyrfalcons in its plumage, the general colour 
of the upper parts being bluish, and it is barred like them, but it has the 
tarsus bare on more than half its length as in F. milvipes y to which it is 
said to be nearly allied, but differs conspicuously in colour. 

Hob. Tomsk and Yeneseisk in Siberia. 

Nothing is known respecting this bird except that three 
specimens were obtained in winter in the above named 
localities. 

761. ALTAI GYRFALCON. 
FALCO ALTAICUS. 

Falco altaicus (Menzbier), Orn. Turkest. p. 272 (1891). 

ad. Differs from F. gyrfalco in having the upper parts reddish brown 
washed with ash, the under parts ochraceous with tear-shaped dark brown 
stripes ; tail brown, tipped with pale ochreous, the two middle feathers un- 
barred, the rest with indistinct oval transverse reddish brown spots ; 
tarsus bare for more than half its length; bill bluish horn, yellowish at 
the base ; cere and legs yellow. The young female differs from F. gyrfalco 
in having the crown, head, and upper parts dark brown with a few obsolete 
d,ull buff spots and bars, the tail barred with greyish buff, the under parts 
brown, the flanks and thighs barred, the rest of the under parts spotted 
and striped with buffy white. Culmen 2'0, wing 14*6, tail 9' 10, 
tarsus 2-2 inch. 

Hob. The mountain ranges bordering the plateau of Central 
Asia on the north and west. 

I find nothing on record about the habits and nidification of 
this bird, but an egg, obtained in the Altai mountains with the 
parent bird, and now in my collection, resembles dark eggs of 
F. candicans, but is smaller, measuring 2*16 by 1'67. 



FALCO 543 



762. SAKER. 
FALCO CHERRUG. 

Fulco cJierrug, J. E. Gray in Harchv. 111. Ind. Zool. ii. pi. 25 (1833-34) ; 
Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 420 ; F. sacer, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. 
p. 273 (1788 nee. Forst.) ; Gould, B. of Asia, i. pi. 5 ; Dresser, vi. 
p. 59, pi. 376 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 417 ; F. lanarius, 
Pall. Zoogr. Eoss. As. i. p. 330 (1811 nee. Gmel.) ; Naum. i. p. 279, 
Taf. 23 ; Gould, B. of E. i. pi. 20 ; F. cyanopus, Thienem. Rhea, i. 
p. 62, Taf. 1, 2 (1846). 

Faucon sacre, French; II sacro, Ital. ; Wiirgfalke, German; 
Slagfalk, Swed. ; Balcibann, Russ. ; Dughdn, Turk. ; Uetdlgi, 
Tartar ; Bas, Chark, Pers. ; Saqer-el-hor, Arab. ; Charg $ , 
Chargela $ , Hindu. 

$ ad. (S. Russia). Crown and nape white tinged with rufous brown, 
and striped with blackish brown ; upper parts generally dark earth-brown 
with pale fulvous margins ; quills dark brown barred with white on the 
inner web ; tail brown marked with buffy white oval spots, the middle 
feathers sometimes uniform brown ; sides of head, chin, throat, and breast 
white, the first sparingly striped, the others with a few spots of blackish 
brown, moustachial stripe ill defined ; rest of under parts white, more or 
less striped with elongated spots of blackish brown, sometimes almost un- 
marked ; bill bluish horn, paler at the base ; cere and legs yellow ; iris dark 
brown. Culmen 1*0, wing 14'0, tail 8'0, tarsus 2*35 inch. Female similar 
but larger. The young bird has the head and nape buffy white closely 
streaked with blackish brown ; upper parts darker than the adult ; upper 
tail-coverts with broad dull rufous and buffy white margins ; moustachial 
stripe well defined ; chin white ; under parts buffy white closely and 
broadly striped with blackish brown ; cere and legs pale blue-grey ; iris 
dark brown. 

Hob. Eastern and south-eastern Europe, rarely straying west ; 
not visiting Great Britain ; has once occurred in Scandinavia ; 
North-east Africa; Asia minor and Palestine (rare); Central 
Asia and Persia to N.W. India and China. 

Is a frequenter of the plains and desert, and preys on 
lizards, small mammals, and birds. For falconry purposes it is 
highly esteemed and used to hawk gazelles, hares, bustards, &c. 
It nests in trees, rarely in rocks, and builds a tolerably well 
constructed, but not a large, nest of sticks, lined with finer 
twigs, grass, wool, &c., and in April lays 2 to 4 eggs, some- 
what elongated oval in shape, richly marked and blotched with 
dull or dark red on a white or yellowish white ground, in size 
averaging 210 by T62. 



544 FALCO 



763. SHANGHAR FALCON. 
FALCO MILVIPES. 

Falco milvipes, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 81 (1844) ; Jerdon, Ibis. 
1871, p. 240; Dresser, ix. p. 281, pi. 377; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iii. p. 421 ; F. hendersoni, Hume, Ibis. 1871, p. 240 ; id. Lah. 
to Yark., p. 171. pi. 1. 

Aitalgu, Turki ; Chark, Pers. 

ad. (Asia Minor). Differs from F. sacer in having the upper parts 
rufous conspicuously barred with dark brown, the tail also similarly 
barred, and not marked with spots. The young bird has the bars irregular 
and ill denned, those on the tail more or less imperfect. 

Nab. Transcaspia ; Central Asia ; Afghanistan and the 
Punjab (rare) ; Mongolia ; the Pamir ; Tibet ; Yarkand ; has 
occurred as far west as Tarsus, Tin 1 is, and Athens. 

In habits it does not appear to differ from F. cherrug, and 
frequents also plains and the desert. Unlike the Saker it is not 
considered good for falconry purposes. It was found breeding 
in Transcaspia on the Afghan frontier by Messrs. Radde and 
Walter, who say that the nest was scantily formed, and was 
placed on the point of a precipice, and contained young birds. 

764. PEREGRINE FALCON. 
FALCO PEREGRINUS. 

Falco peregrinus, Tunstall, Orn. Brit. p. 1 (1771) ; Naum. i. p. 285, Taf. 
24, 25 ; Hewitson, i. p. 24, pi. viii. ; Gould, B. of E. i. pi, 21 ; id. 
B. of Gt. Brit. i. pi. 17 ; Newton, i. p. 53 ; Dresser, vi. p..31,pl. 372 ; 
Kidg. p. 247 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 413; Saunders, 
p. 347 ; Lilford, i. p. 40, pis. 19, 20 ; F. communis, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 
i. p. 270 (1788) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 376 ; Tacz. F. 0. 
Sib. 0. p. 77 ; F. anatum, Bp. Comp. List, p. 4 (1838). 

Faucon p&lerin, French; Falcao, Portug. ; Alcon, Span.; 
Falcone, Ital. ; Tauten Falke, Wander Falke, German ; Valk, 
Dutch ; Vandrefalk, Dan. ; Pilegrimsfalk, Norweg. ; Pilgrimsfalk, 
Swed. ; Rievsakfalle, Lapp. ; Muuttohaukka, Pieni- Valli, Finn. ; 
Sapsan, SoJcol, Russ. ; Teir-el-hor, Moor. ; Tschakyr, Arab. ; 
Bhyri $ , Bhyri-lacha, Hindu. ; Hayabusa, Jap. 

< ad. (Germany). Crown, nape, space round the eye and a broad 
mystacal stripe sooty black ; upper parts generally dark slate-blue, paler 
and bluer on the rump and upper tail-coverts, with darker bars ; quills 



FALCO 545 



greyish black narrowly tipped with white, and with oblong greyish white 
spots or bars on the inner web ; tail blackish with slate-blue bars, becoming 
darker towards the end and narrowly tipped with brownish white ; under 
parts warm buffy white, the throat and upper breast striped, the rest of the 
under parts boldly barred with blackish ; bill bluish horn, bluer at the 
base ; cere and legs yellow ; iris brown. Culmen I'l, wing ]2'2, tail 6'4. 
tarsus 2*2 inch. Female similar but larger. In the young bird the black on 
the head and neck is tinged with brown ; crown and nape marked with 
dull white and rufous white; upper parts dark brown with paler 
margins ; tail dark greyish brown, tipped with white and irregularly 
barred with rufous buff ; under parts white, tinged with rufous buff and 
broadly striped with blackish brown ; cere and feet bluish. 

Hob. Europe generally, from Lapland to the Mediterranean, 
Greenland, the Faroes ; Great Britain ; Canaries ; Africa 
south to Natal ; Asia generally, from Kamchatka to China, 
Manilla, India, Borneo, Java, and Sumatra, east to Japan ; 
America from the high north to Argentina ; the West Indies. 

This, one of our most active and powerful falcons, frequents 
rocks, woods, and mountainous localities, and will occasionally 
visit cities and villages in pursuit of pigeons. As a rule it 
prefers the vicinity of water and is often to be met with on the 
sea-coast. It preys on pigeons, game-birds, water-fowl of 
various kinds, small mammals, &c. Its call is a loud clear 
kaak, kaak, kaak, but is not often heard except in the breeding 
season. It nests on the ledge of a rock, on a tree, or even on 
the ground, making a scanty nest or utilizing that of some 
other bird, and in March or April 4, sometimes only 3, eggs are 
deposited. These are usually dull brick-red in ground-colour 
closely spotted or dotted with reddish brown or dark red, but 
some are blotched with rich rufous on a reddish or yellowish 
or even on a nearly pure white ground. In size they average 
about 2'03 by T61, but American eggs, as a rule, are rather 
larger. The Peregrine exhibits great attachment to its nesting 
place, and will occupy the same site for many years in 
succession. 

765. LESSER PEREGRINE. 
FALCO PUNICUS. 

Falco punicus, Levaill. junr. Expl. Alger. Atlas, Ois. pi. I (1850) ; Irby, 
Orn. Str. Gibr. p. 191, pi. 9 ; F. minor, Dresser, vi. p. 43, pi. 373 
(nee. Bp.) ; F. brookei, Sharpe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. xi. p. 20 

(1873). 

$ ad. (Morocco). Differs from F. peregrinus in being smaller, the 
under parts more ruddy in colour, and in having the legs and feet much 



546 FALCO 



more slender. Culmen V05, wing ll'O, tail 5'4, tarsus 1-75 inch. Female 
similar and scarcely larger. The young bird resembles that of F. peregrinus 
but is smaller, has the upper parts paler, and the striations on the under 
parts narrower and more profuse. 

Hob. North Africa ; Rhodes ; Asia Minor rarely. 

In habits and nidification this species does not appear to 
differ from F. peregrinus. 

766. BARBARY FALCON. 
FALCO BARBARUS. 

Falco barbarus, Linn. Syst. Nat. 1 p. 125 (1766) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
i. p. 386 ; Dresser, iii. p. 47, pi. 347 ; Shelley, B. of Egypt, p. 187 ; 
Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 417 ; F. pelegrinoides, Temm. PI, 
Col. 479 (1824) ; F. lalylonicus, Gurney, Ibis, 1861, p. 218, pi. vii. 

Bourni, Arab. ; Shdhin, Safed ShaJiin, Hindu. 

$ ad. (N. Africa). Upper parts paler and greyer than in F. peregrinus^ 
the head lighter ; nape rusty red, blotched with blackish slate ; under parts 
creamy white, tinged with rufous ; throat and breast unmarked ; flanks 
and lower abdomen faintly barred with blackish ; soft parts as in F. pere- 
grinus. Culmen 0*9, wing ll'O, tail 5 '5, tarsus T7, middle toe with claw 
2*0 inch. Male similar, but somewhat smaller. The young bird resembles 
that of F.jpunicus. 

Hob. Northern Africa, straying rarely to the northern shores 
of the Mediterranean ; South-west and Central Asia ; North- 
West India as far south as Nerbudda, and as far east as Oude 
in winter. 

In habits it resembles the Peregrine, and being bold, strong, 
and docile is highly esteemed by falconers. It frequents open 
dry country, and nests in cliffs and also in old buildings, its 
eggs resembling those of the Peregrine, but are smaller. Birds 
from Asia (F. labyloniciis) are as a rule rather larger in size. 

767. LANNER. 
FALCO FELDEGGI. 

Falco feldeggi, Schlegel, Abh. Geb. Zool. p. 3, Taf. 10, 11 (1841) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 389 ; Dresser, vi. p. 51, pi. 375 ; F. 
lanarius, Schlegel, Kev. Crit. p. 2 (1894 nee. Pall.) ; Gould, B. of 
As. i. pi. 6 ; F. erlangeri, Kleinschmidt, Aquila, 1901, p. 33. 

Feldeggsfalke, Germ, ; Lanario, Ital. ; Sager-schdhin Ttiir el 
H6r, Arab. 



FALCO 547 



ad. (Egypt). Forehead dull white ; crown and nape pale creamy 
rufous, finely striated with blackish, the lower nape blotched with brown ; 
forepart of back and wing-coverts dull slaty brown, barred and tipped with 
buffy ash-grey, becoming slaty ash, barred with ash-blue on the lower 
back and upper tail-coverts ; quills ashy black, barred with white on the 
inner web ; tail ashy brown, closely banded with ashy grey, and tipped 
with buffy white ; space round the eye and an irregular stripe to the nape 
deep brown ; moustache small and narrow ; chin and upper throat white ; 
rest of under parts butfy white, with drop-shaped blackish brown spots and 
stripes ; bill pale horn at base, dark horn at tip ; cere and legs yellow ; 
iris brown. Culmen 1-2, wing 13'15, tail 7'3, tarsus 2*0 inch. Female 
similar but larger. The young bird has the crown paler, striped with 
blackish brown, the upper parts dull brown, with paler margins, the tail 
greyish brown, the outer feathers irregularly barred, and tipped with white > 
the under parts white, the breast and abdomen^ broadly striped with dark 
brown ; legs dull plumbeous, tinged with yellow. 

Hob. Southern Europe, rarely straying further north ; North 
Africa ; Asia Minor (rare) ; Palestine. 

Does not differ appreciably from its allies in general habits ; 
it frequents plains, rocky localities, as also groves, lagoons, and 
marshes when water-fowl are found in any numbers. With the 
Arabs it is held in high esteem for falconry purposes, though 
European falconers consider it as inferior to the Peregrine. As 
a rule it nests in the rocks, and has, in Egypt, been found 
breeding on the pyramids, and in Spain in trees, having taken 
possession of a deserted nest of some other large bird. When 
placed on a rock its nest is scanty, being merely a little material 
collected together. Its 4 eggs, which are usually deposited in 
April, closely resemble those of the Saker, but are as a rule 
darker ; in size they average 213 by T59. Examples from 
N.W. Africa (F. erlangeri) are as a rule paler, and less marked 
with blackish, especially on the crown. 

768. MERLIN. 
FALCO ^BSALON. 

Falco cesalon, Tunstall, Orn. Brit. p. i. (1771) ; Naum. i. p. 303, Taf. 27 ; 
Hewitson, i. p. 30, pi. x. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of E. i. pi. 24 ; id. B. of 
Gt. Brit. i. pi. 19 ; Newton, i. p. 74 ; Dresser, vi. p. 83, pis. 380, 
381 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 87 ; Saunders, p. 351 ; Lilford, i. 
p. 50, pis. 24, 25 ; F. regulus, Pall. Eeise, ii . Anhang, p. 707 
(1773) ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 34 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. i. p. 406 ; (Blanf.), F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 426 ; F. litho- 
falco ; Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 278 (1788). 

Faucon ]$m6rillon, French ; Ssmerefon, Span, ; Smeriglw, 
Ital. ; Zwergfalke, Germ. ; Smelleken, Dutch ; Steenfalk, Dvcergfalk, 

o o 



548 FALGO 



Dan. and Norweg. ; DvergfaXk, Swed. ; PikJcuhaukka, Pouta- 
haukka, Finn. ; Cicasfalli, Lapp. ; Derbnic, Russ. ; Juju, Arab. ; 
Dourai $ , Dourela $ , Hindu. ; Kocho-genbo, Jap. 

ad. (Scotland). Crown and upper parts clear slate-blue, with blackish 
shaft lines ; a collar and sides of neck pale rufous, with dark lines ; quills 
blackish, with white bars on the inner web ; tail paler than the back, with 
a broad subterminal black band, and with indistinct basal bars ; sides of 
head dull white, with fine blackish stripes ; chin and upper throat white ; 
rest of under parts white, washed with rufous and striped with blackish 
brown, the thigh-feathers more rufous ; bill bluish horn, {darker at the 
tip j legs and cere yellow ; iris dark brown. Culmen 0'7, wing 7'9, 
tail 5 '3, tarsus 1*45 inch. Female larger and differing in having the upper 
parts dark brown, with a greyish tinge, with black shaft-stripes, edged and 
spotted with reddish brown ; tail dark brown, with rufous buff bands and 
tipped with buffy white ; chin and upper throat white ; rest of under 
parts whitish, broadly striped with brown. The young resemble the 
female, but males are a little greyer on the tail and rump. 

Hob. Europe generally, from Iceland and Northern Scandi- 
navia to Great Britain ; southern Europe and North Africa in 
winter, south to Nubia ; Asia east to Corea, north to Northern 
Siberia, south to Northern India, Mongolia, China and Japan 
in winter. 

Frequents moors, rocks, and more open places than the 
Hobby, and is a bold and game bird, swift and active on the 
wing, preying chiefly on small birds and mammals, but it also 
feeds to some extent on insects. It generally nests on the 
ground, but in some countries sometimes makes use of the 
nest of some other bird in trees. When constructed by the 
bird itself the nest is flat and not large, built of sticks and 
heather. The eggs, from 4 to 6 in number, are dull brick-red 
closely spotted and mottled with dark brownish red, sometimes 
faintly tinted with purple, and in size average 1'55 by 1*21. 

769. HOBBY. 
FALCO SUBBUTEO. 

Falco subbuteo, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 127 (1766) ; Naum. i. p. 296, Taf. 
26 ; Hewitson, i. p. 26, pi. ix. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of. E. i. pi. 22 ; id. 
B. of Gt. Brit. pi. 18 ; Newton, i. p. 65 ; Dresser, vi. p. 69, pis. 378, 
379 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 395 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. O. p. 84 ; 
Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 422 ; Saunders, p. 349 ; Lilford, i. 
p. 44, pis. 20, 21. 

Le Hobereau, French ; ' Alcotdn, Span. ; Falcao tagarote, 
Portug. ; Lodolajo, Ital. ; Lerchenfalke, Germ. ; Boomvalk, 



FALCO 549 



Dutch ; Larkefalk, Dan ; Larkfalk, Swed. ; Leivohaukka, Finn. ; 
Tscheglok, Sokol-Bielogorlik, Russ. ; Morassani, Oude ; Chigo- 
haydbusa i Jap. 

$ ad. (Finland). Upper parts dark slate-grey, clearer on the rump 
and upper tail-coverts, darker and often tinged with brown on the head ; 
lores, supercilium, and an ill-defined nuchal collar, buffy white, the last 
inclining to ferruginous ; quills black, on the inner web irregularly barred 
with rufous ; tail slate-grey, all but the two middle feathers barred on the 
inner web and tipped with ferruginous ; cheek and moustache black, the 
chin and sides of the neck warm creamy white ; rest of the under parts 
creamy white, the breast and flanks striped with black ; under wing- 
coverts and axillaries buffy white, the former striped, the latter barred 
with blackish brown ; thighs and under tail-coverts rich rust-red ; bill 
light blue-black, yellowish at the base ; cere and legs yellow ; iris brown. 
Culmen 0'7, wing lO'O, tail G'O, tarsus I'l 'inch. Female similar but 
larger. The young bird has the upper parts blackish brown, with fulvous 
margins, the under parts fulvous white, the breast and flanks blotched and 
striped with blackish brown, the lower abdomen becoming rufescent 
fulvous, also streaked and mottled. 

Hob. A summer visitor to the British Islands and Northern 
Europe up to about 65 N. ; the Canaries ; Africa south to 
the Cape Colony ; Asia Minor and Asia east to China, Corea, 
and Japan, north to Kamchatka, south to the Himalayas and 
the plains of India. In South Africa it is replaced by 
F. cuvieri, Smith, and in India and the Malay Archipelago by 
F. severus, Horsf. 

Frequents woodlands and groves and is to some extent 
crepuscular in its habits. Its food consists largely of insects 
of various kinds, but it is swift on the wing and bold, and 
frequently preys on small birds. It is a late breeder and generally 
makes use of the deserted nest of a crow or some other large 
bird, and in June deposits 3 to 5 eggs, which on a yellowish 
white ground are closely covered with yellowish red spots and 
blotches, which but seldom become rufous like the eggs of the 
Kestrel. In size they average 1'62 by 1*31. 



770. ELEONORA'S FALCON. 
FALCO ELEONORJE. 

Falco eleonorce, Gene, Rev. Zool. 1839, p. 105 ; (Gurney), Ibis, 1869, 
p. 445, pi. xvi. ; Dresser, vi. p. 103, pi. 383 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. i. p. 404 ; F. arcadicus, Linderm. Isis, 1843, p. 329, Taf. 1 ; 
F. dichrous, Erhard, Naumannia, 1858, p. 25. 

oo2 



550 FALCO 



Falco della Regina, Ital. ; Barbdki, Warwakwn, Greek. 

$ ad. (Cyclades). General colour dark slate-grey, tinged with brown 
on the upper parts, rather clearer on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; 
quills blackish brown, washed with slate ; tail slate-colour, the outer 
feathers slightly barred with dull blackish ; under parts blackish grey, 
tinged with rufous here and there, the thighs and under tail-coverts clear 
dark slate-colour ; beak horn-blue, paler at the base ; cere pale greenish 
yellow; legs pale lemon-yellow; iris brown. Culmen 0*75, wing 11'9, 
tail 7 '5, tarsus 1-3 inch. Female dusky brown above, tinged with slate, 
the nape tinged with rufous ; tail slate-grey, tipped with fulvous, and 
thickly barred with rufous and dusky ; orbital region, lores, and mous- 
tache black ; hind-cheeks and throat rich buff ; under parts buff, becoming 
rufous on the abdomen, and striped with black ; thighs deep chestnut, 
with black shaft-stripes ; legs and feet greenish yellow. Culmen 0'85, 
wing 12'9, tail 7 '5, tarsus 1*4 inch. The young bird resembles the female, 
but the feathers on the upper parts are margined with pale rufous ; cheeks, 
under parts, and thighs pale rufous buff, the dark markings well defined. 

Hal. The islands in the Mediterranean, rarer on the south 
shores of Europe; North-west and West Africa, south to 
Madagascar; Palestine, Syria. 

Frequents rocky localities, and in general habits resembles 
F. siibluteo. Its call-note is a not very loud keJc, JceJc, or wek, 
wek, wek. On the wing it is swift and active, and is recognizable 
by its long wings. It preys chiefly on small birds of various 
kinds, but also on insects and reptiles. It makes no nest, but 
deposits its eggs late in July or in August on the ledge of 
a cliff or on the ground. These are 2 or 3 in number, and 
resemble those of F. subbuteo, and measure about 1*68 by T32. 

771. RED-LEGGED FALCON. 
FALCO VESPERTINUS. 

Falco vespertinus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 129 (1766) ; Hewitson, i. p. 28, 
pi. ix. figs. 2, 3 ; (Gould), B. of Gt. Brit. i. pi. 20 ; Newton, i. p. 69, 
Dresser, vi. p. 93, pi. 382 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 443 ; 
(Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. O. p. 90 ; Saunders, p. 353 ; Lilford, i. p. 45, 
pi. 23 ; F. rufipes, Beseke, Vog. Kurl. p. 20, Taf. 3, 4 (1792) ; 
Naum. i. p. 311, Taf. 28 ; Gould, B. of E. i. pi. 23. 

Faucon Jcobez, French; Falco cuculo, Ital.; Rotfussfalke 
Germ. ; Rodfodfalk, Dan. ; Rodbent Folk, Swed. ; Punajalka- 
haukka, Finn. ; Kdbtschik, Russ. ; Kirght, Tartar. 

$ ad. (Malta). Entire upper parts dark plumbeous, paler on the wing- 
coverts ; quills silver-grey above, black below ; tail black ; under parts 



FALCO 551 



blue-grey ; thighs, vent, and under tail-coverts rich chestnut ; under wing- 
coverts greyish black ; bill horn-colour, blackish at tip ; cere, bare space 
round the eye, and legs bright brownish red ; iris bright brown. Cul- 
men 0'75, wing 9*7, tail 5'8, tarsus I'O inch. The female has the head, 
neck, and sides of neck rufous ; upper parts and tail ashy grey, barred 
with darker grey ; quills ashy grey, barred with reddish white on the 
inner web ; throat and cheeks white, tinged with rufous ; moustache and 
rest of under parts, with the under wing-coverts rufous like the head ; soft 
parts duller than in the male. The young bird resembles the female, but 
is paler, the head and under parts considerably paler, the forehead hoary 
white, and the crown dark striped. 

Hob. Europe generally, up to Sweden and Archangel, rarer 
in the west; a somewhat rare visitor to Great Britain, has 
once occurred in Ireland, and has strayed to the Canaries; 
Africa south to Damaraland in winter ;* Asia Minor, western 
and central Asia, becoming rare further east, but has occurred 
as far east as the Baikal district. 

In habits it resembles the Kestrel more than the Hobby. 
It affects groves and the open country rather than the forest, 
and feeds chiefly on insects of various kinds, occasionally 
however capturing small birds. Its note is a clear, shrill hi, 
uttered several times in succession. It breeds in trees, 
frequently taking possession of deserted nests of Crows and 
Magpies, and in June deposits 3 to 4 eggs, which resemble 
those of F. subbuteo, but are smaller and darker, more approach- 
ing those of the Kestrel. In size they average T45 by 1*16. 

772. EASTERN RED-LEGGED FALCON. 
FALCO AMURENSIS. 

Falco amurensts, Kadde, Keis. Ost. Sib. Vogel, p. 102, Taf. i. fig. a, b 
(1863) ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 445 ; (Blanf.), F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iii. p. 424 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 93 ; Gurney, Ibis, 1868, 
p. 41, pi. ii. 

J ad. (Siberia). Eesembles F. vespertinus, but has the wing lining 
and axillaries pure white. Culmen 0'75, wing 9'0, tail 5'0, tarsus I'l inch. 
The female differs from that of F. vespertinus in having the head browner, 
the under parts paler, the breast spotted, and the flanks barred with 
blackish ; the wing-lining white with brown spots, and the axillaries barred 
white and dark brown. 

Hob. South-eastern Siberia ; Mongolia ; Northern China ; 
wintering in India, Burma, and East Africa; has occurred in 



552 FALCO 



Asia as far west as Pegu, the Western Himalayas, the Deccan, 
the Nilgiris, the Carnatic, and Ceylon. 

In habits it does not differ from F. vespertinus, and like that 
species feeds almost entirely on insects of various kinds and 
small reptiles. Its nest and eggs also resemble those of that 
species. 

773. KESTREL. 
FALCO TINNUNCULUS. 

Falco tinnunculus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 127 (1766) ; Naum. i. p. 323, 
Taf. 30 ; Hewitson, i. p. 32, pi. x. figs. 2, 3 ; Gould, B. of E. i. pi. 26 ; 
Newton, i. p. 78 ; Dresser, vi. p. 113, pi. 384 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. i. p. 425 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 95 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. 
Emp. p. 194 ; Saunders, p. 355 ; Lilford, i. p. 53, pi. 26 ; F. alau- 
darius, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 279 (1788) ; Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. i. 
pi. 21 ; (Blanf.), F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 428 ; F. t. japonicus, 
Temm. and Schlegel, Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 2, pis. 1, IB ; F. t. canari- 
ensis (Koenig), J. f. 0. 1890, p. 327, pt. i. 

Cresserelle, French ; Peneireiro, Francelho, Portug. ; Cernicalo, 
Span. ; Gheppio, Ital. ; Turmfalke, Germ. ; Taarnfalk, Norweg. 
and Dan. ; Tornfalk, Swed, ; Torniliau'kka, Finn. ; Obiknovennaya- 
Pustelga, Russ. ; Bouschrada, Arab. ; Karontia, Narzi, $ , 
Narzinak $ , Hindu. ; Maguso-daka, Jap. 

ad. (England). Head, neck, lower back, rump, upper tail-coverts, 
and tail blue-grey ; the head narrowly striped, and the tail subterminally 
broadly banded with black ; rest of upper parts chestnut-red, with black 
triangular spots ; quills blackish, the inner web with whitish bars ; fore- 
head and eyebrow whitish ; moustache blackish grey : under parts rufes- 
cent fawn, the breast streaked, the sides spotted with black ; thigh-feathers 
pale chestnut, unspotted ; bill yellow at base, then blue, tipped with black ; 
cere, orbital region, and legs yel low ; iris brown. Culmen T75, wing 9*2, 
tail 7'0, tarsus 1*6 inch. The female has the upper parts and tail rufous, the 
former barred, the latter banded with black and tipped with fulvous ; 
chin and abdomen pale dull fulvous ; breast dull rufous, striped with black ; 
flanks indistinctly barred. The young bird resembles the female, but is 
paler. 

Hal. Europe generally, from Lapland to the Mediterranean, 
but chiefly in summer in the northern parts; Madeira, the 
Canaries and Azores; Africa south to Abyssinia; Asia Minor 
and Asia north to northern Siberia, south to northern India ; 
China ; Corea ; Japan. 

Inhabits the woods, plains, and cultivated localities, where 
it may be seen carefully quartering the ground, occasionally 



FALCO 553 



hovering in the air in search of its prey. It feeds on mice, 
insects, and reptiles, but seldom on small birds. Its cry is 
a shrill kee, kee, kee, uttered several times in succession. It 
breeds in old ruins, church towers, cliffs, &c., and sometimes in 
trees, taking possession of deserted nests of other birds, and 
in April 4 to 5 eggs are laid, which in ground-colour vary 
from white and reddish white to dull reddish, and are closely 
marked and blotched with fox-red, dull chestnut, and purplish 
chestnut. In shape they are roundish oval, and in size average 
about 1-61 by T29. 

In tone of plumage the Kestrel varies considerably, birds 
from Madeira, the Canaries, East Africa, and Japan being very 
dark in colouration, and have indeed been described as speci- 
fically separable, but I cannot see that this vie^ is correct. 

774 LESSER KESTREL. 
FALCO CENCHRIS. 

Falco cenchris, Naum. Vog. Deutschl. i. p. 318, Taf. 29 (1822) ; Dresser, 
vi. p. 125, pi. 385 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 430 ; Saunders, 
p. 357 ; Lilford, i. p. 55 ; pi. 27 ; F. tinnunculoides, Temm. Man 
d'Orn. i. p. 31 (1822) ; Gould, B. of E. i. pi. 27 ; F. peldnensis 
(Swinhoe), P.Z.S. 1871, p. 341 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 437 ; 
" F. naumanni, Fleisch" ; Sharpe, torn. cit. p. 435 (1874). 

Faucon cresserellettc, French ; Primilla, Primita, Span. ; 
Eotelfalke, Germ. ; G-rillajo, Ital. ; Krasnaya Pustclga, Russ. 

ad. (Styria). Differs from F. tinnunculus in being smaller, in having 
the back, scapulars, and wing-coverts rich cinnamon, or vinous brick-red, 
unspotted, some of the inner secondaries slate-grey instead of rufous, and 
the claws white, not blackish. Culmen 0*75, wing 9'0, tail 6'0, tarsus 1'2 inch. 
The female resembles that of F. tinnunculus^ but is smaller and has white 
claws. 

Hal. Southern Europe ; a doubtful straggler to the British 
Isles; Africa as far south as Damaraland, and occasionally 
to the Cape Colony in winter ; Asia Minor and Southern Asia 
east to China, and India in the winter. 

In general habits it resembles F. tinnunculus, but is more 
gregarious, and feeds more generally on insects. It nests also 
frequently in large colonies, in old ruins, buildings such as 
church towers, &c., hollow trees, and sometimes in cliffs, making 
a very scanty nest, and in May deposits 4 to 5 or 6 eggs, which 
vary considerably but resemble those of F. tinnunculus, though 
they are more fox-red and lighter in colour, and smaller in size, 
averaging 1/44 by I'll. 



554 PANDION 



PANDION, Savigny, 1810. 

775. OSPREY. 
PANDION HALIAETUS. 

Pandion haliaetus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 129 (1766) ; (Naum.), i. p. 241, 
Taf. 16 ; Hewitson, i. p. 19, pi. vi. ; Gould, B. of E. i. pi. 12 ; id. 
B. of Gt. Brit. i. pi. 12 ; Newton, i. p. 30 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. i. p. 449 ; Dresser, vi. p. 139, pis. 386, 387 ; Kidgway, p. 255 ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 52 ; Blanford, F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 314 ; 
Saunders, p. 359 ; Lilford, i. p. 11, pi. 8; P. carolinensis (Gmel.), 
Syst. Nat. i. p. 263 (1788) ; P. leucocephalus, Gould, P.Z.S. 1837, 
p. 138. 

Balbusard, French ; Aguia pesqueira, Portug. ; Aguila 
pescador, Span. ; Falco pescatore, Ital. ; Fischadler, German ; 
Visch-arend, Dutch ; Fiskeorn, Dan. and Norweg. ; Fiskljuse, 
Swed. ; Kuollifalli, Tschiftschx, Lapp. ; Kalasdaski, Finn. ; 
Skopd, Russ. ; JBou-haut, Moor. ; El Mansur, Ketaf, Arab. ; 
Machariya, Machamanga, Hindu. ; Misago, Jap. 

$ ad. (Sweden). Head white, the crown striped with blackish brown, 
which forms almost a patch before and above the eye ; nape feathers 
elongated, lanceolate, tipped with blackish brown and washed with yel- 
lowish ; ear-coverts and a stripe to hind-neck blackish brown ; upper 
parts dark brown, the back faintly glossed ; quills blackish brown, marked 
with white on the basal part of the inner webs ; tail dark brown, the outer 
feathers dull white on the inner webs and dark banded ; under parts 
white, the breast faintly marked with pale and dull ochreous brown ; outer 
toe reversible ; under surface of toe rough, covered with small pointed 
scales ; feathers wanting the accessory plumule ; bill blackish horn ; cere 
blue-grey; legs pale plumbeous ; iris bright yellow. Culmen 1*9, wing 19'3, 
tail 8'7, tarsus 2'2 inch. Female similar bat larger, and generally has the 
breast more marked with brown. The young bird has the head and neck 
more varied with blackish brown, the feathers on the upper parts and 
wings margined or tipped with white, the tail more conspicuously barred, 
and tipped with white, and the under parts washed with rufous isabelline. 

Hob. Europe, north to Lapland, not breeding in Ireland ; 
Asia, east to Japan ; Africa, south to Natal ; Australia ; New 
Zealand ; America from the high north, south to Brazil. 

Frequents the vicinity of inland lakes and rivers, or the sea- 
coast, where it can obtain fish which swim near the surface of 
the water, for it feeds exclusively on fish, which it obtains by 
plunging down from a considerable altitude. Sometimes it 
strikes too large a fish, and I have seen one which on so doing 



PANDION PHALACROCORAX 555 

was carried out to sea and drowned. Its call-note is a some- 
what clear kai, kai, kai, or a harsh krau. It usually nests on 
trees, occasionally however on rocky islets or old buildings, and 
in some countries it nests in communities. The nest is a 
bulky structure of sticks, worked together with turf and roots, 
and lined with moss, and the eggs, generally 3, sometimes 4, in 
number, are deposited in April or May. These are richly 
blotched with dark chestnut-red surface-markings and a few 
purplish grey shell-spots or blurs, on a dull white, bluish white, 
or buffy white ground, and vary a good deal in size, but 
average 2'40 by 176. American eggs run a trifle larger, 
and are recognizable by their strong musky smell. 

PHALACROCORAX, Brisson, 1760. 

776. CORMORANT. 
PHALACROCORAX CARBO. 

Phalacrocorax carlo (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 216 (1766); (Naum.), xi. p. 52, 
Taf. 279 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 471, pi. cxxx. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of E. v. 
pi. 407 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 52 ; Dresser, vi. p. 151, pi. 388 ; 
David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 532 ; Audubon, B. Amer. vii. p. 123, 
pi. 415 ; Eidgway, p. 78 ; Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 340 ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1072 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. 
p. 340 ; Saunders, p. 361 ; Lilford, vii. p. 1, pi. i. ; P. sinensis 
(Shaw and Nodder), Nat. Misc. xiii. pi. 529 (1801) ; P. cormor- 
anus (Meyer and Wolf), Taschenb. ii. p. 576 (1810) ; (Naum.), 
xi. p. 52, Taf. 279 ; P. carboides, Gould, P.Z.S. 1837, p. 156 ; 
id. B. of. Austral, vii. pi. 66. 

Grand Cormoran, French ; Corvo marinho, Portug. ; Cuervo 
marino, Span. ; Cormorano, Ital. ; Kormoran-Scharbe, German ; 
Aalscholver, Dutch ; Skarv, Aalekraake, Dan. and Norweg. ; 
Storskarf, Swed ; Skarffa, Lapp. ; Kalakorppa, Haikara, Finn. ; 
Obiknovennui-Baklan, Russ. ; Agag, Arab. ; Gkarrad, Moor. ; 
Ghogur, Pan-kowa, Hindu. ; U, Jap. 

$ ad. (Scotland). Chin and sides of the head skirting the bare part at 
the base of the bill white ; head, neck, and under parts glossy purplish 
black ; nuchal feathers elongated ; a few hair-like feathers on the neck 
white ; upper parts bronze-green margined with blackish ; the lower back 
and rump purplish black ; quills and tail greyish black ; a pure white 
patch on each thigh ; bill yellowish white at the base, otherwise dusky 
brown ; gular sac yellow ; bare space round the eye greenish brown ; 
iris grass-green ; legs and feet black. Culmen 3 '6, gape 4'1, wing 13 '5, 
tail 7*0, tarsus 2'7 inch. Female similar but smaller, duller in colour with 
a smaller crest. In the winter the colours are duller and greener and the 
head and neck are covered with slender white filamentous plumelets. The 



556 PHALACROCORAX 

young birds are dark brown above, dull white marked with brown below ; 
bill dark brown above, pale brown below ; iris brown. 

Hal. Europe generally ; Greenland ; Iceland ; Africa south 
to the Cape Colony ; Asia north to Kamchatka, east to Japan, 
south to the Malay Peninsula ; Australia ; New Zealand and 
Chatham Islands. 

Frequents both inland waters and the sea-coasts, but with 
us at least is most frequently to be met with on salt water. 
Its flight is direct and swift, though it appears somewhat 
clumsy in rising from the water, and strikes the water with 
its feet for some distance before it is fairly on the wing. It 
swims however with ease and dives even better, and trusts 
chiefly to its dexterity and speed under water to obtaining its 
food, for it feeds entirely on fish and is extremely voracious. 
On land it walks heavily and clumsily. Though naturally shy 
and wary it is easily tamed., and in China especially is trained 
to capture fish for its master. 

It breeds on cliffs, rocks, or trees, usually in colonies, and 
when placed on a tree the nest is constructed of sticks lined 
with grass or weeds, or if on a rock, of a few sticks and sea- 
weed. The eggs, usually 4 in number, are laid late in April 
or in May, and are elongate in shape, bluish white in colour 
closely incrusted with a layer of chalky substance, and in size 
average 2'30 by 1'51. 

777. TEMMINCK'S CORMORANT. 
PHALACROCORAX FILAMENTOSUS. 

Phalacrocorax filamentosus (Temm. and Schlegel), Faun. Jap. Aves, 
p. 129 (1850) ; Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 350 ; P. capillatus, 
(Temm. and Schlegel), Faun. Jap. Aves, pis. 83 and 83B (1850) ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1075 ; Seebolim, B. Jap. Emp. p. 209. 
< ad. (Japan). Differs from P. carlo in having the upper parts 
greenish bronze margined with dark green, the rest of the plumage oil- 
green in tinge, the head and neck dark greenish blue ; the white patch 
bordering the gular pouch mottled with dark greenish black, the head 
and neck covered with long narrow white feathers. Culmen 2*7, wing 
12-13, tail 5*8, tarsus 2'5 inch. After the breeding season the white 
feathers on the head and neck are cast. The young resemble those of 
P. carlo, but in all plumages this species may be distinguished by the 
shape of the bare space on the throat. 

Hal>. The coasts of eastern Siberia, Corea, Japan, and China. 

In habits and nidification this species does not appear to 
differ from P. carlo. 



PHALACROCORAX 557 



778. RED-FACED CORMORANT. 
PHALACROCORAX BICRISTATUS. 

Phalacrocorax bicristatus, Pall. Zoogr. Boss. As. ii. p. 301, pi. Ixxv. 
fig. 2 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 211 ; Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxvi. p. 358 ; P. urile (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. pt. 2, p. 575 (1788 
partim) ; Ridgway, p. 80 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1078. 

( ad. (Commander Island). Head dark greenish blue becoming steel- 
blue on the neck ; the lower neck, lower back, rump, tipper tail-coverts 
and under parts deep oily bronze-green ; scapulars and sides of upper back 
rich greenish and violet-bronze with a purple tinge ;* a tuft or crest 
on the crown and one on the nape bronze-green ; a white patch on each 
flank. In the breeding season the neck and rump are covered 
with scattered straw-yellow filamentous feathers ; feathers of forehead 
separated from the base of the culmen by a strip of bare skin connecting 
the. naked lores ; gular pouch blue bordered behind by purplish red 
corrugations ; lores, orbits, and naked frontal skin bright orange. Culmen 
2'25, wing 10'5, tail 6'3, tarsus 2*15 inch. Female similar but rather 
smaller. The young bird is dusky brown witli a faint purplish tinge, 
darker and more glossy on the upper parts. 

Hob. The coasts of Kamchatka and eastern Siberia, the 
Prybilof, Aleutian, and Kurile Islands, in winter south to 
Japan. 

In habits this Cormorant does not appear to differ from its 
allies, and its eggs resemble those of P. carlo and vary in size 
from 2-36 by 1-49 to 2'48 by 1-69. 



779. PALLAS'S CORMORANT. 
PHALACROCORAX FERSPICILLATUS. 

Phalacrocorax perspicillaMis, Pall. Zoogr. Ross. As. ii. p. 305 (1811); 
Gould, Zool. Voy. Sulph. p. 49, pi. xxxii. ; Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxvi. p. 357 ; Ridgway, p. 81 ; Stejn., Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 
1883, p. 65. 

Ad. Resembles P. licristatus but is considerably larger, the crown and 
nape are bronze-purple, the general colour of the body less blue ; eye 
surrounded with a broad white ring of naked skin, the naked skin 
round the base of the bill and gular sac mixed red, white, and blue. 
Culmen 3'75, wing 13'5, tail 7'2, tarsus 2'8 inch. 

Hob. Bering Island formerly, but is extinct since about 
1852. 



558 PHALACROCORAX 

780. PELAGIC CORMORANT. 
PHALACROCORAX PELAGICU3. 

Phalacrocorax pelagicus, Pall. Zoogr. Koss. As. ii. p. 303, pi. Ixxvi. 
(1811) ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 533 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. 
Emp. p. 210 ; Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 360 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. 
Sib. 0. p. 1080 ; P. resplendens, And. Orn. Biogr. v. p. 148, pi. 412, 
fig. 1 (1839). 

Morskoi Uril, Russ. ; U-garasu, Jap. 

$ ad. (N.W.America). Differs from P. bicristatus in having the feathers 
on the forehead extended to the base of the culmen ; head and neck 
glossy violet-black, purplish towards the head, the lower neck tinged with 
steel-blue ; rump and under parts dark silky green ; scapulars and wing- 
coverts bottle-green tinged with bronzy purple ; neck and rump ornamented 
with narrow white filamentous feathers ; flanks with a white patch. After 
the breeding season the white filamentous feathers and the crests on the 
head and nape are cast ; gular sac and naked lores dull brownish red. 
Culmen 1'85, wing 9 '5, tail 6 '3, tarsus 2'1 inch. Female similar but rather 
smaller. The young bird differs from P. Ucristatus in having the back 
and scapulars glossed with dull green and not with purple. 

Hob. Coasts of Kamchatka, Eastern Siberia south to 
Southern China ; Japan ; west coast of North America from 
Alaska to Western Mexico. 

In habits and nidification this bird does not differ from 
P. carlo. 

Mr. Ridgway divides this Cormorant into three subspecies, 
viz. : P. pelagicus from the coast of Kamchatka and the Aleutian 
Islands ; south in winter to the Kuriles and northern Japan ; 
P. pelagicus robustus, Ridgw., from the coast of Alaska, from 
Norton's Sound, south to Washington Territory ; and 
P. pelagicus resplendens (Aud.) from the Pacific coast, from 
Washington Territory to Western Mexico (Mazatlan and Cape 
St. Lucas). 

781. SHAG. 
PHALACROCORAX GRACULUS. 

Phalacrocorax graculus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 217 (1766); (Naum.), 
xi. p. 88, Taf. 280 ; Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 53 ; Dresser, vi. 
p. 163, pi. 389 ; Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 364 ; Saunders, 
p. 363 ; Lilford, vii. p. 5, pi. 2 ; P. cristatus (Miiller), Zool. Dan. 
Prodr. p. 18, No. 150 (1776) ; Hewitson, ii. p. 473, pi. cxxx. fig. 2 ; 
Gould, B. of E. v. pis. 410, 411 ; P. desmaresti (Payraudeau), Ann. 
Sc. Nat. 1826, p. 460 ; Grant, op. cit. xxvi. p. 368. 



PHALACROCORAX 559 



Cormoran-largup, French ; Corvo marinho da crista, Portug. ; 
Marangone col tiuffo, Ital. ; Krakenscharbe, German ; Gekuifde 
Aalscholver, Dutch ; Top&karv, Dan. ; Krdkskarf, Norweg. ; 
Toppskarf, Swed. 

<$ ad. (Scotland). General colour silky blackish green, the head and 
neck greener ; back, scapulars, and wing-coverts paler and margined with 
velvety black ; on the back of the crown a broad recurved crest ; bill 
black, the nail yellowish brown, the basal portion and the bare portion of 
the chin yellowish marked with black ; angle of mouth orange ; bare space 
round the eye and legs black ; a yellowish spot at the base^of the bill ; iris 
rich green. Gape 3*6, wing 9'9, tail 5*7, tarsus 2'4 inch. Female similar 
but smaller. After the breeding season the crest is cast. The young bird 
is brown with a greenish tinge above, and has the chin, throat, and 
middle of the abdomen white or whitish, the rest of the under parts 
brownish ash ; bill dusky brown above, brownish flesh below ; bare skin 
at the base of bill and round the eye dusky yellow ; legs dusky brown. 
In this and all other members of the genus the nestling is blackish, 
covered with blackish down. 

Hal*. The coasts of Europe up into the Arctic Circle, but 
not far up the Baltic, or on the coasts of Finland ; Iceland ; 
the Fseroes ; Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas. 

In habits it resembles the Cormorant but it frequents the 
sea-coasts and is but seldom to be met with on fresh water. It 
is gregarious in its habits and breeds in societies, placing 
its nest, which is a large structure of seaweed, &c., on a rock 
or a rocky ledge in a cave, and in June or July deposits 
3 or 4, sometimes even more, bluish white eggs covered with 
a chalky coating, elongated in shape and rather smaller than 
those of P. carlo. By some authors the Mediterranean Shag 
(P. dcsmaresti) has been subspecifically separated, the young 
bird having the under parts whiter or nearly white, but I cannot 
endorse this view. 

782. AFRICAN CORMORANT. 
PHALACROCORAX AFRICANUS. 

Phalacrocorax africanus (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 577 (1788) ; Dresser, 
vi. p. 169. pi. 390 ; Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 407. 

<J ad. (Egypt). General colour glossy black with bottle-green re- 
flections ; forehead intermixed with white and furnished with a short 
crest ; sides of back, scapulars, and wing-coverts grey and blackish grey 
broadly tipped with black ; quills and tail black washed with grey ; bill 
yellow, the ridge of the mandible brown ; bare skin of the face bluish ; 
iris carmine-red ; legs black. Culmen 1 '3,? wing 7'5, tail 6'0, tarsus 1-5 
inch. After the breeding season the head and neck are brown, the greyish 



560 PHALACROCORAX 



feathers on the upper parts are margined with brownish white ; chin and 
throat, breast and abdomen white ; base of neck and chest brownish white. 

Hal. Africa, from the Delta of the Nile to the Cape of Good 
Hope; Madagascar. 

In habits it resembles P. pygmceus. It frequents inland 
waters rivers, lakes, morasses, and even ponds, and is not to be 
met with on the sea-coasts. Its flight is strong and rapid, and 
it is an expert diver, feeding -almost exclusively on fish, but 
frogs and even grasshoppers have been found in its stomach. 
Its nest is a scanty structure of sticks, which is placed on a 
bush, and it deposits 3 to 4 eggs which are bluish white 
covered with a layer of chalky substance and which measure 
about 1-80 by 1-22. 

783. PYGMY CORMORANT. 
PHALACROCORAX PYGM^US. 

Phalacrocorax pygmceus (Pall.), Eeise, ii. p. 712, Anhang (1773) ; 
(Naum.), xi. p. 112, Taf. 281 ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 409 ; Dresser, 
vi. p. 173, pi. 391 ; Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 405. 

Cormoran pygmtfe, French ; Marangone minore, Ital. ; Zwerg- 
schar'be, German. 

ad. (Danube). Crown, nape, hind neck, and sides of same glossy reddish 
brown, the forehead darker and tinged with greenish black ; middle of back, 
scapulars, wing-coverts, and inner secondaries blackish grey, margined with 
glossy black ; wings and tail black ; rest of plumage greenish black 
with white spots composed of bare shafted feathers with a terminal white 
tuft ; bill, naked skin round the eyes and on the throat, and legs black ; 
iris sea-green. Culmen 1'35, wing 8'0, tail 6'5, tarsus 1'3 inch. Female 
rather smaller and duller in colour. After the breeding season the throat 
is white, the brown on the neck extends to the breast, and the white spots 
are absent. The young bird has the chin white, the throat and breast 
brown, the rest of the under parts dull white intermixed with brown, the 
lower flanks and under tail-coverts black, the bill yellowish ; legs black 
and iris brown. 

Hob. Southern and south-eastern Europe, rare as far north 
as Poland ; north Africa ; western and central Asia as far east 
as Afghanistan. 

In habits it resembles its congeners ; it frequents inland 
lakes, rivers, and marshes in preference to the sea-coasts, is an 
expert diver and feeds on fish which it captures under water. 
It is gregarious and breeds in colonies, placing its scanty nest of 
sticks on bushes in swamps, and late in May it lays 3 to 5, 
seldom 6, eggs, which resemble those of P. graculus but are 



PHALACROCORAXSULA 561 

smoother in surface of shell and smaller, measuring about 1*75 
by 1-20. 

In India and Burma, south to Java and Borneo this species is 
replaced by P. javanicus (Horsf.), which differs in having the 
chin and neck black and not brown. 

SULA, Brisson, 1760. 

784. GANNET. 
SULA BASSANA. 

Sula bassana (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 217 (1766) ; (Naum.), xi. p. 14, 
Taf. 278 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 474, pi. cxxx. fig. 3 ; Gould, B. of E. v. 
pi. 412 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 54 ; Dresser, vi. p. 181, pi. 392 ; 
Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 425 ; Rid g way, p. 76 ; Saunders, 
p. 365 ; Lilford, vii. p. 9, pi. 3. 

Fvu, de Hassan, French ; Ganso-patola, Portug. ; Alcatrdz, 
Span. ; Easstolpel, German ; Ian van Gent, Dutch ; Kuksuk, 
Greenl. ; Hav-sule, Icel., Dan., and Norweg. ; Hafsula, Swed. 

< ad. (Bass Rock). Entire plumage pure white, the head and neck 
tinged with warm isabelline ; quills and tail black, the latter cuneate ; 
bill pale livid blue ; space round the eye blackish ; iris yellow ; legs 
greenish ; webs brown. Culmen 4'8, wing 18'8, tail 8'3, tarsus 27 inch. 
The immature bird has the upper parts dark sooty brown closely spotted 
with white, the under parts whitish .closely marked with sooty brown ; 
wings and tail blackish brown ; bill dark horn-brown. The nestling is at 
first naked and blackish, then covered with dark down. 

Hob. Atlantic coasts of Greenland, Iceland, Great Britain, and 
Scandinavia, in winter south to North-west Africa; on the 
American coasts from the high north to the Gulf of Mexico. 

Is wholly marine, not to say oceanic, in habits, only visiting 
certain islands for the purpose of breeding. In British waters 
there are Lundy in the British Channel, Grasholm on the south- 
west coast of Wales, the Bell Rock and Skelligs on south-west 
coast of Ireland, Ailsa in the Firth of Clyde, St. Kilda, North 
Barra on Sulisgeir, and the Stack on the north coast of Scotland, 
and the Bass Rock in the Firth of Forth. There is no station 
on the coasts of Norway, Orkney, or Shetland, and in the Faeroes 
only on Myggenoes, on the Iceland coast the Westman Islands, 
Eldey and Grimsey. Formerly abundant in Newfoundland 
waters it has now but three stations there, of which the Great 
Bird Rock is chief. Notwithstanding its great power of flight, 
it is occasionally driven inland by storms. It feeds wholly on 
fish, which it takes by plunging with closed wings from a height, 
and never by diving from the surface as do the Cormorants. At 



562 SULAPELECANUS 

its breeding stations the nests are usually placed so thickly as 
to cover all the available space. They are built of sea- weed, and 
but a single egg is laid, which is elliptical in shape, the sur- 
face dull and rough, and white in colour, usually marked with 
yellowish brown dirt, and measures about 3'12 by 2*2. The cry 
of the old bird is a hoarse ktirra, hurra, or grog, grog, rapidly 
repeated, and that of the young bird a shrill squeak. 

Sula piscator (Linn.) has, according to Dr. Finsch, been once 
obtained in Decastries Bay in Eastern Siberia. 

PELECANUS, Linn., 1766. 

785. ROSEATE PELICAN. 
PELECANUS ONOCROTALUS. 

Pelecanus onocrotalus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 215 (1766) ; Naum. xi. p. 150, 
Taf. 282 ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 405 ; Dresser, vi. p. 193, pi. 393 ; 
Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 462 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. 
p. 334. 

Pelican blanc, French ; Pelicano, Portug. and Span. ; Pellicano 
Ital. ; Pelikan, Kropfgans, German ; Abu-d/jeme^ Arab. ; Rosovaya 
Baba, Russ. ; Murgi-scefit, Pers. ; Berkasan, Tartar. 

$ ad. (S.E. Europe). General colour white tinged with rose ; occipital 
feathers elongated and pointed, forming a crest, and an elongated 
tuft on the lower neck, tinged with isabelline ; primaries black ; bill blue- 
grey with a pink line marked with red down the side ; space round the 
eye, forehead, and sides of the frontal lump yellowish ; feet and legs pink ; 
iris rich red. Culmen 16 '0, wing 28'6, tail 8'2, tarsus 5'4 inch. The 
male is similar but has little or no crest. The young bird has the upper 
parts dull creamy buff varied with greyish brown ; rump dirty white ; tail 
dull greyish ; wings brown with greyish margins ; under parts dirty 
white. 

Hob. Southern and south-eastern Europe, rarely straying 
into central Europe ; of doubtful occurrence in Denmark, and 
a rare straggler to Sweden and Finland; north Africa; Asia 
Minor and Asia east to northern India. 

Frequents inland waters and large marshes where it breeds. 
It swims with ease, and its flight is easy. It feeds on fish which 
it captures by dipping its head and taking the fish in its pouch, 
and they often combine and drive the fish in a small bay. Its 
note is a deep loud cry. This bird breeds in societies in large 
marshes, constructing a nest of reeds, and in April or May, 
2 or 3, rarely 4, eggs are laid, which are white, the surface 
chalky and rough and generally marked with blood. In size 
they measure about 3'5 by 2'32. 



PELECANUS 563 



786. SUBSP. PELECANUS ROSEUS. 

Pelecanusroseus, Gmel. Syst, Nat. i. p. 570 (1788) ; Grant, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxvi. p. 466 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 333 ; P. 
javanicus, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 197 (1822) ; P. minor, 
Riipp. Mus. Senck. ii. p. 185 (1837). 

Malaya Bdba, Russ. 

Ad. (India). Differs from P. onocrotalus in being smaller, rh having 
a shorter bill, the forehead in being devoid of any swelling, and in having 
the tail composed of 22 feathers instead of 24 as in P. onocrotalus. Culmen 
12-0, wing 24-0, tail 7'0, tarsus 4 '5 inch. 

Hob. Eastern Asia, and the Malay Archipelago, India ; 
westward to south-eastern Europe and Africa. 

This is a very doubtful subspecies, and in India, where both 
P. roseus and P. onocrotalus occur, intermediate examples are, 
according to Mr. Blanford, frequently to be met with. 

787. DALMATIAN PELICAN. 
PELECANUS CRISPUS. 

Pelecanus crispus, Bruch. Isis, 1832, p. 1109 ; Naum. xi. p. 180, Taf. 
283 ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 405 ; Dresser, vi. p. 199, pi. 394 ; 
Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 468 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. 
p. 335. 

Pelican crtfpu, French; Krauskopfiger Pelikan, German; 
Kttdravaya Bala, Russ. ; Lamb6r t Pers. ; Kut&n, Tartar. 

Ad. (Cyprus). General colour silvery white with a greyish tinge ; 
nuchal feathers elongated, soft, and curly ; most of the feathers on the 
upper parts with black shafts ; quills blackish brown, the inner secondaries 
margined with whitish ; tail greyish white ; feathers on lower throat 
and breast elongated ; a patch on the lower throat yellowish ; bill blue- 
grey marked laterally with red, pouch yellow ; bare space round the eye 
flesh-coloured ; iris greyish ; legs lead-grey. Culmen 16'5, wing 28'0, 
tail 9'1, tarsus 4'5 inch. The female is similar but rather smaller. 
Young birds resemble those of P. onocrotalus in being brownish grey, but 
differ in having the feathers at the base of the bill coming to an even 
line across the forehead and not to a point ; head crestless ; pouch greyish. 

Hob. Southern but chiefly south-eastern Europe; north 
Africa, rare in the west ; Asia east to south-east, Mongolia, and 
China, visiting north-west India in winter. 1 

In habits and nidification it does not differ from P. onocrotalus, 
and its eggs are similar to those of that species. 

1 Formerly inhabiting, and (as shown by remains of the young) breeding 
in England. Bones have been found in the peat of the Fens of the Bedford 
Level, and in considerable numbers at Glastonbury in Somerset. 

P P 



564 ARDEA 



ARDEA, Linn., 1766. 

788. GREY HERON. 

ARDEA CINEREA. 

Ardea cinerea, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 236 (1766) ; Naum. ix. p. 24, Taf. 
220 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 269, pi. Ixxiv. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 273 ; 
id. B. of Gt. Brit, iv. pi. 20 ; Dresser, vi. p. 207, pi. 395 ; Sharpe. 
Cat B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 74 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 980 ; Blanford, 
F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 382 ; Saimders, p. 367 ; Lilford, vii. 
p. 12, pi. 4. 

Heron huppt, French ; Garga real, Portug. ; Garza, Span. ; 
Air one cenerino, Ital. ; Grauer-Reiher, German ; Blaauwe-Reiger, 
Dutch ; Fiske-Hejre, Dan. ; Hegre, Norweg. ; Grd Hager, Swed. ; 
Rarmaa-liaikara, Finn. ; Tschepura, Seraja-Zapla, Russ. ; Kuuk- 
Kaja, Tartar ; Bou-auk, Arab. ; Aishoush, Moor. ; Nari, Anjan, 
Hindu. ; Awo-sagi, Jap. 

(J ad. (England). Crown white ; sides of and hind-neck glossy black ; 
nuchal feathers much elongated ; upper throat white ; neck ash-grey with 
a faint vinous tinge and marked with two or three lines of blue-black 
feathers ; on the lower neck a bunch of elongated, pointed white feathers 
tinged with ash at the base ; upper parts and tail ashy blue, the scapulars 
much elongated ; middle of breast and under tail-coverts white ; 
sides of breast and a broad stripe on the sides of the abdomen black ; 
flanks ashy grey ; primaries black ; bill, bare space round the eye, and 
iris yellow ; legs dark greenish grey ; bare part of tibia and soles 
yellowish. Culmen 4'8, wing 17*7, tail 7*5, tarsus 5 '5 inch. Female 
smaller with the elongated feathers shorter. The young bird has the 
elongated feathers much shorter or wanting, the bunch of long feathers on 
the breast absent, and the under parts grey. The young in down is 
covered with long, soft down, grey above and white below ; bill reddish 
white ; iris white ; legs reddish grey. 

Hob. Europe generally, north to central Scandinavia, British 
Islands ; Africa and Madagascar ; Asia, east to Japan, south to 
the Malay islands and Australia ; has strayed as far north as 
Iceland and Greenland. 

Frequents streams, lakes, and ponds, where it can obtain its 
prey, which consists of fish, but it also captures water-rats, mice, 
and aquatic insects. In its general habits it is shy and wary. 
Its note is a deep harsh cry resembling the word Jcronk. It 
breeds rather early in the season, nesting in societies or heronries, 
occasionally on the ground, but more frequently on trees or 
cliffs, constructing a somewhat bulky nest of sticks, lined with 



ARDEA 565 



twigs, grass, wool, hair, etc. The eggs are laid early in March, 
are pale blue with a few small white chalky marks here and 
there, and measure about 2 '50 by T68. 

789. PURPLE HERON. 
ARDEA PURPUREA. 

Ardeapurpurea, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 236 (1766) ; Naum. ix. p. 63, Taf. 
221; Hewitson, ii. p. 271,. pi. Ixxiv. fig. 2; Gould, B. of E. iv. 
pi. 274 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 21 ; Dresser, vi. p. 217, pi. 396 ; 
(Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 60 ; Saunders, p. 369 ; Lilford, 
vii. p. 13, pi. 5. 

Hdronpourprd, French ; Gar$a, Portug. ; Garza moruna, Span. ; 
Airone rosso, Ital. ; Purpur-Reiker, German ; Eoode-Reiger, 
Dutch ; Purpurhejre, Dan. and Norw. ; Purpwrkager t Swed. ; 
Tschepura, Russ. ; Kermesiwach, Tartar : Siad el mraj, Moor. 

<J ad. (Spain). Differs from A. cinerea in having the crown black, the 
neck rusty reddish instead of ashy grey, the elongated scapular plumes 
intermixed with rusty red ; quills and tail deep ashy plumbeous ; elongated 
plumes on the lower neck striped with black ; breast rich maroon red 
marked with black in the middle ; flanks ashy grey ; under tail-coverts 
black and white ; soft parts as in A. cinerea. The female is duller and 
smaller. In winter the long plumes are absent. The young bird lacks the 
long plumes, has the crown rusty reddish, the upper parts greyish brown 
with broad yellowish rusty margins, and the under parts dull ochreous 
white, the Hanks brownish ashy. 

Hob. Europe, rarer in the north ; of occasional occurrence in 
Southern Scandinavia and Great Britain ; Madeira, the Canaries, 
and Cape de Verde Islands ; Africa and Madagascar ; Asia east 
to the Persian Gulf, being replaced further east by A. manil- 
lensis, Meyen, a closely allied form differing in lacking the black 
streaks on the fore-neck. 

In habits it resembles the Bittern more than A. cinerea, in 
not frequenting open waters, but skulking among the dense 
aquatic herbage. It feeds chiefly on fish, but also on frogs, 
mice, and aquatic insects. Its call is not so loud or harsh as 
that of A. cinerea. Like that species it nests in societies, not 
on trees, but its nest, which is a mere platform of dry rushes or 
sticks, is placed among the aquatic herbage or on a bush. 
Its eggs, 3 or 4 in number, are deposited in April or early in 
May, and resemble those of A. cinerea but are smaller, measuring 
about 2-18 by 1'61. 

P P 2 



566 ARDEA 



790. BLACK-NECKED HERON. 
ARDEA MELANOCEPHALA. 

Ardea melanocephala, Vig. and Childr. in Denh. and Clapp. Voy. ii. App. 
p. 201 (1826) ; Dresser, vi. p. 225, pi. 397 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxvi. p. 70 ; A. atricollis, Wagl. Syst. Av. Ardea, sp. 4 
(1827). 

Al)u el Anga, Arabic. 

$ ad. (Africa). Differs from A. cinerea in having the head, pendant 
nuchal plumes and back of neck greyish black, the upper parts blackish 
plumbeous with a faint greenish lustre, the lower back, rump, and upper 
tail- co verts slaty blue, the elongated scapular plumes hoary towards the 
tips ; quills and tail blackish lead grey ; chin and throat white, neck 
blackish grey slightly marked with white ; under parts clear grey ; upper 
mandible black, the under mandible and bare skin round the eye greenish 
yellow ; legs and feet black ; iris light yellow. Culmen 3'0, wing 15*8, 
tail 6 '2, tarsus 4*4 inch. Female smaller with the elongated plumes shorter. 
The young bird is duller and brownish grey ; head black ; hind-neck slaty 
grey ; under parts yellowish white, the lower neck and breast greyish 
washed with fawn ; throat striped with yellowish. 

Hob. Africa south to the Cape 'Colony ; Madagascar ; a rare 
visitant to Algeria, Spain, and the south of France. 

In habits it is said to resemble A. cinerea, and like that 
species it feeds on fish, but also on frogs, lizards, and locusts. 
It nests both on trees and on reed-beds in company with other 
Herons and those of the same species, and in June or July 
deposits 3 to 4 eggs, which resemble those of A. cinerea in 
colour, and measure about 2'32 by 1*72. 



791. GREAT WHITE EGRET. 
ARDEA ALBA. 

Ardea alba, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 239 (1766) ; Gould, B. of E. iv. 
pi. 276 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. xxii. ; Dresser, vi. p. 231, 
pi. 398 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 90 ; (Blanf.), F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iv. p. 385 ; Saunders, p. 371 ; Lilford, vii. p. 15, pi. 6 ; 
A. egretta, Bechst. Gemeiim. Naturg. Deutschl. iii. p. 41 (1793 nee. 
Gmel.) ; Naum. ix. p. 85, Taf. 222. 

ffe'ron aigrette, French ; Airone bianco maggiore. Ital. ; Silber- 
Eeiher, German ; G-roote Ziherreiger, Dutch ; Hvit-Hager, Swed. ; 



ARDEA 567 



Belaya Tschepura, Russ. ; Akwach, Tartar ; Gheti, Wag el abiad, 
Arab. ; Mallang-bagla, Hindu. 

^ ad. (Volga). Entire plumage pure white ; feathers on the hind- 
crown and lower neck elongated and pointed ; a large bunch of fitiform 
hair-like plumes extends from the lower back beyond the tail ; bill black ; 
bare space round the eye greenish yellow ; legs dark brown, the bare tibia 
paler ; iris yellow. Culmen 5'6, wing 16*3, tail 6'6, tarsus 7*2 inch. Female 
similar but rather smaller. After the breeding season the elongate dorsal 
plumes are cast, and in the winter the bill is yellow. The young bird 
resembles the adult in winter but has the plumage laxer, the legs paler 
and tinged with yellow, and the bill much paler yellow. 

Hob. Southern and south-eastern Europe, rarely straying as 
far north as Great Britain and Sweden ; Africa as far south as 
Natal ; Asia east to Burma, the Indian peninsula, and Ceylon. 

In general habits this species resembles A. cinerea, and like 
that bird frequents rivers, streams, lakes, and large morasses, 
feeding on fish, frogs, aquatic insects, &c. It is companionable 
not only to others of its own species, but to allied species. Its 
call-note is a harsh deep rah, and that of the nestling kekkekkek 
like that of A. cinerea. It nests in societies, usually placing its 
nest on a tree, but sometimes amongst the dense reed- thickets. 
The nest is constructed of dry twigs, reeds, and flags, lined 
with finer leaves of aquatic plants, and the eggs, usually 4, but 
occasionally 5, in number, are deposited late in March or early 
in April, and are blue like those of A. cinerea, but smaller, 
measuring about 2*44 by T65. 



792. SMALLER WHITE EGRET. 
ARDEA INTERMEDIA. 

Ardea intermedia, Wagler, Isis, 1829, p. 659 ; Dresser, vi. p. 238 ; 
(Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 85 ; (Blanf.), F. Brit. Ind. Birds, 
iv. p. 386 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 217. 

Patangkha, Patokha-bagla, Hindu. ; CMu-sagi, Jap. 

ad. (Japan). Differs from H. alba in being smaller, in having the 
dorsal summer plumes much longer ; bill bright orange, in summer tipped 
with horn ; facial skin green ; legs and toes black ; iris yellow. Culmen 
2'9, wing 12-1, tail 5-2, tarsus 4'5 inch. 

Hal. The Indian peninsula and Ceylon ; Northern Burma ; 
China, Japan, south to the Malay Peninsula and Islands, Java 
and the Philippines. 



568 ARDEA 



Is very closely allied to H. alba, from which it does not differ 
in general habits. In India it breeds in July and August, in 
colonies, placing its nest on trees, not unfrequently in towns. 
The eggs, 4 in number, resemble those of H. alba and measure 
about 1-9 by T44. 

793. JAPANESE EGRET. 
ARDEA TIMORIENSIS. 

" Ardea timoriensis, Cuv." Lesson, Traite, p. 575 (1831) ; (Sharpe), Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 98 ; H. syrmatophorus, Gould, B. of Austral, 
vi. pi. 56 (1848) ; (Buller), B. N. Zeal. p. 226 ; H. modesta, 
Blakiston and Pryer, B. of Jap. in Trans. As. Soc. Jap. xi. part 1, 
p. 118 (nee. Gray) ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 979 ; H. alba, David and 
Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 439 (nee. Linn.) ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. 
p. 216 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 977. 

Pae-kao, Pa6-lou-sse, Chin. ; 0-sagi, Jap. ; Kotuku, New 
Zeal. 

ad. (Japan). Differs from H. alba in having the dorsal plumes 
shorter, the bill orange-yellow both in summer and winter ; naked 
space round the eye greenish yellow ; legs above the knee pale dull 
yellow, this colour continued down the middle inner part of the tarsus ; 
tarsi and feet otherwise black ; iris yellow. Culmen 5*0, wing 16*4, 
tail 6 '5, tarsus 6'2 inch. 

Hab. Japan and China, south through the Malay archipelago 
to Australia and New Zealand. 

In habits it does not differ from H. alba, and like that bird 
nests in colonies, placing its nest on trees, usually at a consider- 
able height, and deposits 3 to 4 eggs, which are similar to those 
of H. alba in colour and measure about 2'2 by 1'6. 

794. LITTLE EGRET. 
ARDEA GARZETTA. 

Ardea garzetta, Linn. i. p. 237, 1766 ; (Naum.), ix. p. 101, Taf. 223 ; 
Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 277 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 23 ; 
Dresser, vi. p. 239, pi. 399 ; (David and Oust.), Ois. Chine, p. 440 ; 
(Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. MUP. xxvi. p. 118 ; (Blanf.), F. Brit. Ind. Birds, 
iii. p. 387 ; Saunder?, p. 373 ; Lilford, vii. p. 19, pi. 7 ; Seebohm, 
B. Jap. Emp. p. 218. 

Htron garzette, French ; Garza blanca, Span. ; Garzetta, Ital. ; 
Kleiner Silberreiher, German ; Kleine Zilverreiger, Dutch ; 
Tschepuranushda, Russ. ; jBeiadi, Arab. ; Bou-fala, Bou-bliga, 



ARDEA 569 



Moor. ; Kilchia, Karchia-bayla, Hindu. ; Siao-pad-hao, Chin. ; 
Shira-sagi y Jap. 

( ad. (Spain). Entire plumage pure white ; two long, narrow feathers 
form a plume from the nape ; a large bunch of elongated recurved hair-like 
plumes extend from the lower back beyond the tail, and a bunch of 
elongated feathers slightly tinged with isabelline on the lower throat ; bill 
black, but yellowish grey at the base of the lower mandible, bare space 
about the eye lead-blue ; iris pale yellow ; legs and feet black, soles 
yellow. Culmen 3'5, wing ll'O, tail 4'5, tarsus 4'4 inch. Female similar 
but somewhat smaller. In the Arinter the occipital and dorsal plumes are 
absent. 

Hob. Southern Europe, straying rarely to northern con- 
tinental Europe and Great Britain ; Azores, Canaries, and Cape 
Verde Islands ; Africa south to the Cape ; Asia east to Japan, 
north to northern China, south to Ceylon, the Malay peninsula 
and the Philippines. H. nigripes from Java to Australia is 
scarcely separable from the present species, differing only in 
having no yellow on the feet. 

In habits it does not differ from its allies and like them is 
very gregarious, frequenting large marshes, and feeding on fish, 
frogs, aquatic insects, worms, &c. It breeds in colonies, con- 
structing its nest of dry twigs and reed-stems lined with finer 
leaves of aquatic plants, grass, and roots, and placing it on low 
trees, rush-beds, or on the ground, and late in May or early in 
June, usually 4 but occasionally 5 or 6 eggs are deposited, 
which are uniform pale greenish blue and measure about 1'76 
by 1-26. 

On the American continent the present species is replaced by 
A. candidissima, Gm. Demiegretta sacra, which inhabits the 
islands in the Bay of Bengal south to Australia and New 
Zealand and most of the Islands in the Pacific, is said to have 
strayed north to the islands in the Bay of Corea, but I cannot 
include it as a Palasarctic species. 

795. BUFF-BACKED HERON. . 
ARDEA IBIS. 

Ardea ibis, Linn., Hasselq. Iter. p. 248 (1757) ; id. in Hasselq. Voy. 
etc. p. 198 (1766); A. lucidal (Rafin.) ; Caratteri, p. 5 (1810); 
. (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 213 ; A. bubulcus, Audouin, Expl. 
Somm. PL Ois. de ?%yptc, i. p. 298 (1825) ; Dresser, vi. p. 245, 
pi. 400, fig. 1 ; Saunders, p. 375 ; Lilford, vii. p. 23, pi. 8 ; 
A. russata (Wagler), Syst. Av. Ardea, p. 178, sp. 12 (1827, pt.) ; 
Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 278 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 24. 



570 ARDEA 



Htron garde-losuf, French ; Garciote, Portug. ; Garrapatosa, 
Purga-lueyes, Span. ; Airone guarda-buoi, Ital. ; Zapla, Russ. ; 
Abu-Gerdan, Arab. ; Tair el bukkar, Moor. 

$ ad. (Spain). Feathers on the head and nape elongated, hair-like, rich 
vinous buff ; forepart of the back pale buffy yellow ; a large bunch of 
hair-like rich vinous buff feathers extends from the back beyond the tail, 
and a similar shorter bunch covers the lower throat ; rest of the plumage 
pure white ; beak, legs, and iris yellow ; bare space in front of the eye 
greenish yellow. Culmen 2'2, wing 9*7, tail 3'9, tarsus 3'2 inch. The 
female is rather smaller and has the ornamental plumes less developed. 
In winter these plumes are absent and the plumage is entirely white. The 
young bird resembles the adult in winter, but has the crown dull rufescent 
jchreous, and the back tinged with pale buff. 

Hob. Southern Europe ; has strayed at least once to Great 
Britain ; Madeira and the Canaries ; the whole of Africa and 
Madagascar; Asia east to Central Asia, east of which it is 
replaced by A. coromandas. 

In habits it differs considerably from the true Egrets, as it 
affects the company of domestic cattle and evinces no fear of 
man. Nor does it feed on fish, but on various kinds of insects, 
especially grasshoppers and the insect parasites of cattle. Its 
call-note is said to resemble the bleat of a sheep, but is hollower 
and deeper in tone. It breeds in colonies in trees, building a 
somewhat large, flat nest of dry sticks and twigs, and in May 
deposits 2 to 4 eggs, which are uniform pale greenish blue in 
colour and measure about 1*80 by 1'30. 



796. CATTLE-EGKET. 
ARDEA COROMANDA. 

Ardea coromanda (Bodd.), Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 54 (1783); (Sharpe), Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 217 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 219; Tacz. 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 985 ; (Blanf.), F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 389. 

Surkhw-bagla, Hindu. ; Ama-sagi, Jap. 

ad. (India). Differs from A. ibis in breeding-dress, in having the head, 
neck, throat, and pectoral plumes bright orange, the dorsal plumes vinous 
sienna tinged with golden yellow, and shorter than in A. ibis, scarcely 
extending beyond the tail. Culmen 2*2, wing 10*0, tail 3*75, tarsus 3'5 inch. 

Hob. India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Cochin China and China ; 
the Ussuri country ; Japan ; Corea ; south to the Philippines 
and Moluccas ; is said to have occurred in Italy. 



ARDEA 571 



Differs but little from A. ibis, of which it is merely the eastern 
form ; and in habits and nidification it does not differ from that 
species. In India it breeds from June to August, nesting ^in 
colonies in trees, and depositing 3 to 5 eggs, resembling those of 
A. ibis and measuring about 171 by 1*32. 

797. SQUACCO HERON. 
ARDEA RALLOIDES. 

Ardea ralloides, Scop., Ann. i. Hist. Nat. p. 88 (1769) ; Dresser, vi. 
p. 251, pi. 400, fig. 2 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 202 ; 
Saunders, p. 377 ; Lilford, vii. p. 25, pi. 9 ; A. comata, Pall. 
Reise Russ. Reichs, ii. Anhang, p. 715 (1773) ; Naum., ix. p. 120, 
Taf. 224; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 275; id., B. of Gt. Brit. iv. 
pi. 25. 

Hdron Crdbier, French ; Papa-ratos, Portug. ; Garza cangrejera, 
Span. ; Sgarza-tiufeto, Ital. ; Rallenreiher, Schopfreiher, German ; 
Rareiger, Dutch ; Kosmataya-zapla, Russ. ; Sabisa, Arab. ; 
Aishiis, Moor. 

ad. (Spain). Crown, nape, sides of the head and elongated nuchal 
plumes creamy white margined with black : dorsal plumes elongated, 
filamentous, coppery ochreous on the basal, and creamy buff on the terminal 
portion ; wings, tail, chin, and upper throat white ; lower throat and breast 
creamy yellow, the feathers elongated and filamentous ; rest of under parts 
white ; bare space round the eye greenish ; bill pale lead at the base, 
blackish towards the point ; iris rich yellow ; legs greenish yellow. 
Culmen 2'62, wing 8 -6, tail 3'5, tarsus 2'5 inch. The female has the 
nuchal plumes shorter, and is somewhat smaller. In the winter the 
nuchal and dorsal plumes are much less developed. The young bird has 
the nuchal feathers shorter and yellower, the dorsal feathers darker and 
coppery brown, the wings marked with yellowish buff, the lower throat 
striped with blackish, the bill greenish yellow, brown along the ridge ; iris 
whitish yellow ; legs yellowish green. 

Hob. Southern Europe, east to the Caspian, straying rarely to 
central and northern continental Europe and Great Britain ; 
Africa south to the Transvaal. 

In its habits it somewhat reminds one of the Bitterns. It 
affects damp swampy localities, but is said to be met with 
in localities frequented by herds of domestic swine. Its 
note is a harsh charr but not loud, and as a rule it is a 
somewhat silent bird. It feeds on fish, frogs, aquatic insects, 
worms, and small shell-fish. It breeds in marshy places, nest- 
ing on the ground amongst the aquatic herbage or on bushes, 



572 ARDEA 

and in May or June deposits 4 or 5 eggs, in colour greenish 
blue like those of A.purpwrea t but measuring only about 1*55 
by 1-19. 

798. POND-HERON. 
ARDEA GRAYI. 

Ardea grayi, Sykes, P.Z.S. 1832, p. 158 ; Barnes, Stray Feathers, ix. 
p. 460 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 207 ; (Blanf.), F. Brit. 
Ind. Birds, iv. p. 393 ; A. leucoptera, Gray, List. Grail. Brit. Mus. 

p. 82 (1844). 

JBagla, Andha-bagla, Hindu. ; Kana-koka, Cingal. 

ad. (India). Head and neck light yellowish brown, the crown 
browner, the occipital crest white, the dorsal plumes deep maroon tipped 
with blackish slate, the tips of the first primaries brownish, and the 
pectoral plumes ashy brown streaked with white ; bill blue at the base, 
yellowish in the middle and edges, black at the tip ; bare orbital skin 
greenish yellow ; legs and feet dull green ; iris bright yellow. Culmen 2 '6, 
wing 8 '5, tail 3*1, tarsus 2*2 inch. 

Hal. India, Ceylon, and Burma, north to Afghanistan, west 
to the Persian Gulf, south-east to the Malay Peninsula ; the 
Andaman, Nicobar, and Laccadive Islands. 

Frequents paddy fields, ditches, banks and similar damp 
localities, and is a common and familiar bird in India. It feeds 
on frogs, crabs, fish, insects, &c., and nests in colonies, construct- 
ing a nest of sticks on a tree, and from May to September 
deposits 4 to 6 greenish blue eggs, which measure about 1*48 
by 1-17. 

799. CHINESE POND-HERON. 
ARDEA BACCHUS. 

Ardea bacchus, Bp. Consp. Gen. Av. ii. p. 127 (1855) ; (Sharpe), Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 211 ; (Blanf.), F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 394 ; 
A. prasinoscelis, Swinh. Ibis, 1860, p. 64; David and Oust. Ois. 
Chine, p. 443 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 225 ; A. leucoptera, 
(pt.) Gray, Gen. of B. iii. p. 566 (1847) ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 984. 

< ad. (China). Crown, sides of head and neck, and long nuchal crest 
bright chestnut, becoming maroon on the lower portions ; chin and upper 
throat white ; back and elongated dorsal plumes rich deep slate ; feathers 
on lower breast elongated ; rest of plumage, wings, and tail white ; bill 



ARDE A NYCTICORAX 573 



bluish at base, yellow in the middle, black towards the tip ; bare orbital 
skin greenish yellow ; legs pale yellowish green, soles and tibiae pale 
yellow ; iris golden yellow. Culmen 2'7, wing 8'5, tail 3'0, tarsus 2'2 inch. 
Female similar but rather smaller. In winter the head and neck are 
brownish streaked with yellowish buff, the upper breast white streaked 
with brown ; back and scapulars brownish ash, the latter with pale 
yellowish shaft-stripes. 

Hob. Mongolia, up to the Russian frontier ; Manchuria ; 
China ; Burma ; the Malay Peninsula ; Borneo ; the Andaman 
Islands ; has once been obtained in Japan. 

In habits and nidification it is said not to differ from A. grayi. 



NYCTICORAX, Rafin., 1851. 

800. NIGHT-HERON. 
NYCTICORAX GRISEUS. 

Nycticorax griseus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 239 (1766) ; Dresser, vi. 
p. 269, pi, 402 ; Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 26 ; Blanf. F. Brit, 
Ind. Birds, iv. p. 397 ; Saunders, p. 379 ; Lilford, vii. p. 32, pi. 11 ; 
N. nycticorax (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 235 (1766) ; (Naum.), ix. 
p. 139, Taf. 225 ; (Audubon), B. of Am. pi. 236 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xx vi. p. 146 ; Ridgvvay, p. 133 ; N. europceus, Steph. in Shaw's 
Gen. Zool. xi. p. 609 (1819) ; Gould, B. of E. iv. p. 279. 

Htron bihoreau, French ; Goraz, Portug. ; Garza gris, Garza 
de noche, Span. ; Nitticom, Ital. ; Nachtreiher, German ; Kwak, 
Dutch ; Kwakwa, Russ. ; Kwak, Tar-bagla, Hindu. ; Ond-dze, 
Chinese ; Seguro-yoi, Jap. 

ad. (Malta). Forehead, a streak over the eye, cheeks, chin, throat, 
fore part of neck, breast, and abdomen white ; crown, nape, back, and 
scapulars black glossed with bottle-green ; several very long, white nuchal 
feathers ; sides of and hind neck, wings, rump, tail, and flanks ashy dove- 
grey ; bill blackish ; lores and orbital space yellowish green ; legs dull 
ochreous ; iris deep red. Culmen 3'0, wing 11*4, tail 4'7, tarsus 3'05 inch. 
Female similar. In winter the long nuchal white feathers are wanting. 
The young bird is brown above, the crown and nape striped, the back and 
wing-coverts with triangular spots of buffy white ; under parts white 
streaked with brown ; quills and tail ashy brown tipped with white. 

Hob. Central and southern Europe ; straying to the British 
Islands, Denmark, and south Sweden, but has occurredas farnorth 
as the Faeroes ; Africa generally ; Asia as far east generally 
as Japan, north to Manchuria, south to the Moluccas ; America 
except in the high north ; the Sandwich Islands. 



574 NYCTICORAXGORSACHIUS 

Is chiefly nocturnal in its habits, during the day remaining 
hidden in some densely foliaged tree, and at the approach of 
dusk starting off in search of its food, which consists of fish, 
aquatic insects, worms, and crabs. Its flight is soft and noiseless 
like that of an owl, and its note is a harsh croak, kwak, which is 
seldom uttered except at night. It is as a rule a breeder on 
trees, constructing a flat nest of twigs and small branches lined 
with leaves of aquatic plants, rootlets, &c. Its eggs, 4 to 5 in 
number, are usually deposited in April or May, and are uniform 
pale greenish blue, glossless, and measure about 2*5 by 1'41. 



GORSACHIUS, Bp. } 1855. 

801. JAPANESE NIGHT-HERON. 
GORSACHIUS GOISAGI. 

Gorsachius goisagi (Temm.), PI. Col. pi. 582 (1836) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxvi. p. 169 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 223. 

Miso-goi, Jap. 

( ad. (Japan). Upper parts deep foxy chestnut with a vinous coppery 
tinge on the middle of the crown, nape, hind neck, and of the back ; most 
of the upper parts veriniculated with blackish ; quills black tipped with 
chestnut ; outer wing-coverts black tipped with white ; tail blackish 
chestnut ; chin and upper throat whitish with central black stripes ; rest 
of under parts rufescent ochreous, vermiculated with blackish, and 
sparingly striped with black and white ; axillaries black and rufous ; bill 
green ; culmen blackish ; legs and feet green ; iris yellow. Culmen 1'5, 
wing 10*1, tail 3*7, tarsus 2'5 inch. Sexes alike. The young bird has the 
back browner and more uniform, the wings boldly freckled with rufous 
buff. 

Hob. Japan ; Formosa and the Philippines in winter. 

In habits it is chiefly nocturnal like the true Night-Herons, 
and remains hidden in the trees by day, feeding at night on fish, 
worms, crabs, &c. It frequents the forests, but nothing definite 
appears to be as yet known respecting its nesting habits. 
Gr. melanolophus, which inhabits the Malabar coast, Burma, the 
Philippines, &c., is a closely allied form, differing in having the 
tips of the quills edged with white and the axillaries black and 
white; the crown and long nuchal feathers are also slaty 
black. 



ARDETTA 575 



ARDETTA, Gray, 1842. 
802. LITTLE GREEN HERON. 
ARDETTA JAVANICA. 

Ardetta javanica (Horsf.), Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 190 (1821) ; (Sharpe), 
Cat B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 177 ; (David and Oust.), Ois. Chine, p. 142 ; 
(Blanf.), F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 395 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 986 ; 
(Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 224 ; B. var. amurensis, Schrenck, Keis. 
Amurl. i. p. 441 (1860) ; Sharpe, op. cit. xxvi. p. 181 ; B. spodiogaster ; 
Sharpe, Bull. B.O.C. iii. p. xvii. (1894) ; id. op. cit. xxvi. p. 182, 
pi. ii. 

Kancha-lagla, Hindu. 

ad. (India). Crown, nape, and elongated occipital plumes black 
glossed with green or purplish ; a short black stripe from the base of the 
bill below the eye ; rest of neck and elongated dorsal plumes ashy bluish 
grey ; quills and tail slate-blue, the former with narrow white margins ; 
wing-coverts glossy greenish margined with buffy white j chin, throat, and 
a streak bordering the lower mandible, white ; under parts ashy grey, 
whiter in the middle of abdomen ; bill above black, below greenish yellow ; 
facial skin green ; iris yellow ; legs green, front of tarsus and toes dusky, 
soles orange. Culmen 2 '8, wing 7 '4, tail 2 '8, tarsus 1'85 inch. Sexes 
alike. The young has the crown blackish brown with a few whitish 
stripes, the upper parts brown with buff spots, and the under parts white 
streaked with brown. In a series from various localities there is a con- 
siderable variation in measurements. 

Hob. The greater part of the Indo-Malayan area, north to the 
Amoor ; Manchuria ; North China and Japan. 

In habits it is chiefly nocturnal, though less so than some of 
its allies, and may sometimes be seen in the daytime in search 
of food in shady places, but as a rule it remains concealed during 
the day and seeks its food by night, feeding on fish, frogs, crabs, 
&c. In India it breeds from May to August, placing a small 
nest, constructed of sticks, on a tree, and deposits 3 to 5 pale 
sea-green eggs, which measure about 1'62 by 1*21. 

803. LITTLE BITTERN. 
ARDETTA MINUTA. 

Ardetta minuta (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 240 (1766) ; (Naum.), ix. p. 194, 
Taf. 227 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 315, pi. Ixxxiii.fig. 1 ; (Gould), B. ofE. 
iv. pi. 282 ; (id.), B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 29 ; Dresser, vi. p. 259, 
pi. 401 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 222 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iv. p. 400 ; Saunders, p. 381 ; Lilford, vii. p. 33, pi. 12. 



576 ARDETTA 



Hdron blongios, French ; Garcenha, Portug. ; Garza pequena, 
Span. ; Nonnotto, Guacco, Ital. ; Zweryrohrdommel, German ; 
Woudaapje, Dutch ; Dvcergheira, Dan. ; Dverg-rordrum, Swed. ; 
Zapla-woltschok, Russ. 

<$ ad. (Malta). Upper parts, including the head and .tail, black glossed 
with greenish ; sides of head and neck dull vinous grey ; quills purplish 
black ; wing-coverts ochreous, the larger tinged with dove-blue, under 
parts ochreous ; the lower neck-feathers elongated ; bill and legs greenish 
yellow ; iris and bare part round the eye yellow. Culmen 21, wing 5 83. 
tail 2*4, tarsus 1'72 inch. The female is rather smaller, has the head 
brownish black, the sides of head and neck rufous ; back and scapulars 
dark chestnut-brown margined with ochreous ; quills dark brown ; a patch 
of chestnut-red on the shoulder ; chin white, with a central ochreous 
stripe ; under parts streaked with white. Young birds resemble the 
female but have the upper parts more varied with buff, and the under 
parts streaked with deep brown. 

Hob. Temperate Europe, straying to Scandinavia and the 
British Islands, and has however been recorded from the 
Fseroes and Iceland ; Madeira and the Azores ; northern and 
central Africa in winter ; Asia Minor and temperate Asia as 
far east as Northern India*. 

In habits it is shy and secretive and much resembles the 
Bittern. It frequents dense reed-beds and slips with ease 
through the densest thickets. Its flight is easy and swift, and 
the call-note of the male is a somewhat soft bum, bum, that of 
the female being gett, gdt, gett. It feeds, chiefly by night, on 
small fish, frogs, and aquatic insects. Its nest is a clumsy 
structure of aquatic plants and twigs, lined with fine grass or 
flags, and is placed in the rushes well above the water, or some- 
times on a bush. The eggs, 4 to 7 or even 9 in number, are 
usually deposited in May or June, and are dull white, with a 
bluish tinge when fresh, and measure about T37 by 1*05. 



804. CHINESE LITTLE BITTERN. 
ARDETTA SINENSIS. 

Ardetta sinensis (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 642 (1788) ; David and Oust. 
- Ois. Chine, p. 448 ; Sharpe, Gat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 227 ; Blanf. F. 
Brit. Ind. Birds, -iv. p. 401 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 27 ; Tacz. 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 988. 

Jun-bagla, Hindu.; Kat-bogla, Beng. ; Yoshigoi,j8ip. 



ARDETTA 577 



ad. (Burma). Differs from A. minuta in having the crown and nape 
intermixed with grey ; the hind-neck rufous ; the hack, scapulars, and 
inner secondaries yellowish brown, with a rufous tinge ; quills and tail 
slaty hlack ; bill dark brown above, pinkish brown below ; facial skin 
green ; iris yellow ; tarsus dull flesh ; toes and tibio-tarsal joint pale 
yellow. Culinen 2'75, wing 5'2, tail 1'9, tarsus 1'8 inch. The female 
differs from A. minuta in having the upper parts pale brownish rufous, 
the under parts with pale reddish stripes. 

Hal. Japan ; China ; Burma ; India and Ceylon ; Malayana ; 
New Guinea ; North Australia ; the Caroline, Marianne, Pelew, 
and Seychelle Islands. 

In habits it does not differ from A. minuta. In India it 
breeds from May to August, and in Japan in June and July, 
depositing 4 to 6 eggs resembling those of A. minuta, and 
measuring about 1*3 by 0'95. 



805. CHESTNUT BITTERN. 
ARDETTA CINNAMOMEA. 

Ardetta cinnamonifa (Gmel.), Syst. Xat. i. p. 643 (1788) ; Gjray and 
Hardw. 111. Ind. Zool. i. pi. 66, fig. 1 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, 
iv. p. 402 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 447 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 236 ; (Schrenck), Reis. Amurl. Taf. xiv. 

Lal-bayla, Hindu. ; Matti-korowaka, Cingal. 

ad. (India). Upper parts generally pale chestnut-red, the wing- 
coverts paler ; under parts tawny ochreous ; a white stripe on each side of 
the throat ; pectoral plumes elongated, the feathers underneath blackish 
brown with buff edges ; bill dark brown above, yellow below ; facial skin 
reddish purple ; legs and feet yellowish green ; soles and iris yellow. 
Culmen 2'1, wing 6'5, tail 1-8, tarsus 1-9 inch. The female has the crown and 
hind-neck chestnut-brown with a blackish tinge ; upper parts chestnut- 
brown, spotted with buff ; under parts ochreous, striped with chocolate 
brown ; facial skin yellow. 

Hal. India and Ceylon ; Burma ; the Amoor, Manchuria and 
China ; south to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 

In habits it does not differ from A. minuta. In India it 
breeds in June, July, and August, placing its nest, which is a 
mere pad of grass, on the ground in swampy places, but some- 
times on a bush, and depositing 5 or 6 eggs which resemble 
those of A. minuta, and measure about T28 by 0*99. 



578 ARDETTA BOTAURUS 



806. SCHRENCK'S LITTLE BITTERN. 
ARDETTA EURYTHMA. 

Ardetta euryth/na, Swinh. Ibis, 1873, p. 74, pi. ii. ; David and Oust. Ois. 
Chine, p. 447, pi. 119 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 227 ; (Sharpe), 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 242 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 989 ; A. 
cinnamomea (nee. Gmel.), (Schrenck), Keis. Amurl. Taf. xiii. fig. 3 ; 
(Radde), Eeis. im. Siid. Ost. Sib. ii. p. 344. 

Yoshi-goi, Jap. 

$ ad. (Japan). Crown, hind-neck, back, scapulars, and inner second- 
aries rich dark chestnut, the crown darker and slightly washed with grey ; 
quills dull slaty grey ; wing-coverts buffy ochreous, the edge of the wing 
and the tail deep chestnut ; chin and throat white, tinged with isabeiline, 
and with a dark central line ; rest of under parts creamy buff ; pectoral 
feathers elongated, and concealing feathers blackish, margined with ochre- 
ous ; bill blackish brown above, yellowish brown below ; orbital skin 
purplish flesh, tinged with green ; legs grass-green, yellow near the tarso- 
tibial joint, and on the soles; iris straw colour. Culmen 2*0, wing 5'5, 
tail TG5, tarsus 2*1 inch. The female differs in having the head, neck, 
and upper parts rich chocolate-red, spotted with creamy white, and the 
under parts isabeiline, striped with warm chocolate-red and blackish 
brown. 

Hob* Eastern Siberia (southern Dauria, the lower Amoor, 
the mouth of the Ussuri river, and the island of Askold) Japan ; 
China to Borneo and Celebes. 

In general habits and nidification it does not differ from 
A. cinnamomea, with which it was confused by the earlier 
Siberian travellers. Its eggs from Dauria are described as 
being white, almost elliptical in shape, and measure about 
1:30 by 1-06. 

Ardetta sturmi (Wagl) which inhabits the greater part of 
Africa is said to have occurred in the Pyrenees, but I find no 
authentic instance of its occurrence within our limits except 
that of one individual at Laguna in the Canaries, and con- 
sequently do not include it. 

BOTAURUS, Briss., 1760. 

807. BITTERN. 
BOTAURUS STELLARIS. 

Botaurus stellaris (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 239 ; (Naum.), ix. p. 159, Taf. 
226 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 317, p. Ixxxiv. figs. 1, 2 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. 
pi. 280 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 27 ; Dresser, vi. p. 281, pi. 403 ; 



BOTAURUS 579 



David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 446 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. 

p. 253 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 991 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. 

p. 405 ; Saunders, p. 383 ; Lilford, vii. p. 38, pi. 13 ; Seebohnf, B. 

Jap. Emp. p. 226. 

Grand Eutor, French; Gallinhola real, Portug. ; Avetoro, 
Span. ; Tarabuso, Ital. ; Eolirdommel, German ; Eoerdomp, 
Dutch ; Rordrum, Norweg. and Dan. ; Rordrom, Swed. ; Wyp, 
Russ. ; Niv-goung, Baz, Hindu. ; Sankano-goi, Jap. 

$ ad. (Holland). Crown and nape black, the latter with warm ochreous 
tips ; upper parts generally warm ochreous buff, irregularly marked and 
barred with blackish ; quills and tail chestnut-red, the former barred, the 
latter blotched and marbled with black ; chin buffy white, with a dark 
brown median and a lateral stripe on each side from the base of the bill ; 
neck and breast-feathers elongated, the lateral ones yellowish buff, with 
blackish bars, the middle ones ochreous, with broad central rufous streaks 
marbled with blackish ; rest of under parts yellowish buff, streaked with 
blackish brown ; bill and legs greenish yellow, the latter greener ; iris 
yellow. Culmen 2*8, wing 11 '7, tail 4*45, .tarsus 3*5 inch. Female similar 
but rather smaller. 

Hob. Europe generally, but rare in the northern portions, 
formerly breeding in many parts of England, but now only an 
uncertain visitor ; Northern Africa in winter ; Asia as far east 
as Japan, north to the Yenesei and Lena, south to Ceylon 
and southern China. 

Frequents large swamps, and reed-beds, and is shy and 
secretive, and chiefly nocturnal in its habits. Its flight is soft 
and noiseless but somewhat laboured and seldom prolonged. 
Its usual call-note is a loud, clear croak, but in the breeding 
season the male utters the loud booming sound, resembling the 
deep bellowing of a bull, whence its name in so many lan- 
guages is derived. It feeds on amphibians, water-insects, 
worms, crustaceans, and small mammals. Its nest is a mere 
bed of flags and reeds, placed on the ground or in the reed- 
beds in some secluded rnarsh, and the eggs, 3 to 5 in number, 
usually laid in May, are uniform brownish olive and measure 
about 2-5 by T52. 

808. AMERICAN BITTERN. 
BOTAURUS LENTiaiNOSUS. 

Botaurus lentiginosus (Montag.), Orn. Diet. Suppl. and pi. (1813) ; Gould, 
B. of E. iv. pi. 281 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 28 ; Dresser, vi. 
p. 289, pi. 404 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 259 ; Ridgway, 
p. 126 ; Saunders, p. 385 ; Lilford, vii. p. 39, pi. 14 ; B. minor 
(Wils.), Amer. Orn. viii. p. 35, pi. Ixv. fig. 3 (1814) ; Audub. B 
Am. pi. 337. 

Q Q 



580 EOT A URUS CICONIA 



$ ad. (New Brunswick). Differs from B. stellaris in being generally 
smaller, in having a more slender bill, the crown and nape reddish brown 
marked with blackish brown, the primaries uniform blackish brown, some 
slightly tipped with chestnut, and the upper parts are more finely vermicu- 
lated. Culmen 3'22, wing 11-5, tail 4'5, tarsus 3'85. Female duller and 
smaller. 

Hob. The whole of temperate and tropical North America, 
south to Guatemala, Cuba, Jamaica, and Bermudas ; a not un- 
common straggler to the British Islands, and has not been 
obtained elsewhere in Europe. 

In general habits and nidification it resembles B. stellaris, 
but its note in the breeding season differs from the boom of 
our bird and resembles the stroke of a mallet on a stake, and 
its usual note is a rough guttural quark, but it is as a rule a 
silent bird. Its eggs resemble those of B. stellaris, but are as a 
rule smaller. 

CICONIA, Briss., 1760. 
809. WHITE STORK. 
CICONIA ALBA. 

Ciconia alba, Bechst. Naturg. Deutschl. iii. p. 48 (1793) ; Naum. ix. 
p. 231, Taf. 228 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 317, pi. Ixxxiv. fig. 1 ; Gould, 
B. of E. iv. p. 283 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 30 ; Dresser, vi. p. 297, 
pi. 405 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 299 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iv. p. 369 ; Saunders, p. 387 ; Lilford, vii. p. 41, pi. 15. 

Cigogne, French ; Cegonha, Portug. ; Ciguena, Span. ; Cigogna, 
Ital. ; Storch, German ; Stork, Dan. and Swed. ; Aist, Russ. ; 
Leglek, Tartar ; Badjah, Arab. ; Lag-lag, Hindu. 

<$ ad. (Albania). Plumage pure white, except tbe quills, scapulars, 
and larger wing coverts which are glossy black ; secondaries washed 
with grey on the outer web ; bare skin round the eye black ; chin naked 
and reddish, but black at the base of bill ; beak and legs coral red ; iris 
brown. Culmen 7'0, wing 22'5, tail 9*0, tarsus 8'9. Female similar but 
rather smaller. 

Hal. Temperate and southern Europe, occurring rarely in 
southern Sweden, Finland, and Great Britain ; wintering in 
Africa as far south as the Transvaal ; Central and temperate 
Asia as far east as northern India. 

In most parts where the Stork is found it is protected, being 
supposed by the peasantry to bring luck to the farm in which it 
builds. It feeds on frogs, insect-larvae, rats, mice, snakes, fish, 



C 1C ON I A 581 



&c. I have never heard Storks utter any cry, but during the 
breeding season they make a great clattering with their bills. 
They affect the vicinity of man greatly and usually build 
on a barn or house, making a huge nest of sticks lined with 
rass or any soft material, but they frequently build on trees. 
The eggs, 3 to 5 in number, are usually laid late in May, and 
are pure white, measuring about 3'15 by 2'17. 



810. JAPANESE STORK. 
CICONIA BOYCIANA. 

<AConia boyclana, Swinli. P.Z.S. 1873, p. 513 ; David and Oust. Ois. 
Chine, p. 450 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 228 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mug. xxvi. p. 302 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. 0. p. 973. 

Ko-dzuru, Jap. 

<$ ad. (Japan). Differs from C. alba in being larger, in having the beak 
black, not red, the eye-lids and bare skin round the eye vermilion red ; 
the iris cream white, with a black exterior circle. Culmen 9'5, wing 26'0, 
tail 9'7, tarsus 11-0. 

Hal. Eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Corea, and Japan; of 
doubtful occurrence in China. 

In habits it does not appear to differ from C. alba, but is 
not so tame, and does not so much affect the vicinity of man. 
It nests in trees and lays white eggs, which resemble those 
of that species (C. alba), but measure 3'0 by 2*28. 

811. BLACK STORK. 
CICONIA NIGRA. 

Ciconia nigra (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 235 (1766) ; Naum. ix. p. 279, Taf. 
229 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 319, pi. Ixxxiv. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 
284 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 31 ; Dresser, vi. p. 309, pi. 406 ; David 
and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 450 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 303 ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 975 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 369 ; 
Saunders, p. 389 ; Lilford, vii. p. 45, pi. 16. 

Cigogne noir, French ; Gegonlia preta, Portug. ; Ciguena negra, 
Span. ; Cigogna nera, Ital ; Schwarzer Storck, German ; Sort 
Stork, Dan. ; Svart Stork, Swed. ; Tscherno'i Aist, Russ. ; 
Balazdn, Arab. ; Surmai, Hindu. 

$ ad. (Brunswick). Head, neck, back, wings, and tail black with 
metallic gloss ; lower breast and under parts white ; beak, naked skin round 

Q Q 2 



582 CICONIAPLATALEA 

the eye and legs orange red ; iris reddish brown. Culmen 7'4, wing 21*1, 
tail 9*5, tarsus 7*5 inch. Female similar. The young have the upper 
parts browner and duller, most of the feathers tipped with dull white. 

Hob. Temperate and southern Europe, becoming rare in 
the north up to southern Sweden ; of rare occurrence in Great 
Britain; Africa, in winter as far south as the Cape Colony; 
Asia north to the Lena, east to Mongolia and China. 

In habits it is less sociable than C. alba and does not affect 
the neighbourhood of man, but frequents marshes in or near 
forests, generally far from human habitations. It is also far more 
shy and is not seen in flocks, even during passage, but singly 
or in pairs. It feeds on frogs, amphibians, reptiles, small 
mammals, and to some extent on insects. It breeds in forests, 
making a smaller nest than that of C. alba, of sticks lined with 
grass and moss, or it occasionally utilizes the deserted nest of 
some other large bird, and it sometimes nests in a cave or on 
a cliff. The eggs, 3 to 5 in number, are usually deposited late 
in May or early in June, and are white, resembling those of 
C. alba except that when held up to the light the inside of the 
blown egg is yellowish green ; in size they measure about 2*54 
by 1-90. 



PLATALEA, Linn., 1766. 

812. SPOONBILL. 
PLATALEA LEUCORODIA, 

Platalea leucorodia, Linn/Syst. Nat. i. p. 231 (1766) ; Naum. ix. p. 312 ; 
Taf. 230 ; Hewitson,ii. p. 320, pi. Ixxxv. ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 286 ; 
id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 32 ; (Dresser), vi. p. 319, pi. 407 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 44 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 366 ; 
Saunders, p. 393 ; Lilford, vii. p. 51, pi. 18 ; P. major, Temm. and 
Schlegel, Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 119, pi. Ixxv. (1850) ; David and Oust. 
Ois. Chine, p. 451 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 970. 

Spatule blanche, French ; Colhereira, Portug. ; Espatula, 
Cuchareta, Span. ; Palettuni, Ital. ; Loffler, German ; Lepelaar, 
Dutch ; Skeeheira, Dan. ; Skegaas, Norweg. ; Skedstork, Swed. ; 
Kolpitza, Russ. : Abu-Malaqah, Lands, Arab. ; Eou-kar-kaba, 
Moor. ; Chamach-buza, Hindu. ; Hiro-sagi, Jap. 

$ ad. (Holland). Entire plumage pure white, except that the lower 
neck is buffy yellow nuchal feathers much elongated, forming a crest ; 



PLATALEA 583 

bill black marked with dull yellowish, the plate yellow, marked on the 
upper part with black ; loral space yellowish ; bare gular space reddish 
yellow ; legs and feet dusky blackish ; iris red. Culrnen 7'2, wing 15*0, 
tail 5'0, tarsus 5*0, bare part of tibia 3*5 inch. Female similar but with 
smaller crest. In the winter the crest is absent or nearly so. 

Hctb. Central and southern Europe, formerly breeding in 
England, but now of rare occurrence in Britain and southern 
Scandinavia ; has strayed to the Faeroes ; Madeira, Canaries, 
and Azores ; Africa, on the east side south to Zanzibar, being 
replaced in S. Africa by P. tenuirostris, Temm. ; Asia east to 
China, north to southern Dauria ; a rare straggler to Japan, 
where P. minor occurs in the extreme south. 

The Spoonbill affects marshy localities, especially near the 
sea-coast, and is shy and wary in its general habits. Its flight 
somewhat resembles that of the Stork, and its note is said to 
be deep and Heron-like, but like the Stork it makes a clatter- 
ing sound with its bill. Its food consists of amphibians, 
aquatic insects, &c. It breeds in communities, placing its 
nest on a tree or on a low bush, or else amongst the reeds. 
The nest is constructed of twigs, sticks, and flags, lined with 
small flags or rushes, and the eggs, 3 to 4 in number, are white, 
with the faintest blue tinge when fresh, sparsely spotted and 
blotched with pale red, and measure about 2'75 by 1*81. In 
Europe the breeding season is usually in May, but in India it 
varies from April to November according to latitude. 



813. BLACK-FACED SPOONBILL. 
PLATALEA MINOR. 

Platalea minor, Temm. and Schlegel, Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 120, pi. 76 ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 50 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. 
p. 231. 

< ad. Differs from P. leucorodia in being smaller, in having the bare 
forehead and bare portion to behind the eye and the upper throat black ; a 
yellow spot in front of the eye ; feathers on the upper throat extending in 
a point towards the chin. 

Hob. Corea ; Japan (near Nagasaki) ; China and Formosa. 

In habits it does not appear to differ from P. leucorodia, but 
I find nothing on record respecting its nidification. 



584 IBIS 



IBIS, Cuvier, 1817. 

814. SACRED IBIS. 
IBIS JETHIQFICA. 

Ibis cethiopica (Lath.), Ind. Orn. ii. p. TOG (1790) ; Shelley, B. of Egypt, 
p. 261 ; Dresser, ix. p. 285, pi. 694 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. 
p. 4 ; I. religiosa, Cuv. Kegne An. i. p. 483 (1817). 

Naadje, Abu-Quadum, Arab. ; Abu-Hanncs, Egypt ; Schoorstein- 
veger, Dutch in S. Africa. 

$ ad. (Transvaal). General plumage white except the tips of the 
primaries and outer secondaries, which are black, glossed with metallic 
green ; inner secondaries elongated, lax, on the basal portion bluish grey, and 
on the terminal portion black glossed with purple, forming a plume which 
covers the tail ; head and neck bare, dull black ; beak and legs black ; iris 
brown. Culmen 7*0, wing 15 '4, tail 6*3, tarsus 4*0 inch. Female rather 
smaller, the plumes duller. The young bird has the head and neck covered 
with short black and white feathers. 

Hob. Africa south to the Cape ; Algeria and Egypt rarely 
is said to have occurred in the Caucasus ; Southern Persia. 

The Sacred Ibis is very cautious and wary and is generally 
to be seen in small companies. Its food consists of insects of 
various kinds, frogs, lizards, and snakes. Its call-note is said 
to be harsh, resembling that of Ardea His. It nests on trees, 
constructing a simple nest of coarse twigs lined with grass and 
a few feathers, and lays 3 to 4, seldom 5, eggs, which are white 
with a bluish tinge, sparingly marked with brown, and measure 
about 2-5 by 1-6. 

815. WHITE IBIS. 
IBIS MELANOCEPHALA. 

Ibis melanocephala (Lath.), Ind. Orn. ii. p. 709 (1790) ; David and Oust. 
Ois. Chine, p. 452 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 232 ; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 7 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 361 ; J. 
propinqua, Swinh. P.2.S. 1870, p. 428 ; Blakist. and Pryer, B. Jap 
p. 117. 

Munda, Didhar, Hindu. ; Tatu-kcika, Cing. ; Kaynsoti, Burm. ; 
Kuro-toki, Kama-sagi, Nabe-kdburi, Jap. 

ad. Differs from /. cetliiopica in breeding-dress in having the pri- 
maries white, sometimes edged or mottled with brown, and not tipped 
with black, having elongate white feathers round the base of the neck and 



IBIS 585 

plumes on the upper breast, and the elongated inner secondaries are grey, 
and not black ; head and neck bluish black ; bill black ; legs glossy black ; 
iris reddish brown ; skin of wing blood-red. Calmen 6'4, wing M'4, 
tail 50, tarsus 4*2 inch. Female similar. In winter the elongated pectoral 
plumes and those on the upper parts are wanting. The young bird has 
the head and neck feathered forward to the eyes, the head, except beneath, 
blackish grey, passing into white on the hind-neck. 

Hob. India, Ceylon, Burma, China, Manchuria, Japan, 
(Yokohama, Tokio). 

Like its allies it frequents marshy places, rivers, lakes, 
and large ponds, usually in flocks, feeding on mollusca, 
Crustacea, aquatic insects, worms, etc. In Northern India the 
breeding season is from June to August, and in Ceylon from 
November to February, and it breeds in trees, sometimes 
singly and at others several pairs together, constructing a nest 
of sticks and twigs lined with finer twigs, and depositing 2 to 4 
eggs, white, occasionally delicately spotted with pale yellowish 
brown, varying a good deal in size but averaging 2 '5 4 by 1'7. 



816. JAPANESE IBIS. 
IBIS NIPPON. 

Ibis nippon, Temrn. PI. Col. v. pi. 551 (1835) ; David and Oust. Ois. 
Chine, p. 453, pi. 116 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 232 ; (Sharpe), 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 15 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 967 ; /. nippon, 
var. sinensis, David and Ou^t. Ois. Chine, p. 454, pi. 117. 

Told, Dau, Jap. 

ad. (Japan). General colour of plumage white, the wings, tail, and 
axillaries tinged with almond pink ; feathers on the nape and hind-neck 
elongated, forming a crest ; lores, forehead, and chin orange- vermilion ; 
eyelid golden yellow ; iris orange ; bill black, mottled with red at the tip ; 
nail yellow j legs, feet, and naked part of tibia light red. Culmen 6'1, 
wing 15*4, tail 6 - 2, tarsus 2'8 inch. Sexes alike. The young bird has the 
plumage grey, not white. 

Hal). South-eastern Siberia, Manchuria ; China, Formosa, and 
Hainan ; Corea ; Japan. 

In its general habits it is said to be shy and wary, frequenting 
large marshes, damp localities, and the banks of streams and 
rivers. Its note is harsh, not unlike that of the Hooded Crow, 
but deeper and harsher. It nests in bushes and trees, but so 
far as I can ascertain its eggs are as yet unknown. 



586 IBIS PLEGADIS 



817. RED-CHEEKED IBIS. 
IBIS EREMITA. 

Ibis eremita (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 159 (1766) ; (Rothsch. and Hart,), 
Novit. Zool. iv. p. 371, pis. viii. ix. x. (1897) ; Ibis comata, Ru'pp. 
Neue Wirbelth. Vbgel. p. 49 (1835-40) ; Dresser, vi. p. 329, pi. 408 ; 
(Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 16 ; I.calvus, Levaill. jr. Expl. 
Sclent. dePAlg. pi. 12 (1850, nee. Bodd.). 

Kel-ainak, Turk. 

$ ad. (Asia Minor). General plumage dark coppery green, the crown 
black ; head and throat bare ; feathers on the neck elongated, pointed, 
forming a ruff ; lesser wing-coverts rich coppery purple ; bill, naked throat, 
and head with.the legs dull blood-red ; iris fiery red. Culmen 5'2, wing 16'7, 
tail 8*5, tarsus 3'0 inch. The tips of the tail-feathers are abruptly acumi- 
nate. Sexes alike. The young bird is duller in colour, lacks the elongated 
feathers on the hind-neck, and the head and neck are covered with dirty 
white feathers, tinged with rusty brown. 

Hob. In the 16th century this Ibis was a native of Switzer- 
land, as stated by Gesner, but it now only inhabits Asia Minor, 
and North Africa south to Abyssinia. 

Frequents rocky and desolate mountain ranges, where it 
feeds on insects of various kinds, snails, and reptiles. It nests 
in holes in the cliffs, generally in almost inaccessible places, 
and deposits bluish white eggs which measure about 2'52 by 
1-74. 

PLEGADIS, Kaup, 1829. 

818. GLOSSY IBIS. 
PLEGADIS FALCINELLUS. 

Plegadis falcinellus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 241 (1766) ; (Naum.), viii. 
p. 539, Taf. 219 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 321, pi. Ixxxvi. ; Gould. B. of 
E. iv. pi. 301 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 47 ; Dresser, vi. p. 335, 
pi. 409 ; Audub. B. of Am. pi. 387 ; Sharpe, Cat, B. Br. Mus. xxvi. 
p. 29 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 364 ; Saunders, p. 391 ; 
Lilford, vii. p. 47, pi. 17 ; P. autumnalis, Ridgw. p. 124. 

Ibis falcinelle, French ; Magarico preto, Portug. ; Morito, 
Span. ; Mignattaio, Ital. ; DunMfarlige Sichler, German ; Sort- 
Ibis^ Dan. and Norweg. ; Svart-Ibis, Swed. ; Koravaika, Russ. ; 
Madzet el Md, Arab ; Maiza, Moor. ; Kaw&ri, Choia-buza, 
Hindu. 

$ ad. (Spain). Forepart of head metallic greenish black, rest of head, 
neck, upper back, edge of shoulder and under parts rich deep copper- 
brown ; back glossed with purple ; rest of upper parts, wings and tail 



PLEGADISPH(ENICOPTERUS 587 



blackish, glossed with purple and green ; under tail-coverts purplish black ; 
bill blackish slate, at the base slate-grey ; legs blackish grey ; iris brown, 
Culmen 5 -2, wing 11 '5, tail 4'7, tarsus 4-0 inch. Female similar bflt a 
trifle smaller. In the winter the head and neck are blackish brown, finely 
streaked with white, and the young resemble the adult in winter dress, but 
are duller in colour, the copper-brown replaced by dull dark brown. 

Hob. Central and southern Europe, straying rarely to 
southern Scandinavia and Great Britain, but has occurred in 
Iceland and the Faeroes ; Africa south to Natal : Central Asia 
and India east to Burma and probably China, south to Ceylon, 
Borneo, Java, Celebes, New Guinea, and Australia ; eastern 
United States south to Florida and Mexico. 

Generally found in marshes or near water. It is as a rule a 
silent bird, only uttering a harsh note when flushed. Its food 
consists of aquatic insects, worms, Crustacea, small frogs, etc. 
It breeds in large marshes in societies, making a flat nest of 
sticks, flags, etc., which is placed on the ground, on the dense 
aquatic plants, or on a tree, and deposits 3 or 4 rich greenish 
blue eggs, which measure about T95 by 1*41. In Europe the 
breeding season is in May. whereas in northern India it is in 
June, and in Ceylon between November and February. 

PH(ENICOPTERUS, Briss., 1760. 
819. FLAMINGO. 

PHCENICOPTERUS ROSEUS. 

Phoenicopterus roseus, Pall. Zoogr. Koss. As. ii. p. 207 (1811) ; Gould, B. 
of E. pi. 287 ; Dresser, vi. p. 343, pi. 410 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxvii. p. 12 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 408 ; Saunders, 
pp. 395, 756 ; Lilford, vii. p. 54, pi. 19 ; P. antiquorum, Temm. 
Man. d'Orn. ii. p. 587 (1820) ; Naum. ix. p. 408, Taf. 233. 

Flammant, French ; Flamingo, Portug. ; Flamenco, Span. ; 
Fiammanti, Fenicottero, Ital. ; Eosenfarliger Flamingo, German ; 
Krasnoi Gouss, Russ. ; Bog-hans, Rag-h&ns, Hindu. ; Kaj-i-surlth, 
Persian. 

$ ad. (Spain). Plumage rosy-white, the tail deeper rose "; upper and 
lesser under wing-coverts and axillaries vermilion rose ; quills black ; legs> 
base of bill, and bare space round the eye flesh-pink ; feet webbed ; ter- 
minal portion of bill deep black ; iris pale yellow. Culmen 5 '65, wing 16'7> 
tail 7'0, tarsus 12'4 inch. Female similar but slightly smaller. The young 
have the plumage white, tinged with rusty buff, especially on the upper 
neck ; wing-coverts chiefly brown ; quills brown ; axillaries rose-pink 
legs dull plumbeous. 



588 PH(ENICOPTERUSANSER 



Hob. Southern Europe, rarely straying to central Europe, 
but has occurred at least four times in Great Britain ; Africa 
south to the Cape ; Asia east to India, south to Ceylon ; is said 
to have occurred once on the southern part of Lake Baikal. 

The Flamingo frequents the sea-coasts and the borders of 
large fresh-water lakes, or of lagoons where the country is 
open and devoid of trees or bushes, and is usually seen in vast 
flocks wading in the shallow water, and working about in the 
soft bottom in search of its food, which consists of minute 
crustaceans, and it is said, also of vegetable matter. In its cry, 
formation of flight, and structure, it most nearly resembles the 
Goose, and it swims also with ease. It breeds in colonies, 
making a small hillock of mud in the shallow water, varying 
from a few inches to a couple of feet in height, larger at the 
base, and tapering to the top, which is hollowed out cup- 
shaped, and late in May it deposits 2 eggs, which are white 
with a chalky surface, in size and shape resembling those of 
Anser ferus, but more elongated, measuring from 3*34 by 2'05 
to 3'48 by 2'20. When sitting the bird doubles its long legs 
under its body. 

ANSER, Bris?., 1760. 
820. GREYLAG-GOOSE. 

ANSER FERUS. 

Anser ferus, Schaeff. Mns. Orn. p. 67, No. 214 (1789) ; Gould, B. of E. v. 
pi. 347 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 1 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 382, pi. cvm\ 
fig. 2 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mas. xxvii. p. 89 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind, 
Birds, iv. p. 416 ; A. cinereus, Meyer, Taschenb. ii. p. 552 (1810) ;. 
Naum. xi. p. 229, Taf. 285 ; Dresser, vi. p. 355, pi. 411 ; Tacz. F. (X 
Sib. 0. p. 1089 ; Saunders, p. 397 ; Lilford, vii. p. 55, pi. 20 ; 
" A. rubrirostris, Hodgs." Gray, Cat. Hodgs. Coll. B. M. p. 144 
(1846) ; Salvadori, torn. cit. p. 91. 

Oie cendrte, French ; Ganso, Portug. and Span. ; Oca selvatica, 
Ital. ; Graugans, German ; Graauwe Gans, Dutch ; Graagaas, 
Dan. and Norweg. ; Grdgds, Swed. ; Iso-hanhi, Finn. ; Seryi- 
Gus, Russ. ; Sona, Hindu. 

ad. (Scotland). Head, neck, and upper parts ashy brown, a narrow line 
of white on the forehead, the crown, back, and scapulars darker, the two 
latter with light brown edgings ; primaries grey, with dark brown ends ; 
secondaries dark brown ; central wing-coverts like the back, the rest ashy 
bine-grey ; rump ashy grey, the sides and tail-coverts white ; tail ashy- 
brown, tipped with white ; under parts dull white with a few black spots 
on the belly ; the flanks ashy brown, tipped with ashy white ; bill and 



ANSER 580 

legs flesh-coloured ; nail and claws white ; iris brown. Culmen 2*55, 
wing 18'0, tail 5 '9, tarsus 3*3 inch. Sexes alike. Young rather duller in 
colour, with no black spots on the under parts. 

Hcib. Europe generally, from the North Cape to the 
Mediterranean ; Britain, breeding commonly in the north of 
Scotland ; Iceland, and the Faeroes ; North-west Africa in 
winter ; Asia east to China, north to Dauria, south to northern 
India. 

Is shy and cautious, and frequents open localities. On the 
wing it is strong, and swims and even dives, and walks with 
ease, and, when traversing long distances, flies in a wedge- 
shaped formation. It feeds on vegetable substances, tender 
shoots of grass, grain, etc., feeding chiefly at night. Its nest 
is placed on the ground and consists of grass, dried flags, etc., 
being lined, after the eggs are deposited, with abundance of 
down plucked by the female from off her breast. The eggs, 
which are deposited from early in April to the end of May or 
beginning of June, according to latitude, are glossless, but 
smooth in surface, dull yellowish white, with, when fresh laid, 
a very faint tinge of green, and measure about 3'52 by 2*28. 
In number they vary from 6 to 12. 

Count Salvadori and several other authors separate the 
Asiatic bird (A. rubrirostris) from ours, but I agree with 
Mr. Blanford in not following this course. 

821. BEAN GOOSE. 
ANSER FABALIS. 

Anserf abatis (Lath.), Gen. Synop. Snppl. i. p. 297 (1787) ; Salvadori Cat 
B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 99 ; A. segetum, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 512 (1788) 
fig. 2 j'Naum. xi. p. 300, Taf. 287 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 385, pi. cviii 
fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 348 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 2 
Dresser, vi. p. 363, pi. 412 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1095 ; Saunders 
p. 401 ; Lilford, vii. p. 61, pi. 22. 

Oiemdgaire, French ; Ganso, Portug. and Span. ; Ocagranaiola, 
Ital. ; Saatgans, German ; Rietgans, Dutch ; Scedyaas, Dan. and 
Norweg. ; Scidgds, Swed. ; Mctsa/ianhi, Finn. ; Guminnik., 
Nemock, Russ. ; ffishikui, Jap. 

< ad. (England). Differs from A. ferns in being somewhat darker in 
colour, in lacking the black markings on the under parts, and the ashy 
blue on the wings, in being smaller in size, and in having the bill blackish, 
crossed by a broad orange yellow-band ; the nail black ; the legs orange- 



590 ANSER 



yellow. Culmen 2 35, wing 16'9, tail 5'7, tarsus 2'8 inch. Female similar 
but somewhat smaller. This species varies considerably in size in both 
sexes. 

Hcib. Europe generally, from Lapland and Novaya Zemlya 
down to North Africa in winter, and has occurred in Madeira ; 
Asia east to western Siberia ; does not occur in India. 

In habits it does not differ from its allies, but it affects 
inland localities more especially, even when frequenting the 
coasts, flying far inland to feed. Its food consists of tender 
grass-shoots, grain, and tender roots of various kinds of grass, 
and it appears to feed chiefly at early dawn. It breeds like 
A. ffrus, usually in damp localities, in the north of Sweden, 
Finland, and Russia, but not in Great Britain, depositing early 
in June 5 to 6 eggs, which resemble those of A. ferus but are 
smaller and somewhat smoother in texture of shell. 

822. SUBSP. ANSEK MIDDENDORFFI. 

A. grandis, Midd. Sib. Keise, ii. p. 225, Tab. xx. 3 fig. 1 (1851 nee. 
Gmel.) ; A. middendorjfi, Severtzoff, Turk. Jevot. pp. 70, 149 (1873); 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1098 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 102. 

Hishikui, Jap. 

$ ad. (N. Siberia). Differs from A.fabalis in being larger, with con- 
spicuously larger beak and feet, and in having the head and neck bumsh 
brown. Culmen 3'15, wing 19'8, tail 5'67, tarsus 3'31. 

Hcib. Eastern Siberia, wintering in China and Japan. Does 
not differ from A. falalis in habits or nidification. 

823. PINK-FOOTED GOOSE. 
ANSER BRACHYRHYNCHUS. 

Anser brachyrhynchus, Baill. Mem. Soc. K. d'Abbev. 1833, p. 74 ; 
Hewitson, ii. p. 386, pi. cviii. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. v. 
pi. 31 ; Dresser, vi. p. p. 369, pi. 413 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxvii. p. 103 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 418 ; Saunders, 
p. 403 ; Lilford, vii. p. 63, pi. 23. 

Kleine Rietgans, Dutch ; Spetsbercjens Sadc/ds, Swed. 

ad. (England). Differs from A. segetum in being smaller, having 
a shorter bill, and the legs, feet, and central portion of the bill pink. 
Culmen T75, wing 16'0, tail 5 '6, tarsus 2'25 inch. 

Hcib. Spitsbergen, where it breeds, and is also said to breed 
in North Iceland ; in the autumn and winter south to Britain, 
France, Germany, and Scandinavia ; of very doubtful occurrence 



ANSER 591 



in India ; has also been recorded, in error it would seem, from 
Japan. 

In habits it differs but little from A. ferns, and is generally 
met with on or near the sea coast. Its nest is placed in some 
grass-covered place, near a river, or on a cliff, always where the 
bird can have a good view of the surrounding country. It 
deposits early in July 4 to 5 eggs, which resemble those of 
A.ferus but measure only 3*33 by 2*26. 

824. WHITE-FRONTED GOOSE. 
ANSER ALBIFRONS. 

Anser albifrons (Scop.), Ana. i. Hist. Nat. p. 69 (1769) ; Naum. xi. 
p. 351, Taf. 289 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 387, pi. cix. fig. 3 ; Gould r 
B. of E. v. pi. 349 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 4 ; Dresser, vi. 
p. 375, pi. 414 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 92 ; David 
and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 492 ; Kidgway, p. 116 ; Blanf. F. Brit. 
Ind. Birds, iv. p. 417 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 237 ; Saimders, 
p. 399 ; Lilford, vii. p. 60, pi. 21. 

Oie rieuse, French ; Oca lonibardella, Ital. ; Bldssengans, Lach- 
gans, German ; Kolgans, Dutch ; Blisgaas, Dan. and Norweg. ; 
Blcisgds, Swed. ; Kazarka, Russ. ; Kari-gane, Jap. 

(J ad. (Scotland). Upper parts dark ashy brown, the wing-coverts 
jishy brown tipped with dirty white ; a broad band covering the forehead 
extending nearly to the eye, and a smaller spot at the base of the lower 
mandible pure white ; under parts white, the flanks ashy brown, the 
breast and abdomen boldly blotched with black ; bill and legs orange- 
yellow, nail white ; iris dark brown. Culmen 2*25, wing 17*0, tail 6*0, 
tarsus 2 '65 inch. Female rather smaller, with the white on the forehead 
less developed. The young bird is duller, lacks the black on the under 
parts and has the white on the forehead considerably less developed. 

Hob. Europe, from the north of Norway to the Mediterranean 
rare in Finland, Greenland, and Iceland ; North Africa in the 
winter ; Asia east to Japan, north to Siberia, south in winter 
to Northern India ; North America south in winter to Texas, 
Mexico, and Cuba, 

Does not differ from its allies in its habits, but is said to 
prefer low, damp localities to the uplands. It feeds on vege- 
table matter, but is stated by some authors to eat, to some 
extent at least, insects. It breeds in the high north near water, 
not immediately on the coast, making a tolerably large nest 
which is placed on the ground, and deposits 4 to 6 yellowish 
white eggs, which measure about 3*06 by 2'2. 



592 ANSER 



825. SUBSP. ANSER GAMBELI. 

Anser (jambeli, Hartl. Rev. and Mag. Zool. 1852, p. 7 ; Ridgway, 
p. 116 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1091 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 237 ; 
Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 95. 

Karigane, Jap. 

<$ ad. (N. America). Differs from A. allifrbns, but is somewhat larger 
and has a larger bill ; bill flesh-colour with a square figure on the culmen, 
the edges of nostrils, a small spot below them and the basal two-thirds of 
the lower half of the under mandible yellow ; legs vivid, cadmium-yellow ; 
iris dark brown ; naked eye-ring dark brownish grey. Culmen 2 '35, wing 
17'50, tail 6-20, tarsus 3'0. 

Hob. North America, breeding far north ; in winter south 
to Mexico and Cuba ; the coasts of Eastern Siberia, Japan and 
China on passage and in winter. 



826. LESSER WHITE- FRONTED GOOSE. 
ANSER ERYTHROPUS. 

Anser erytliropus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 197 (1766) ; Newton, P.Z.S. 
1860, p. 341 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 492 ; Dresser, vi. 
p. 383 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 97 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. 
O. p. 1093 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 418 ; A. temminckii, 
Boie, Isis, 1822, p. 882 ; A. minutus, Naum. si. p. 365, Taf. 290 ; 
Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 238. 

Ziverggans, German ; Dwerggans, Dutch ; Dvcerggaas, Dan. 
and Norweg. ; Dverggas, Fjellgas, Swed. ; Kiljuhanhi, Finn. ; 
Piskun, Russ. ; Ko-karigane, Jap. 

(J ad. (Norway). Differs from A. albifrons in being darker and 
smaller, the bill smaller and the white on the forehead extending nearly to 
the centre of the crown ; bill fleshy white, nail pale horn ; legs and edge 
of eyelid orange-yellow. Culmen 1'5, wing 15'5, tail 5*0, tarsus 2'5 inch. 

Hob. Northern Scandinavia, rare in the west and not found 
in Great Britain ; rare in winter in central and southern 
Europe, and as far south as Egypt ; Northern Asia, east to 
Japan, straying, though rarely, south to India in winter. 

In habits it resembles A. albifrons. It breeds in certain 
districts in Lapland, nesting on the ground under bushes near 
water, and in June deposits 6 to 8 dirty yellowish white eggs, 
which measure about 2'91 by 2'0. 



ANSER 593 

827. BAR-HEADED GOOSE. 

ANSER INDICUS. 



Anser indicus (Lath.), Ind. Orn. ii. p. 839 (1790) ; Salvador!, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 105 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 419 ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1087 ; A. skorniaJcovi, Severtz. Turk. Jevot. 
pp. 70, 149, pi. x. figs. 3, 4. 

fCarcyi-Hdns, Hindu. 

< ad. (India). Head and a long white band down each side of the 
neck 'white ; two horseshoe-shaped black bars on the occiput and nape ; 
rest of neck ashy brown ; upper parts ashy grey with pale tips to the 
feathers, the mantle and scapulars tinged with brown ; Jower back and 
rump pure ashy grey ; under parts whity brown, the sides of the breast 
browner, the feathers with pale tips forming bars ; abdomen, flanks, 
upper and under tail-coverts white j quills and tail grey margined and 
tipped with white, the secondaries browner ; bill yellow ; legs orange ; 
iris brown. Culmen 2'0, wing 18'0, tail 6'0, tarsus 3'0 inch. In the 
young bird the black bars on the nape are absent, the crown and nape are 
dark brown, the white neck-stripes are absent ; back grey and under parts 
nearly white. 

Hob. Turkestan; Mongolia; Tibet; north to Lake Baikal, 
wintering in India. 

In habits it does not appear to differ from its allies, and in 
the autumn and winter is generally met with in small or large 
flocks, and feeds chiefly on grain, the feeding time being usually 
in the early morning and evening. It breeds in Mongolia and 
Tibet in May and June, but I find nothing on record respecting 
its nidification. 

828. CHINESE GOOSE. 
ANSER CYGNOIDES. 

A user cygnoides (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 108 (1766) ; Pall. Zoogr. Ross. 
As. ii. p. 218 and pi. ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 493 ; 
(Salvadori), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 107 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. 
p. 235. 

Suchonos, Russ. ; Sakatsura-hishikui, Jap. 

<J ad. (Siberia). Crown and band along the hind-neck dark brown ; a 
narrow line round the base of the bill dull white ; cheeks and neck 
whitish, along the front of the neck tinged with brown ; upper parts 
greyish brown with pale margins to the feathers ; quills grey ; tail 
brownish grey with white margins ; under parts buffy white, fading to 
white on the abdomen and under tail-coverts ; breast-feathers with rusty 
margins ; flanks brown with pale margins ; bill black ; legs orange ; iris 



594 BRANTA 



reddish brown. Culmen 3'5, wing 17'7, tail 7'1, tarsus 3'0 inch. 
Domestic birds of this species, and occasionally wild birds, have a large 
frontal knob on the bill, and the domestic bird has the bill red. 

Hal. Eastern Siberia, from the Ob river to Kamchatka and 
the Kurile Islands, wintering in China, resident in Japan; 
Corea and Mongolia on passage ; Manchuria. 

Though it does not differ from the other Geese in its general 
habits it is said to affect the rivers in preference to the lakes, 
and breeds on the grassy steppes, the nest being a mere 
depression in the ground lined with a little dry herbage, and 
deposits 4 to 6 eggs, which are creamy white, rather smooth in 
texture of shell, and measure about 3'24 by 210. 

BRANTA, Scop., 1769. 

829. BRENT GOOSE. 

BRANTA BERNICLA. 

Branta bernicla (Linn.), Syst, Nat. i. p. 198 (1766) ; (Wils.), Am. Orn. 
viii. pi. 72, fig. 1 ; (Audub.), B. Am. vi. p. 203, pi. 379 ; Salvad. Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 119 ; Ridgway. p. 118 ; B. torquata (Naurn.), 
xi. p. 393, Taf. 292 (nee. Gmel.) ; B. Irenta (Tunst.), Orn. Brit. p. 4 
(1771) ; (Gould), B. of E. v. pi. 352 ; (id.) B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 7 ; 
(Dresser), vi. p. 389, pi. 415, fig. 2 ; (Saimders), p. 411 ; (Lilford), 
vii. p. 69, pi. 26. 

Bernache cravant, French ; Oca colombactio, Ital. ; Ringel-Grans, 
German; Eotgans, Dutch; Knortegaas, Dan.; Gaul, Ringgaas, 
Norweg. ; Prutgds, Swed. ; KaulushanM, Sepelhanhi, Finn. ; 
Koku-gan, Jap. 

ad. (England). Head, neck, upper back and breast black ; sides of 
the neck marked with white ; rest of back, scapulars, and wing-coverts 
dark brown margined with lighter brown ; rump blackish brown, the sides 
and upper tail-coverts white ; tail and quills blackish brown ; under 
parts white, the upper parts indistinctly barred with pale ashy brown ; 
flanks ashy brown with white margins ; bill and legs black ; iris dark 
brown. Culmen 1-5, wing 12'6, tail 4'2, tarsus 21 inch. Female similar. 
The young bird has the plumage duller than the adult. 

Hob. The high north of Europe, Asia and Eastern North 
America, in winter migrating south to the British Islands, con- 
tinental Europe, and sparingly to the Mediterranean ; in Asia 
south to Japan ; in America south to the Mississippi valley. 

Is essentially a bird of the coast and is seldom found far from 
the sea. It feeds chiefly on vegetable matter but is also said 



BRANTA 595 



to eat small shellfish and marine insects. It breeds in Spits- 
bergen, Greenland, and the north of Siberia, &c. ; its nest, 
which is a bulky structure of grass and moss lined with down, 
is placed on the ground not far from the sea. The eggs usually 
4 in number are creamy white, smooth in surface of shell and 
measure about 2'88 by 1*85. 

830. BLACK BRANT. 
BRANTA NIGRICANS. 

Bmnta nigricans (Lawr.), Ann. Lye. N. Y. iv. p. 171, pi. xii. (1846) ; 
(Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 240 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. 
p. 123 ; Bidgway, p. 118. 

< ad. (N. America). Differs from B. lemicla in having 9 conspicuous 
white collar meeting in front and interrupted only behind , the upper part 
almost uniform sooty brown, and the abdomen aln 1 ^st as black as the 
breast. Culmen T30, wing 13'10, tail 3'7, tarsus 2'30 inch. 

Hal. Western North America from the high north in summer 
to Lower California in winter ; east coasts of Asia from Kam- 
chatka, south in winter to Japan. 

In general habits and nidification the present species does 
not differ from Branta bernicla. 

831. HUTCHINS' GOOSE. 
BRANTA HUTCHINSI. 

Branta hutckinsi (Eichardson), Faun. Bor, Am. ii. p. 470 (1831); 
(Audub.) B. Am. vi. p. 198, pi. 377 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxvii. p. 114 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. 0. p. 1109 ; Eidgway, p. 117 ; 
(Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 239 ; B. leucopareia (Brandt) Bull. Sc. 
Acad. St. Petersb. i. p. 37 (1836). 

Shi-jiu-kara-gan, Jap. 

Ad. Head and neck black ; chin, throat, and cheeks white ; upper parts 
brown with paler margins, except on the back ; rump black ; under parts 
brown, the lower neck whitish, the vent and under tail-coverts pure white ; 
bill and legs blackish plumbeous ; iris dark brown. Culmen 2 '3, wing 
16'0, tail 5-5, tarsus 3'25 inch. 

Hob. Arctic and subarctic America, in winter south to Mexico ; 
Eastern Siberia, the Kurile and Commander Islands ; Japan 
in winter. 

In habits it does not differ from B. lernicla, and its nest and 
eggs also resemble those of that species, the latter measuring 
about 3-18 by 218. 

R R. 



596 BRANTA 



832. BERNACLE GOOSE. 
BRANTA LEUCOPSIS. 

Branta leucopsis (Bechst.), Orn. Taschenb. ii. p. 424 (1803) ; (Naum.) 
xi. p. 378, Taf. 291 ; (Gould), B. of E. v. pi. 350 ; (id.), B. of Gt. 
Brit. v. pi. 7 ; (Dresser), vi. p. 397, pi. 415, fig. 1 ; Salvador!, Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 117 ; (Saunders), p. 409 ; (Lilfcrd), vii. p. 69, 
pi. 26; Ridgway, p. 117. 

Oie-bemache, French ; Weisswangengans, German ; Brandgans, 
Dutch ; Bramgaas, Dan. ; Hvidkindet Gaas, Norw. ; Hvitkindad 
Gds, Swed. 

Ad. (Holland). Hind-crown, lores, nape, hind-neck, breast, and upper 
back deep black ; rest of the head and upper throat white ; back-feathers 
with scapulars and wing-coverts bluish grey narrowly tipped with white 
and subterminally barred with black ; rump black ; the sides and tail- 
coverts white ; quills and tail black ; under parts white, the flanks in- 
distinctly barred with greyish ; bill and legs black ; iris dark brown. 
Culmen T65, wing 15'8, tail 5'9, tarsus 2'85 inch. 

Hob. Arctic Europe, in winter migrating south to the shores 
of the British Islands, Scandinavia, and northern continental 
Europe, rarely to southern Europe ; as a straggler occurring 
on the Atlantic coasts of North America from Hudson's Bay to 
North Carolina. 

In general habits it does not differ from the Brent Goose. 
It is during the summer a more boreal species and scarcely 
anything is known respecting its nidification, but it probably 
breeds in Greenland. I possess two eggs from the most northern 
of the Lofoten Islands, laid by a wounded bird, which in colour 
resemble those of B. bernicla but are rougher in texture of 
shell, and measure 2*64 by 1'82 and 2'62 by T76 respectively. 

833. RED-BREASTED GOOSE 
BRANTA RUFICOLLIS. 

Branta ruftcollis (Pallas), Spicil. Zool. fasc. vi. p. 21, Taf. iv. (1769) ; 
(Naum.) xi. p. 408, Taf. 293 ; (Gould), B. of E. v. pi. 351 ; (id.), B. 
of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 6 ; (Dresser), vi. p. 403, pi. 416 ; Salvador!, Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 124) ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1110 ; (Saunders), 
p. 407 ; Lilford, vii. p. 67, pi. 25. 

Bernache d con roux, French ; Rothhalsgans, German ; 
Eoodhalsgans, Dutch ; Eddhalsad G-ds, Swed. ; Chakvoi, Russ. 

ad. (Russia). Crown, nape, throat, forepart of cheeks, and a band 
encircling the eye black ; loral patch, a spot below the eye, a stripe con- 
tinued back, and another down on the neck pure white ; auricular patch, 
the whole of the forepart of the chest, and the sides of the neck extending 



BRANTACHEN 597 



back and forming an interrupted collar rich chestnut-red ; a narrow band 
across the lower breast white ; back, rump, lower breast, and upper 
abdomen black ; lower abdomen, flanks, upper and under tail-coverts 
white ; quills and tail black ; bill and feet black ; iris dark brown. 
Culmen TO, wing 14'5, tail 6'0, tarsus 2'1 inch. Sexes alike. In the 
young bird the black is replaced by dark brown, the auricular patch is 
tinged with brown and varied with white, and the neck and breast are dull 
reddish buff. 

Hob. Northern Siberia, migrating south in winter to 
Turkestan, the Caspian, and even as far as Egypt ; an accidental 
straggler to various parts of continental Europe and Great 
Britain. 

In general habits it does not differ from its allies, and like 
them feeds on vegetable substances. Its eggs were first 
described and figured by von Middendorff in 1851, and in 1895 
Mr. Popham took four nests on the Yenesei River which con- 
tained from 7 to 9 eggs, creamy white in colour, and measuring 
2'79 by 1*93. The nests were placed at the foot of a cliff, and 
well supplied with down. 

CHEN, Boie, 1822. 

834. SNOW GOOSE. 

CHEN HYPERBOREUS. 

Chen hyperboreus, (Pallas), Spic. Zool. vi. p. 20 (1767) ; (Naum.), xi. 
p. 213, Taf. 381 ; (Gould), B. of E. v. pi. 346 ; Dresser, vi. p. 413, 
pi. 417, fig. 1 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 84 ; Tacz. P. 
O. Sib. 0. p. 1086 ; Saunders, p. 405 ; Lilford, vii. p. 66, pi. 24 ; 
Kidgway, p. 115 ; C. albatus (Cassin), Proc. Ac. Philad, 1856, p. 41 ; 
Dresser, vi. p. 409, pi. 417, fig. 2. 

Bieloi Gus, Russ. ; Hyrika, Kamchatk. ; ffaku-gan, Jap. 

Ad. (N. America). Entire plumage pure white, except that the primaries 
are dark ash-grey at the base, otherwise black, and the spurious wing ash- 
grey ; legs and beak red, tooth white ; iris brown. Culmen 2'50,' wing 
17'0, tail 6'0, tarsus 3*0 inch. The young bird is brownish grey above, 
with dark centres to the wing-coverts and dorsal feathers ; under parts 
greyish white ; bill blackish with a reddish tinge ; legs plumbeous tinged 
with yellowish red. 

Hob. Arctic North America, in winter ranging south to the 
Gulf of Mexico ; of somewhat rare occurrence in Kamchatka 
and North-east Siberia, wintering in Japan ; a straggler to 
Britain, Holland, Germany, Scandinavia, and North Russia. 

Is said to be wary and shy ; its flight is strong and steady, 
and on land it walks with ease. On the sea-shore it feeds on 

R R 2 



598 CHEN CYGNUS 



shell-fish, fry, and marine plants, but when inland chiefly on 
vegetable matter. It breeds in the high north of America, most 
numerously on the Arctic barren grounds, near lakes, the nest 
being a hollow in the ground well lined with down. The eggs, 
usually 5 in number, are white, and measure about 3'4 by 2'2. 
Chen albescens is merely a small form of the present species, 
and is now not generally looked on as even subspecifically 
separable. 

835. EMPEROR GOOSE. 
CHEN CANAOICA. 

Chen canagica (SevastanofF), Nov. Act. Ac. St. Petersb. xiii. p. 346, pi. x. 

(1800) ; (Salvadori), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 109 ; (Tacz.), F. O. 

Sib. 0. p. 1112 ; Kidgway, p. 118 ; C. pictus (Pallas.), Zoogr. Boss. 

As. ii. p. 233, Tab. 67 (1811). 

ad. Head and hind-neck to the back white, the former often stained 
with reddish orange ; throat and fore-neck dusky brownish ; upper and 
under parts blue-grey, above boldly and below more obsoletely barred with 
black and white ; basal half of the tail slate, the terminal half white, 
lower mandible dark horn with a white spot on each side of the branching 
rami ; membrane about nares livid blue ; rest of upper mandible pale 
purplish, with a fleshy white wash ; edge of nail dark horn, rest of the 
nail horn- white ; legs and feet bright orange-yellow ; iris hazel. Culmen 
1-55, wing 15*1, tail 5*0, tarsus 275 inch. The young has the markings 
less distinct and the head and neck dusky, the former speckled with 
white. 

Hob. Alaska coasts chiefly about the shores of Norton 
Sound and valley of the Lower Yukon ; the Chukchi Peninsula 
in North Siberia, Sitka, and Bering Island. 

But little is on record respecting the habits of this Goose. 
On the Vega expedition several nests were found containing 
4 to 6 eggs, which are described as being dirty white and 
measuring about 3 '23 by 2*05. 

CYGNUS, Bechst., 1803. 

836. MUTE SWAN. 

CYGNUS OLOR. 

Cygnus olor (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 502 (1788) ; Naum. xi. p. 442, 
Taf. 295 ; Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 8 ; Dresser, vi. p. 419, 
pi. 418 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 35 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. 
0. p. 1114; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 413; Saimders, 
p. 417 ; Lilford, vii. p. 74, pi. 28 ; C. mansuetus, Salerne, Orn. <fcc. 
p. 404 (1767) ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 354 ; C. immutabilis, Yarr. 
P. Z. S. 1838, p. 19 ; Dresser, vi. p. 429, pi. 419, figs. 1, 2. 




UNIVERSITY 

CYGNUS 599 

Cygne, French ; Cysne, Portug. ; Cisne, Span. ; Gigno reale, 
Ital. ; Hoker Schwan, German ; Zwaan, Dutch ; Knubsvane, 
Dan. ; Knotsvan, Swed. ; Lebed-chipounn, Russ. 

$ ac?. (Norfolk). Entire plumage pure white, the head and neck 
frequently tinged with ferruginous ; a large tubercle at the base of the bill, 
edges of the mandible and orifice of the nostrils black, the beak otherwise 
orange-red ; legs and feet black ; iris brown. Gape 3'65, wing 27 '0, tail 
lO'O, tarsus 4'5 inch. Female rather smaller, with a smaller tubercle. The 
young bird is sooty brownish grey and the bill plumbeous. 

Hob. Southern Sweden, Denmark, South-eastern Europe, 
Southern and Central Asia east, to Mongolia ; in winter 
occasionally as far south as Northern India ; a regular winter 
visitant to North Africa ; in a semi-domesticated state it is 
found throughout Europe. 

Though tame and familiar when in a semi-domesticated 
state the Swan, when wild, is extremely shy and wary. It 
frequents lakes and rivers, and the coasts chiefly in winter. 
It swims with ease and grace, but is heavy and clumsy on land. 
Its food consists of soft portions of aquatic plants, aquatic 
insects and their larvae, to a small extent of fish, but it does 
not appear to eat fish-spawn, of which it has been accused. 
In a wild state when calling its young it utters a cry not 
unlike the barking of a small dog. Its nest is a large structure, 
usually placed on an islet, and its eggs, 5 to 8 in number, are 
generally deposited in May, and are greenish grey in colour, 
rather rough in texture of shell and measure about 4'41 by 
3*3. It would appear that G. immutabilis is merely a variety 
of the present species. 

837. WHOOPER SWAN. 
CYGNUS MUSICUS. 

Cygnus musicus, Bechst. Gemeinn. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl. iii. p. 830 
Taf. 35 (1809) ; Dresser, vi. p. 433, pi. 419, fig. 4 ; Salvadori, Cat. ' 
B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 26 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 414 ; 
Saunders, p. 413 ; Lilford, vii. p. 75, pi. 29 ; Cygnus ferns, Leach, 
Syst. Cat. M. and B. Br. Mus. p. 37 (1816) ; Gould, B. of E. v. 
pi. 355 ; id. B. of Qt. Brit. v. pi. 9 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 393, pi. cxi. 
fig. 2 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 493 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. O . 
p. 1115 ; C. xanthorhinus, Naum. xi. p. 478, Taf. 296 (1842). 

Cygne Sauvage, French ; Cisne, Span. ; Gigno selvatico, Ital. ; 
Wildschwan, German ; Wilde Zwaan, Dutch ; Sangsvane, Dan. 



600 CYGNUS 



and Norweg. ; Sdngsvan, Swed. ; Njukca, Lapp. ; Joutsen, Finn. ; 
Zebed-krikounn, Russ. ; 0-haku-cho, Jap. 

<J ad. (Norfolk). Differs from C. olor in lacking the frontal tubercle, 
in having the base of the bill beyond the opening of the nostrils and the 
bare loral space yellow, the rest of the bill black ; legs blackish ; iris dark 
brown. Gape 3'95, wing 23'2, tail 8*9, tarsus 4'3 inch. The young bird 
resembles that of C. olor, but has the bill dull flesh colour, the tip and 
lateral margins black, and the legs dull flesh colour. 

Hob. Iceland, Lapland, and the northern regions of Europe 
and Asia, migrating in winter south to the Mediterranean, 
Central Asia, China, and Japan ; has once occurred in India. 

In habits the Whooper does not differ much from the Mute 
Swan. It is however by no means a silent bird, and its clear 
trumpet-like note may frequently be heard when flocks are 
passing. Its food is the same as that of C. olor, but it not un- 
frequently feeds on land like the Geese. It breeds in single 
pairs in the vast morasses in the north, building a large nest ; 
and in May deposits 4 to 6, seldom 7, pale yellowish white eggs 
which measure about 4*6 by 2*87. 

C. buccinator, Richardson, the American Whooper, which 
differs from C. musicus in having the bill deep black is said to 
have been once obtained in Suffolk. 

838. BEWICK'S SWAN. 
CYGNUS BEWICKI. 

Cygnus bewicki, Yarrell, Tr. Lin. Soc. xvi. 2, p. 453 (1830) ; Hewitson, 
ii. p. 396, pi. cxi. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 356 ; Dresser, vi. 
p. 441, pi. 419, fig. 3 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 29 ; 
Saunders, p. 415 ; Lilford, vii. p. 79, pi. 30 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. 
Emp. p. 235 ; C. minor, Keyserl. and Bias. Wirbelth. Eur. p. 82 
(1840); Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 10; David and Oust. Ois. 
Chine, p. 494 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. 0. p. 1118 ; C. melanorhinu$,Na.um. 
p. 497, Taf. 297 (1842). 

Kleiner Schwan, German ; Kleine Zwaan, Dutch ; Pibsvane, 
Dan. ; Haku-cho, Jap. 

( ad. (English coast). Differs from C. musicus in being smaller, in 
having the base of the bill lemon-yellow, this colour not reaching to the 
nostril, the rest of the bill being black ; legs black ; iris brown ; tail- 
feathers usually 20. Gape 3'4, wing 187, tail 7'0, tarsus 3'85 inch. 

Hob. North-east Europe and Asia, in winter migrating south 
to Britain, Scandinavia, continental Europe, Mongolia, China, 
and Japan. In Europe it is a more eastern species than C. 
musicus, and does not breed further west than European Russia. 



C YGNUS TADORNA 6 1 

In habits it does not differ from its allies. It breeds in 
northern Russia and Siberia, its eggs being similar to those of 
C. musicus, but smaller, measuring only 3'3 by 2*4. 

The American representative of this species C. columbianus 
(Ord) which has the bill deep black, with a patch of deep 
orange, is said to have occurred in Scotland, but on very 
doubtful evidence, and Dr. Stejneger obtained a young specimen 
on Bering Island in Eastern Siberia in 1882. Cygnus davidi 
Swinhoe (P. Z. S. 1870, p. 430) which is smaller than C. lewicki, 
and has the beak and legs orange-red is said to have occurred 
in Mongolia, but I have not been able to examine a specimen, 
and have therefore not included it. 

TADORNA, Fleming, 1822. 

839. BURROW SHELDRAKE. 
TADORNA CORNUTA. 

Tadorna cornuta (S. G. Gmel.), Reis. Russl. ii. p. 185, Taf. 19 (1774) ; 
Dresser, vi. p. 451, pi. 420 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 171 ; 
Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 427 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 241 ; 
Saunders, p. 419 ; Lilford, vii. p. 83, pi. 32 ; A. tadorna, Linn. Syst. 
Nat. i. p. 195 ; Naum. xi. p. 534, Taf. 298 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 1124; T. vulpanser, Flem. Hist. Brit. Anim. p. 122 (1828); 
Hewitson, ii. p. 397, pi. cxii. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 357 ; id. 
B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 11. 

Le Tadorne, French ; Pato-tarro, Span. ; Volpoca, Ital. ; 
Bergente, Brandente, German ; Bergeend, Dutch ; Gravand, Dan. 
and Norweg. ; Graf and, Swed. ; Ristisorsa, Kivisorsa, Finn. ; 
Pegannka, Russ. ; Shdh-chakwa, Hindu. ; Tsukushi-gamo, Jap. 

<$ ad. (Norway). Head and upper neck black glossed with bottle- 
green, the feathers on hind-crown and nape elongated ; lower neck white ; 
back and band across the breast fox-red ; lower back, rump, upper tail- 
coverts, and under parts white ; primaries and scapulars black ; secondaries 
black on the inner and bottle-green on the outer webs, the elongated 
inner secondaries chestnut and white with a black stripe ; a- broad stripe 
of white all along the middle of the under parts ; under tail-coverts 
orange-red ; bill blood-red with a large fleshy knob at the base above ; 
legs rich flesh-red ; iris brown. Culmen 2'25, wing 13*0, tail 5 '2, tarsus 
2'05 inch. Female rather smaller and duller in colour and lacks the knob. 
In the young the black is replaced by dull dark brown, and the fox-red 
by rufous brown. 

Hob. Europe generally, from the Lofoten islands to the 
Mediterranean, west to the British Islands ; north Africa ; Asia 



602 TADORNA 



east to Japan, north to Mongolia, Manchuria, and southern 
Siberia, south to northern India and China in winter. 

In general habits it resembles the Wild Duck a good deal, 
but is chiefly a coast bird, and is usually shy and wary. The 
call-note of the male is a deep korr, Tcorr, but the note of the 
female is a quack. It feeds on vegetable matter, small crusta- 
ceans, and worms. It breeds in May in holes in the ground, 
usually rabbit-burrows, and deposits 7 to 12, sometimes as many 
as 16 eggs, which are well bedded in down, and are yellowish 
or ivory white, smooth in grain and measure about 27 by 1*8. 

840. RUDDY SHELDRAKE. 
TADORNA CASARCA. 

Tadorna casarca (Linn.), Syst. Nat. iii. App. p. 224 (1768) ; Dresser, vi. 
p. 461, pi. 421 ; Saunders, p. 421 ; Lilford, vii. p. 81, pi. 31 ; 
T. rutila, Pall. Nov. Comm. Petrop. xiv. p. 579, Taf. 22, fig. 1 ; 
Naum. xi. p. 564, Taf. 299 ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 358 ; (id.), B. of 
Gt. Brit. v. pi. 12 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 241 ; (Blanf.), 
F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 428 ; (Salvadori), Cat. B. Br. Mns. xxvii. 
p. 117 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1121. 

Tadorne casarca, French ; Pato tarro, Span. ; Rostente, 
German ; Turpan, Russ. ; Kermesi-Erdek, Turk. ; Bou-ha, Moor. ; 
Wuz Abu-Far oa, Arab. ; ChaJcwa $ , Cha'kwi , Hindu. ; 

< ad. (S. Russia). Head creamy yellow, becoming yellowish red on 
the neck, which is encircled below by a black ring ; lower neck, back, 
breast, and under parts rich fox-red, paler on the flanks and scapulars ; 
quills, tail, and tail-coverts black ; rump yellowish red vermiculate.d with 
black ; secondaries glossed with green and purple on the outer web ; inner 
secondaries yellowish red tinged with ashy grey on the inner webs ; wing- 
eoverts white ; bill and legs blackish ; iris brown. Culmen 1'75, wing 14*0, 
tail 5*5, tarsus 2'5 inch. The female lacks the black collar and is whiter 
on the head, and the young bird resembles the female but is duller, the 
inner secondaries and scapulars are brown marked with yellowish red, and 
the white on the wing coverts is soiled with grey. 

Hal>. Southern and south-eastern Europe, rare in the west ; 
of accidental occurrence in Britain, Sweden, Denmark, and 
Germany, etc ; North Africa ; Asia east through central Asia, 
Tibet, Mongolia, and Manchuria, to China, Corea, and Japan, 
north to Lake Baikal, south in winter to India, Burma, and 
Formosa. 

In habits it is said to resemble the Geese more than the true 
Ducks, walks with ease like these, and grazes in the cornfields 



TADORNAjEX 603 



on tender shoots, feeding also on seeds, frogs, worms, and to 
some extent, is is said, on fish. Unless where unmolested, it is 
shy and wary. Its note is a peculiar clanging bisyllabic cry 
frequently uttered. It breeds, often far from the sea, in holes 
and clefts of the rocks, hollow trees and deserted nests of birds 
of prey, depositing about the end of May, 12 to 16 eggs which 
are well bedded in down and resemble those of T. cornuta, but 
are as a rule a trifle smaller. 

JEX, Boie, 1828. 
841. MANDARIN DUCK. 
GALERICULATA. 



galericulata (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 206 (1766) ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. 
Emp. p. 248 ; Gould, B. of Asia, vii. pi. 69 ; David and Oust. Ois. 
Chine, p. 501 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 76 ; Tacz. F. 0. 
Sib. 0. p. 1127 ; Kidgway, p. 99. 

Oshi-dori, Jap. 

< ad. (China). Forehead green, merging into purple on the crown ; 
occipital crest coppery red, becoming dark purple and green below ; some of 
the lateral crest-feathers, region round and behind the eye on the neck, 
white ; upper parts, wings, and rump glossy olivaceous ; primaries externally 
greyish white ; short secondaries glossy metallic blue tipped with white, 
the inner ones falcate on the outer web, glossy blue, the inner web broad 
fan-shaped, chestnut, margined with velvety blue-black ; chin and throat 
warm pale rufous, the latter with white stripes, the feathers much 
elongated ; upper breast and its sides purplish blue, the latter tipped with 
white ; rest of under parts white, the flanks warm rufous finely vermiculated 
with black ; tarsus and toes reddish yellow, the membranes blackish ; bill 
reddish brown, the nail bluish flesh-colour ; iris dark brown, the outer 
ring yellowish white. Culmen 1*3, wing 9'5, tail 4*5, tarsus l'4inch. The 
female has the upper parts brownish olive, the crown and hind-neck 
greyish ; nuchal feathers elongate ; feathers round the eye, and a long 
stripe behind the eye, white ; chin and throat white ; breast brownish, 
spotted with white ; rest of under parts white. In the summe plumage 
the male resembles the female but has the upper parts more glossed, and 
the spots on the breast reddish instead of white. 

Hal. Eastern Siberia, Japan, Corea on passage ; resident in 
central and southern China, Formosa. 

Frequents rivers and lakes ; nests in hollow trees like the 
American JEx sponsa, and deposits pale yellowish eggs, which 
measure about 2'08 by T57. 



604 ANAS 



ANAS, Linn., 1766. 
842. WILD DUCK. 
ANAS BOSCAS. 

Anas boscas, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 205 (1766) ; Naum. xi. p. 575, Taf. 
300 ; Audubon, B. Am. vi. p. 236, pi. 385 ; Gould, B. of E. v. 
pi. 361 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 15 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 407, pi. cxiii. 
fig. 3 ; Dresser, vi. p. 469, pi. 422 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxvii. p. 189 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1129 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iv. p. 435 ; Saunders, p. 423 ; Lilford, vii. p. 86, pi. 33 ; 
Ridgway, p. 91. 

Canard sauvage, French ; Pato real, Portug. and Span. ; 
Germano real, Ital. ; Stockente, German ; Wilde Aant, Dutch ; 
Stokand, Dan. and Norweg. ; Grdsand, Swed. ; Stuora-vuojas, 
Selsina, Lapp. ; Sinisorsa, Finn. ; Krahu&hJca, Russ. ; Bat, Arab. ; 
Zerok el ras, Moor. ; Nilsir, Nir-rugi, Hindu. ; Ma-gamo, Jap. 

<J ad. (England). Head and neck deep glossy green, darker on the 
fore-crown ; a white ring round the middle of the neck, interrupted behind ; 
scapulars and fore-back grey, vermiculated with brown ; middle of back 
dark brown with fulvous margins ; rump and four central recurved tail- 
feathers purplish black ; rest of tail and quills brownish grey with whitish 
margins, speculum on secondaries greenish purple margined above and 
below with white ; forepart of breast deep chestnut-red ; rest of under 
parts greyish white narrowly barred with brown ; under tail- coverts 
purplish black ; bill dull yellowish olive ; legs and feet reddish orange ; 
iris brown. Culmen 2-6, wing 10'5, tail 4'0, tarsus 1*85 inch. In the 
summer season a plumage resembling that of the female but darker is 
donned for about 10 to 12 weeks. The female is brown above, marked 
with buff, the sides of the head paler, the chin and throat plain brownish 
buff, the tail-feathers brown, straight, and the under parts buff marked 
with brown, the upper breast browner. 

Hob. Europe, north to Lapland where it is rare, south to the 
Mediterranean ; the Canaries, Madeira, and Azores ; north Africa ; 
Asia east to Japan, north to Kamchatka, south to central India ; 
North America, south to Mexico. 

Is a shy and wary bird, flies swiftly and with ease, and walks 
well. It feeds by night on seeds, roots, worms, mollusca, in- 
sects, and though more frequently to be found on freshwaters, 
it is occasionally to be met with on the sea-coast. It breeds 
from early in March to late in May, its nest, which is a some- 
what scanty structure of twigs and grass, well lined with down, 
is usually placed on the ground near water, though sometimes 



ANAS CHA ULELASMUS 605 

in a hollow tree, or the deserted nest of some large bird. The 
eggs from 7 to 12 or even 15 are dull greenish grey, and 
measure about 2*29 by 1'61. 

843. RING-BILLED DUCK. 
ANAS ZONORHYNCHA. 

Anas zonorhyncha, Swinlioe, Ibis, 1866, p. 394; David and Oust. Ois. 
Chine, p. 496 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 243 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 211 ; Tacz. F. t). Sib. 0. p. 1133 ; A.pacilorhyncha, 
Temm. and Schleg. Faun. Jap. Aves. p. 126, pi. 82 (nee. Forst). 

Kari-gamo, Jap. 

ad. (Japan). Not unlike the female A. boscas, but has a superciliary 
stripe ; sides of the head and throat whitish, the rump and upper tail- 
feathers uniform dark brown ; lower neck and upper breast dull whitish 
buff with dusky centres to the feathers ; lower breast and abdomen brown, 
the under tail-coverts blackish brown ; speculum glossy blue with a 
greenish tinge ; bill black with the apical portion, except the tip of the 
nail, yellow ; legs and feet light bright red ; iris yellowish brown. 
Culmen 2 -2, wing 11 '6, tail 4'8, tarsus 1'75 inch. Sexes alike. 

Hob. Mongolia, Dauria, China, Corea, Japan, and the Kurile 
Islands. 

In its habits it is said to resemble A. boscas. It breeds in 
South-east Mongolia, northern China and Japan in May or 
early in June, nesting on the ground, and depositing 5 to 6 
eggs, which are ivory-white and measure about 2*13 by 1*55. 

CHAULELASMUS, Gray apud Bp., 1838. 

844. GAD WALL. 
CHAULELASMUS STREPERUS. 

Chaulelasmus streperus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 200 (1766) ; (Naum.), xi. 
p. 659. Taf. 302 ; figs. 1, 3 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 402, pi. cxiii. fig. 1 ; 
(Gould), B. of E. v. pi. 366 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 19 ; Dresser, 
vi. p. 487, pi. 424 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 499 ; (Audubon), 
B. Am. vi. p. 254, pi. 388 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 221 ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1154 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 440 ; 
(Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 242 ; Saunders, p. 425 ; (Lilford), vii. 
p. 87, pi. 34 ; (Kidgway), p. 95. 

Chipeau bruyant, French; Frisada, Portug. ; Trigali, Pato 
castellano, Span. ; Canapiglia. Ital. ; Schnatterente, German ; 
Kraakeend, Dutch ; Snadderand, Dan. ; Snatterand, Swed. ; 



606 CHAULELASMUS SPATULA 

Serucha, Russ. ; Samari, Arab. ; Mila, Bhuar, Hindu. ; Okayoshi* 
Jap. 

$ ad. (Holland). Crown and nape dark reddish brown ; head and neck 
dull brownish white all narrowly barred ; back dark slaty with undulating 
white cross-bars ; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts black ; tail and 
quills ashy brown ; alar patch white ; larger wing-coverts black, median 
chestnut-red, the lesser grey marbled with sandy brown ; elongated inner 
secondaries and scapulars dull light brown ; breast and flanks blackish 
with transverse white lines ; under tail-coverts jet black ; bill blackish 
along the ridge of the upper mandible, otherwise dirty yellow ; legs 
dirty yellow, webs blackish ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1'9, wing 10'4, 
tail 4*0, tarsus 1*55 inch. The female has the crown and nape blackish 
brown finely striated with pale rufous ; back, scapulars, rump, and upper 
tail-coverts blackish brown margined and marked with rufous ; wing- 
coverts grey tipped with dull white, the larger marked with rufous ; 
speculum white ; chin and upper throat white ; neck, breast, and flanks 
dark brown, the former margined with rufous, the last with rufous grey ; 
middle of abdomen dull white ; under tail-coverts whitish spotted with 
brown. In the summer the male assumes a dress much like that of the 
female, bnt the wings and tail are as above described. 

Hob. Europe generally, north to Iceland and central Scandi- 
navia ; comparatively rare in Great Britain ; northern Africa 
in winter and is said to have occurred as far south as the 
Orange River ; Asia north to Kamchatka, east to Japan, and 
south in winter to India and China ; North America, south to 
the West Indies and Mexico in winter. 

In habits it resembles Anas boscas and is essentially a fresh- 
water duck, feeding chiefly on vegetable matter, but it is also 
known to eat aquatic insects, small shell-fish, frogs, etc. It 
breeds in temperate latitudes making a nest like that of 
A. 'boscas, placed near the water and usually in May, deposits 
8 to 13 eggs, pale creamy yellow in colour, and in size 
averaging about 2'10 by 1'50. 

SPATULA, Boie, 1822. 

845. SHOVELLER. 
SPATULA CLYPEATA. 

Spatula clypeata (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 200(1766) ; (Naum.), xi. p. 747, 
Taf. 306 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 400, pi. cxii. fig. 2 ; (Gould), B. of E. 
v. pi. 360 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 14 ; Dresser, vi. p. 497, pi. 425 ; 
(Audubon), B. Am. vi. p. 293, pi. 394 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxvii. p. 306; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1151 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iv. p. 452 ; Ridgway, p. 97 ; Saunders, p. 427 ; (Lilford), vii. 
p. 90, pi. 35. 



SPATULA MARMARONETTA 607 

Souchet, French ; Pato trombeteiro, Portug. ; Pato cuchareta, 
Span. ; Cuccliiarone, Ital. ; Loffelente, German ; Slobeend, Dutch ; 
Sktond, Dan. ; Skovland, Norweg. ; Skedand, Swed. ; Lapasorsa, 
Finn. ; Sehirokonoska, Ootka so/csoon, "Russ. ; Tidari, Punana, 
Hindu. ; HasTiibiro-gamo, Jap. 

$ ad. (England). Head and upper neck black glossed with bottle- 
green and purple ; hind-neck and back blackish brown with dull white 
margins, the rump and upper tail-coverts imperceptibly edged with dull 
fulvous ; lower neck and scapulars white ; middle tail-feathers brownish 
grey edged with whitish, the rest dull white with dark centres ; wing- 
coverts sky-blue, the last row tipped with white ; speculum bright metallic 
green narrowly tipped with white ; under parts rich rufous ; under tail- 
coverts creamy yellow marbled with brown ; a white patch on each side of 
the base of the tail ; bill black, very broad towards the end ; legs and feet 
bright orange ; iris yellow. Culmen 2'9, wing 9'0, tail 3'1, tarsus 1*3 inch. 
The female has the head, neck, and upper parts dark brown with clay- 
yellow or clay-brown margins ; under parts dull clay with dark spots on 
the breast and flanks ; wings as in the male but much duller, the wing- 
coverts only washed with bluish. In the summer the male assumes a dress 
like the female but darker, and the blue on the wings and green speculum 
are retained. 

Hob. Europe generally, north to the Arctic circle; North 
Africa, in winter south to Somaliland and Casamance ; Asia 
east to Japan, north to Kamchatka, south to Southern China, 
India and Ceylon in winter; North America from Alaska to 
Mexico, in winter ranging as far south as Panama. 

Is a fresh-water duck, though not unfrequently to be seen 
on the sea-coast ; it feeds principally on the seeds of various 
aquatic plants and vegetable matter, aquatic insects, grain, etc. 
Usually it is not so shy as Anas boscas, and is as a rule a silent 
bird, but in the breeding season its note took, took, may be 
heard. It breeds in May, June, and July, its nest being a 
depression in the soil near water, lined with grass and down. 
Its eggs, 8 to 14 in number, are pale greenish grey, sometimes 
greyish cream, and measure about 2-0 by T37. 

MARMARONETTA, Reichenb., 1852, 

846. MARBLED DUCK. 
MARMARONETTA ANGUSTIROSTRIS. 

Marmaronetta angustirostris (Menetr.), Cat. Eais.* p. 58 (1832) ; (Gould), 
B. of E. v. p. 373 ; (Dresser), vi. p. 479, pi. 423 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 321 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 454. 



608 MARMARONETTA EUNETTA 

EuJiilla, Roseta, Span. ; Cfarganella marmorata, Ital. ; 
Oozonosbi-tcTiirok, Russ. ; Chihil, Moor. 

<$ ad. (Spain). Head greyish brown barred with dark brown, the 
region round the eye dark brown ; upper parts dull brown tinged with 
grey, mottled and marbled with light greyish brown ; quills ashy grey ; 
secondaries pale creamy brown ; wing-coverts brownish grey ; tail ashy 
brown tipped with creamy buff ; under parts greyish white, the sides of 
head, throat, and neck finely striped with brown, the breast barred, and 
flanks barred and marbled with greyish brown ; under tail-coverts pale 
buff indistinctly barred ; bill bluish grey, black on culmen and tip ; legs 
dusky olive ; iris brown. Culmen T8, wing 7 '9, tail 3'2, tarsus 1 P 2 inch. 
Female similar but duller. 

Hob. Southern Europe, North Africa, Canaries, South-west 
Asia, east to Northern India. 

In habits this Duck resembles the Teal, and like that 
bird feeds on vegetable matter, Crustacea, insects, and worms ; 
its note is a low croaking whistle. Its nest is constructed 
of twigs and bents, lined with down, and is placed on the ground 
near water, usually under a bush, and its eggs 8 to 14 in number 
are usually laid in May, and are cream-coloured like those of 
Q. crecca and measure about T86 by 1*34. 



EUNETTA, Bonap., 1856. 

847. FALCATED TEAL. 
EUNETTA FALCATA, 

Eunetta falcata (Georgi), Reis. Russ. Reich, i. p. 167 (1775) ; (Naum.), 
xiii. Taf. 389, fig. 1 ; (Dresser), vi. p. 525, pi. 429 ; David and Oust. 
Ois. Chine, p. 504 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 218 ; 
Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 438 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1135 ; 
(Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 245. 

Kossatii-Sselesen, Kossatka, Russ. ; Yoshi-gamo, Jap. 

ad. (Siberia). Crown chestnut-red ; a band round the nape and the 
long nuchal crest metallic green ; throat white, below which is a green 
collar followed by another of white ; upper parts vermiculated with 
greyish brown and white ; lower back dark brown, indistinctly vermiculated 
with grey ; upper tail-coverts very long and black ; tail greyish brown ; 
wing-coverts clear grey, the larger white at the tip ; speculum metallic 
green ; inner secondaries very long, sickle-shaped, black, glossed with 
green, the shafts and external margins whitish ; under parts white 
vermiculated and barred with grey ; under tail-coverts long, black ; on 



EUNETTAQUERQUEDULA 609 

each side of the tail a cream-coloured patch ; bill blackish ; legs dull blue- 
grey ; iris brown. Cnlmen 1-8, wing 10*0, tail 3'0, tarsus T35 inch. The 
female is smaller, has the head and neck purplish brown striped with 
whitish ; upper parts rufous or fulvous varied with brown ; wings as in 
the male, but the inner secondaries not elongated ; upper breast rufous 
with purplish brown cross-markings ; rest qf under parts fulvous in- 
distinctly mottled with brown. After the breeding season the male 
assumes a dress not unlike that of the female. 

Hob. Northern Asia, north to Kamchatka, in winter 
migrating south to China and India ; Japan ; of accidental 
and rare occurrence in Europe. 

The present species is a frequenter of fresh- water and in 
general habits resembles Q. crecca. It feeds chiefly on vegetable 
matter and consorts with the Baikal Teal, the Wild Duck, and 
Pintail. Its nest is placed on the ground usually near water, 
and its eggs, 7 to 10 in number, are usually deposited in May 
and resemble those of Q. crecca being pale creamy, smooth in 
texture, and measure about 2'19 by 1*54. 

QUERQUEDULA, Stephens, 1824. 

848. GARGANEY. 
QUERQUEDULA CIRCIA. 

Querquedula clrcia (Linn.), Syst. Nat, i. p. 204 (1766) ; Gould, B. of E. 
pi. 364 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 17 ; Dresser, vi. p. 513, pi. 427 ; 
David and Oust, Ois. Chine, p. 532 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
p. 293 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 449 ; Saunders, p. 435 ; 
(Lilford), vii. p. 98, pi. 39 ; A. querquedula, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 
p. 203 (1766) ; Naum. xi. p. 677, Taf. 303 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 409, 
pi. cxiv. fig. 1 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. O. p. 1145. 

Sarcelle d'ttf, French : Marreco, Marreqidnho, Portug. ; Patito, 
Cerceta, Span. ; Marzajola, Ital. ; Knakente, German ; Zomertaling, 
Dutch ; Atlingand, Dan. ; l&weand, Norweg. ; Arta, Swed. \ 
ffeinatavi, Finn. ; Tchirok-tres-kuntechik, Russ. ; Arasch, Arab. ; 
Chaitwa, Khira, Hindu. ; Shima-haji, Jap. 

$ ad. (Denmark). Forehead dull chestnut marked with white, the 
crown and nape dark brown ; a white stripe from the eye to the nape ; 
sides of face and neck dark chestnut streaked with white ; back brown 
washed with ashy blue, the lower back bluer and irregularly barred with 
white ; tail dark brown with narrow white margins ; wing-coverts clear 
blue-grey ; alar speculum green, on each side bordered with white ; 
elongated inner secondaries lavender-grey with black and white stripes 



610 QUERQUEDULA 



along the feathers ; breast sandy brown with crescentic blackish bars ; 
lower breast and belly whitish, the flanks, vent, and under tail-coverts 
vermiculated and spotted with dark brown ; on each side of the vent a 
greyish patch ; bill blackish, at the base below flesh-coloured ; legs 
brownish plumbeous ; iris brown. Culmen 1-5, wing 7*7, tail 3*1, 
tarsus I'l inch. Female, general colour brown darker on the head, the 
feathers on upper parts margined with sandy brown and fulvous white ; 
wing-coverts dull ashy grey, and the green speculum absent ; streak from 
the eye, malar region, and throat buffy white ; sides of head and lower 
neck streaked with brown ; breast rusty brown marked with white ; rest 
of under parts buffy white, the flanks mottled with brown. After the 
breeding season the male assumes a dress like that of the female, but 
retains the green speculum and lavender-blue wing-coverts. 

Hob. Europe generally, from below the Arctic circle to the 
Mediterranean ; North Africa in winter south to Somaliland ; 
Asia east to Japan, north to Kamchatka, south in winter to 
India, Ceylon, Borneo, Java, Celebes, and Ceram. 

Frequents fresh-water, but seldom being found on the sea- 
coast, and feeds on vegetable substances, worms, insects, and 
larvae, occasionally on small frogs and fish ; its note is a harsh 
knack. It breeds in April or May, its nest being a mere 
depression in the ground in a morass, meadow, or in a reed-bed, 
and composed of rushes and dried grass mixed with down. Its 
eggs, 8 to 12 or 13 in number, are rather deeper creamy yellow 
than those of the Teal and measure about T87 by T35. 

849. BLUE-WINGED TEAL. 
QUERQUEDULA DISCORS. 

Querquedula discors (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 205 (1766) ; (Wilson), Am. 
Orn. viii. p. 74, pi. 68, fig. 4 ; (Audub.), B. Am. vi. p. 287, pi. 393 ; 
Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 299 ; Eidgway, p. 93 ; Saunders, 
p. 434 ; (Lilford), vii. p. 100, pi. 40. 

<$ ad. (N. America). May always be distinguished by having the head 
and neck dull plumbeous, the crown dusky, the sides of the occiput glossed 
with metallic lavender-purple ; a crescent-shaped patch of white in front 
of the eye ; wing-coverts rich blue ; speculum green with a white bar 
above ; under parts pale chestnut spotted with black ; bill black ; legs and 
feet yellowish ; iris brown. Culmen 1*75, wing 7'2, tail 3'25, tarsus T25 
inch. The female has the upper parts dusky varied with buffy white, 
the under parts dull buff, the chin and upper throat uristreaked, the rest 
of the head and neck streaked with dusky, the speculum dull greyish 
brown. In the summer the male like all its allies assumes a dress like 
that of the female, but retains the brighter colours on the wings. 



QUERQUEDULA NETTION 611 



Hob. North America generally, chiefly east of the Rocky 
Mountains, ranging south in winter through the whole of 

the West Indies and Central America to Ecuador. 

r 

In its general habits it does not appear to differ from the 
Garganey, and its nest and eggs resemble those of that species. 
It is only a very rare straggler to Europe, and has occurred 
once in Denmark, and at least once in Scotland. 



NETTION, Kaup, 1829. 

850. THE TEAL. 
NETTION CRECCA. 

Nettion crecca (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 204 (1766) ; (Naum.) xi. p. 701, 
Taf. 304 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 410, pi. cxiv. fig. 2 ; (Gould), B. of E. 
v. pi. 362 ; (id.), B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 16 ; (Dresser), vi. p. 507, 
pi. 426 ; (David and Oust.) Ois. Chine, p. 502 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 243 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1141 ; (Blanf.), F. 
Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 443; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 244; 
Saunders, p. 431 ; (Lilford). vii. p. 94, pi. 37. 

Sarcelle d' hiver, French ; Marreco, Portug. ; Cerceta, Span. ; 
Alsavola, Ital. ; Kruckente, German ; Wintertaling, Dutch ; 
Krihand, Dan. and Norweg. ; Krickan, Swed. ; Giksa, Lapp. ; 
Tavi, Finn. ; Tschirisk, Russ. ; Jerkedj t Arab. ; Chota-MurgliaU, 
Kerra, Hindu. ; Ko-gamo, Jap. 

$ ad. (England). Crown, nape, sides of neck and throat deep chestnut ; 
sides of head glossy green, above and below margined with whitish ; chin 
blackish ; back grey vermiculated with black and white ; upper tail- 
coverts black narrowly margined with fulvous ; elongated scapulars black 
and white ; speculum metallic green ; under parts whitish vermiculated 
with black on the lower breast and flanks, and indistinctly on the 
abdomen ; upper breast spotted with black ; under tail-coverts black ; 
whitish along the edge, with a cream-coloured patch on each side ; bill 
blackish; legs and feet brownish grey; iris brown. Culmen T55, wing 
7'0, tail 27, tarsus 0'8 inch. Female blackish brown mottled with reddish 
brown above ; under parts whitish mottled with brown and rufous on the 
upper breast and flanks ; a loral spot and throat clear buff ; wings duller 
than in the male. The male assumes a plumage like that of the female in 
the summer. 

Hah, The whole of Europe, north to Northern Lapland and 
Iceland, rare in Greenland ; Canaries ; Azores ; North Africa 
in winter, south to Abyssinia ; Asia east to Japan, north to 

s s 



612 NETTION 



Kamchatka, south in winter to China, India, and Ceylon ; of 
occasional occurrence in eastern North America. 

Is essentially a fresh-water Duck, only found on salt-water in 
exceptional cases. It feeds ab night on vegetable substances, 
grain, seeds, worms, and slugs, &c. Its nest is placed on the 
ground, amongst grass, frequently under a bush, and is composed 
of bents and down. The eggs from 8 to 10, occasionally as 
many as 15, are deposited in May and are yellowish white like 
old ivory and measure about 178 by T31. 

851. AMERICAN TEAL. 
NETTION CAROLINE NSE. 

Nettlon carolinense (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 533 (1778) ; (Audub.), B. Am. 
vi. p. 281, pi. 392 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 250 ; 
Ridgway, p. 94 ; Saunders, p. 433 ; (Lilford), vii. p. 96, pi. 38. 

c ad. (N. America). Differs from A T . crecca in wanting the striped 
scapulars and in having a broad whitish orescentic band on each side of 
the breast, and the vermiculations in the plumage are much finer; The 
female closely resembles that of N. crecca. 

Hob. North America, breeding usually north of the United 
States, migrating in winter south to the West Indies, Mexico, 
and Honduras ; Greenland ; of rare occurrence in Europe but has 
been obtained at least twice in Great Britain. 

In habits and nidification it does not differ from N. crecca, and 
its eggs resemble those of that species, and in size average 1'76 
by 1-30. 

852. BAIKAL TEAL. 
NETTION FORMOSUM. 

Nettion fonnosum (Georgi), Reis. Russ. Reich, p. 168 (1775); (Temin. 
and Schlegel), Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 127, Tabb. 82s and c ; 
(Dresser), vi. p. 521, pi. 428; (David and Oust.) Ois. Chine, 
p. 503; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 240; (Tacz.) F. 0. 
Sib. 0. p. 1138; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 442; A. 
glocitans, Pall. Acta. Holm. xl. p. 33, Tab. i. (1779) ; (Gould), 
B. of E. pi. 363. 

KlokuscTika, Moklok, MoJcloschka, Russ. ; Aji, Jap. 

$ ad. (Siberia). Crown, hind-neck, throat, and a band across the 
face black ; face and sides of neck buff margined with white ; crown behind 
the eye bordered with white ; a crescentic green band from behind the eye 
round the nape ; back blue-grey finely vermiculated with black and white ; 



NETTION DAFILA 6 1 3 



quills and tail dark brown ; elongated scapulars, black down the middle, 
white on the inner, and rufous on the outer web ; wing-coverts brown, the 
larger edged with rufous ; speculum greenish bronze near the coverts, then 
black with white tips ; breast brownish vinous spotted with black ; 
abdomen buffy whitish ; flanks like the back ; vent and under tail-coverts 
black, the latter bay on the sides, the longer ones tipped with white ; bill 
dark bluish brown ; legs and fest greyish blue, the webs darker ; iris 
reddish brown. Culmen 1'5, wirg 8'5, tail 3*6, tarsus TO inch. The 
female is not unlike that of N. crecca. but is larger, has the speculum as 
in the male, but duller, and a buff spot on each side of the head in front of 
the lores and one under each eye. 

Hal. Northern Asia, chiefly eastern Siberia, west to the 
Yenesei, north to Kamchatka, migrating south to Mongolia, 
Corea, Japan, China, and rarely to India ; of accidental occur- 
rence in Europe, having been twice obtained in France, and once 
in Italy. 

In habits it is said to resemble N. crecca, but is much more 
noisy, and when on passage its deep duckling call-note Ho, Ho, 
Ho, may be heard at a considerable distance. It breeds in 
North-eastern Siberia, the nest being placed on the ground, 
on the river-banks under willow-bushes. The eggs 7 to 8 in 
number are deposited late in June or early in July, resemble 
those of N. crecca, but have a faint olivaceous tinge, and measure 
About 1'85 by T33. 

DAFILA, Leach, 1824. 

853. PINTAIL. 
DAFILA ACUTA. 

Dajila acuta (Linn.), Syst. Nat i. p. 202 (1766) ; (Naum.), xi. p. 638, 
Taf. 301 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 403, pi. cxiii. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of 
Gt. Brit. v. pi. 18 ; David and Oust., Ois. Chine, p. 498 ; 
Dresser, vi. p. 531, pis. 430, 431 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxvii. p. 270; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 447; Tacz. F. 
0. Sib. 0. p. 1147 ; Saunders, p. 429 ; (Lilford), vii. p. 92, 
pi. 36 ; Ridgway. p. 98 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 246 ; 
D. caudacuta (Pall.), Zoogr. Ross. As. ii. p. 280 (1811) ; Gould, 
B. of E. v. pi. 365. 

Pild, French : Ralijunco, Portug. ; Pato-careto, Span. ;,Codone, 
Ital. ; Spiessentc, German ; Pijlstaart, Dutch ; Spidsand, Dan. 
and Norweg. ; Stjertand, Swed. ; Vicojas, Lapp. ; Jouhisuorsa, 
Finn. ; SMlochvost, Russ. ; Bulbul, Arab. ; Sank, Sink-par. 
Hindu. ; 0-naga-gamo, Jap. 

s s 2 



614 DAFILAMARECA 

$ ad. (England). Crown and nape dark umber-brown with paler 
margins ; sides of head, chin, and fore-neck reddish brown Avith faint 
purplish reflections ; hind-neck blackish brown glossed with green ; lower 
hind-neck and upper parts white vermiculated with black, the rump and 
upper tail-coverts barred and marbled with brown ; middle tail-feathers 
blackish brown, elongated, and pointed, the outer one and quills dark 
grey, the former tipped with white ; alar speculum metallic green with a 
ferruginous bar above and a white one below ; elongated alar feathers 
black margined with white ; a long line on each side of the neck and 
breast white ; under parts white ; flanks like the back ; lower abdomen 
indistinctly barred with greyish brown ; crissum and under tail-covert& 
black ; beak blackish, the sides dull plumbeous ; legs and feet greyish 
black ; iris orange-brown. Culmen 2 '2, wing 11 '2, tail 7 '5, tarsus 1'6 
inch. The female has the head and nape reddish brown the rest of the 
head and neck yellowish white all lineated with dark brown ; the upper 
parts dark brown edged and marked with dirty white, the under parts 
yellowish white marked with brown ; no speculum but with two white 
bars across the wings. In the summer the male assumes a dress much 
like that of the female but retains the speculum. 

Hob. Europe generally, breeding in the north as far as 
northern Lapland, migrating south in winter to North Africa ; 
Asia, east to Japan, north to about 71 N. Lat., south in winter 
to Mongolia, China, India, and Ceylon ; North America from 
Alaska, south to Cuba and Panama. 

In general habits it much resembles A. boscas, and is a fresh- 
water duck, feeding on aquatic plants, seeds, tender shoots, 
roots, insects, and their larvae, but may also be met with off the 
sea-coasts. Its note is soft and is not so high-pitched as that 
of its allies, nor is it a noisy bird. It breeds rather later than 
A. boscas, its nest being a depression in the ground, not far from 
water and usually under a bush, lined with small flags, grass- 
bents, and down. The eggs 7 to 9 in number are dull greenish 
grey, rather elongated in shape, and measure about 2*9 by 1.45. 

MARECA, Stephens, 1824. 

854. WIGEON. 
MARECA PENELOPE. 

Marecapenelope(L\Tm.}, Syst. Nat. i. p. 202 (1766) ; (Naum.) xi. p. 724, 
Taf. 305 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 412, pi. cxiv. fig. 3 ; Gould, B. of E. v. 
pi. 359 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 13 ; Dresser, vi. p. 541, pis. 432, 
433 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 499 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxvii. p. 227 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 445 ; Tacz, 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1156 ; Ridgway, p. 96 ; Saunders, p. 437 ; Lilford, 
vii. p. 101.pl. 41. 



MARECA 615 

Canard siffleur, French ; Asscibiadeira, Portflg. ; Pato- 
florcntino, Span. ; Fischione, Ital. ; Pfeifente, Blassente, German ; 
Smient, Dutch ; Pibeand, Blisand, Dan. ; Brunnaltke, Norweg. ; 
Blasand, Swed. ; Snartal, Lapp. ; Haapana, Finn. ; Sivijas, 
Swestun, Russ. ; Peasan, Patari, Hindu. ; Hidori, Jap. 

< ad. (England). Forehead and fore-crown warm oclireous ; rest of 
head and neck rich rusty red ; region round and behind the eye, front of 
throat, lower neck, and nape marked with green ; upper parts and flanks 
white verraiculated with black ; wing-coverts greyish brown and white ; 
speculum green ; elongated alar feathers blackish grey on the inner and 
black margined with white on the outer web ; upper breast pinky vinous ; 
under parts white ; under tail-coverts black ; beak blue-grey, the tip black ; 
legs plumbeous ; iris reddish brown. Culmen T55, wing 10'2, tail 4'8, 
tarsus T55 inch. The female has the head and neck greyish ochreous 
striped with black ; upper parts dull brown with whitish margins ; 
speculum absent ; under parts white, the breast marked with reddish 
brown, the under tail-coverts with greyish brown. In the late summer 
the male resembles the female but the head and neck are dull chestnut 
spotted with black ; no buff patch ; wings as above but the wings-coverts 
are ashy grey ; upper breast and flanks rusty brown. 

Hab. Europe generally, breeding in the high north, migrating 
in winter to Africa, as far south as Abyssinia, and Madeira ; 
Asia north to Kamchatka, east to Japan, and south in winter to 
China, India, and Borneo ; of occasional occurrence in Eastern 
North America and more frequent in Alaska. 

Resembles the Teal in its choice of habitat, and though also 
found on the sea-coast usually frequents quiet bays, inlets, and 
mud-banks. It feeds on vegetable substances, aquatic insects, 
crustaceans, &c. and does not dive in search of food. Its 
whistling note is very frequently to be heard, especially at 
night. It breeds both near water and at some distance from it, 
its nest being a depression in the ground lined with down and 
a few grass-bents and moss. The eggs which are deposited in 
May or early in June are creamy white and measure about 2*27 
by 1-55. 

855. AMERICAN WIGEON. 
MARECA AMERICANA. 

Mareca aitiericana (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 526 (1788) ; (Audub.), B. 
Am. vi. p. 259, pi. 389 ; Dresser, ix. p. 289, pi. 707 ; Salvador!, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 233; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1160; 
Ridgway, p. 96 ; Saunders, p. 439 ; LilforJ, vii. p. 104, pi. 42. 

$ ad. (N. America). Differs from M. penelope in having the crown and 
forehead white, unspotted, the head and neck dull white finely speckled 



6 1 6 MARECA^ETHYIA 



with black ; a broad space of metallic green extending from the eye to the 
occiput. Culmen 1-6, wing 10'55, tail 5'0, tarsus T45 inch. The female 
differs from that of M. penelope in having the pale parts of the head and 
neck whitish,. 

Hob. North America in general, breeding chiefly north of the 
United States ; in winter south to Guatemala and Cuba ; 
N. Iceland, where it breeds ; has occurred two or three times in 
Britain. 

In habits it does not differ from M. penelope, but is said to 
breed always some distance from water, under trees or bushes. 
The eggs resemble those of M. penelope and measure about 
2-06 by 148. 

JETHYIA, Boie, 1822. 

856. RED-CRESTED POCHARD. 
-ffiTHYIA RUFINA. 

Mtliyia rufina (Pall.), Reise ii. App. p. 713, No. 28 (1773) ;: 
(Naum.), xii. p. 7, Taf. 307 ; (Gould), B. of E. v. pi. 369 ; (id.),, 
B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 22 ; (Dresser), vi. p. 559, pi. 435 ; (Salvadori), 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 328 ; (Blanford), F. Brit. Ind. Birds, 
iv. p. 456 ; (Saunders), p. 441 ; (Lilford), vii. p. 106, pi. 43. 

Canard siffleur huppe, French ; Sivert, Span. ; Germano turco, 
Ital. ; Kolbenente, German ; Nyrok krasnonosyi, Russ. ; Ldl- 
chonch, Ldl-sir, Hindu. 

gad. (S. Russia). Head crested ; head and upper neck rusty red with 
a pink tinge, the crown paler ; hind and lower neck and upper breast 
hlack ; middle of back brown, the scapulars paler and reddish ; rump and 
tipper tail-coverts blackish brown ; tail and quills dark ashy grey ;. 
secondaries white with a subterminal greyish brown bar ; elongated inner 
secondaries ashy grey ; wing-coverts ashy brown ; under parts blackish 
brown, the sides of the abdomen white ; bill vermilion-red, the tip white ; 
legs orange-red ; iris reddish brown. Culmen 2'3, wing 10'8, tail 3'5, 
tarsus 1*6 inch. The female is greyish brown above, the scapulars paler ; 
secondaries greyish . white barred with brown towards the tip ; throat^ 
sides of head below the eye, neck, and under parts whitish ; bill blackish 
with a pink tip ; legs and feet pinkish, the webs blackish. 

Hob. Southern Europe, rarely straying north as far as Great 
Britain and Denmark ; North Africa ; Southern Russia east to 
Turkestan, migrating in winter south to Northern and Central 
India. 



JSTHYIA 617 



Frequents fresh-water lakes and marshes, and is extremely 
shy and wary ; its call-note is harsh, not unlike the croak of a 
Crow, and its food consists of water-plants, aquatic insects, 
small shellfish, and fish or frog spawn. It breeds near fresh- 
water, placing its nest on the flags or ground, constructing it of 
dead stems of rushes or leaves lined with down, and in May 
deposits 7 to 9, occasionally 10 eggs which are greenish gray in 
colour and measure about 2*28 by T60. 

857. POCHARD. 
-flETHYIA FERINA. 

jEthyia ferina (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 203 (1766) ; (Naum.), xiii. 
p. 21, Taf. 308 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 433, pi. cxvii. fig. 2 ; Gould, 
B. of R. v. pi. 367 ; (id.), B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 20 ; (Dresser), vi. 
p. 551, pi. 434 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 506 ; (Salvadori), 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 335 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. O. p. 1162 ; 
(Blanf.), F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 458 ; (Saimders), p. 443 ; 
(Lilford), vii. p. 107, pi. 44 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. E. p. 254. 

Milouin, French ; Tarrantana, Portug. ; Cabezon, Span. ; 
Moriglione, Ital. ; Tafelente, German ; Tafeleend, Dutch ; Taffel- 
and, Dan. and Norweg. : Brunand, Swed. ; PunasotJca, Finn. ; 
Rijegolovka, Krasnogolowi-Nyrok, Russ. ; Aurdr~nar, Hindu ; 
Hoshihajiro, Jap. 

ad. (England). Head and upper neck coppery red; lower neck, 
upper back, upper breast, rump, upper and under tail-coverts black ; 
upper parts otherwise white yermiculated with black ; quills brown tipped 
with blackish ; tail blackish brown tinged with grey ; speculum greyish ; 
under parts white indistinctly vermiculated with blackish ; bill black with 
a broad band of dull light blue ; legs plumbeous ; iris bright yellow. 
Culmen 2*2, wing 8 '4, tail 2 '8, tarsus 1*45 inch. The female has the head 
and neck dull reddish brown, the base of the bill, chin, and upper throat 
dirty white ; sides of head marked with dirty white ; back dark brown 
with a few greyish white feather-tips and vermiculated with blackish ; 
breast dark reddish brown with a few whitish margins ; abdomen white, 
the lower part and under tail-coverts brownish grey. In the late summer 
the male resembles the female, but the head and neck are redder, the back 
more marked with white and more clearly vermiculated. 

Hob. Europe generally, north to Central Sweden; rare in 
Iceland ; the British Islands, South Europe, and North Africa in 
winter ; Canaries ; Asia east to Japan, north to Southern Siberia, 
south to Northern India in winter ; in America it is replaced 
by a very closely allied form JE. americana, Bp. 



618 ^ETHYIA 



Is an expert diver and obtains its food to some extent 
inland, but chiefly under the surface of the water, feeding 
chiefly on vegetable substance, but also, it is said, on aquatic 
insects. As a rule it is a somewhat silent bird, and its call-note 
is a low rerrr-rerrr-a. Its nest is a mere hollow in the ground 
near water lined with grass-bents and down, and the eggs 7 to 
10, sometimes 12 in number, are usually deposited early in June, 
are greenish grey, sometimes with a faint buff tinge, and 
measure about 2'38 by 1'65. 

858. SCAUP DUCK. 
JETHYIA MARILA 

jEthyia marila (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 196 (1766) ; (Naum.), xii. p. 88, 
Taf. 311 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 426, pi. cxvii. fig. 3 ; (Gould), B. of E. 
v. pi. 371 ; (id.) B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 24 ; (Dreseer), vi. p. 565, pi. 436 ; 
(David and Oust.) Ois. Chine, p. 507 ; (Salvadori), Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
p. 355 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. O. p. 1164 ; (Blanf.), F. Brit. Ind. Birds, 
iv. p. 462 ; (Saunders), p. 449 ; (Lilford), vii. p. 112, pi. 46 ; (Ridg- 
way), p. 103. 

Canard milouinan, French ; Morctta-grigia , Ital. ; JBergente, 
German ; Toppereend, Dutch ; Bjergand, Dan. and Norweg. ; 
Bergand, Swed. ; Stuora-fietag, Lapp. ; Iso-sorrti Tunturi-sotka, 
Finn. ; Sorovoi-Nyrok, Belogldska, Russ. ; Nakihashiro-gamo, Jap. 

$ ad. (N. Russia). Head, neck, forepart of back, breast, rump, upper 
and under tail-coverts, and tail black ; head and upper neck glossed with 
bottle-green ; upper parts white vermiculated and barred with black ; 
speculum white tipped with black ; under parts white, the lower 
abdomen faintly vermiculated with black ; bill and legs light plumbeous ; 
webs blackish ; iris yellow. Cnlmen 1*85, wing 8*5, tail 2'8, tarsus 1'4 
inch. The female has the forepart of the head and chin white ; rest of the 
head, neck, and breast dark reddish brown ; upper parts dark brown, the 
back slightly vermiculated with white ; abdomen dull white, the flanks 
vermiculated with brown ; crissum and under tail-coverts dark brown 
slightly vermiculated with white ; bill and legs darker than in the male. 
The male in late summer resembles the female but the head and neck are 
blacker, the back more barred with dirty white, and the soft parts as 
above. 

Hob. Europe generally, north to Lapland and Iceland ; rare 
in Greenland ; Southern Europe and North Africa in winter ; 
Asia east to Japan, north to Kamchatka, south in winter to 
Northern India and China. The American form, jE. nearctica 
(Stejn.) is said to differ in having the six inner quills without 
distinct white spaces on the inner webs. 



J2THYIA 619 



Is an expert diver, obtaining its food, which consists chiefly 
of small shellfish and minute Crustacea and marine plants, 
chiefly by diving. It swims with ease and flies tolerably swiftly, 
usually not high above the surface of the water. It breeds in 
June or early in July, nesting on the ground under a bush, 
sometimes under a stone or in a hole, its nest generally consist- 
ing only of grass. Its eggs, 8 to 9, sometimes 11 in number, 
are greyish stone-buff and measure about 2'48 by 1*75. East 
Asiatic birds (F. mariloides, Vig.) are said to have sometimes a 
purple gloss on the head. 

859. TUFTED DUCK. 
.ffiSTHYIA FULIGULA. 

.EtJnjia f ul'tgula (Linn.), Syst, Nat. i. p. 207 (1766) ; (Naum.) xii. p. 64, 
Taf. 310 ; (Salvador!), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 363 ; (Blanf.), F. 
Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 463 ; (Ridgway), p. 103. M. cristata (Leach), 
Syst. Cat. M. and B. Brit. Mus. p. 39 (1816) ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 430, 
pi. cxviii. fig. 3 ; (Gould), B. of E. v. pi. 370 ; (id.) B. of Gt. Brit, 
v. pi. 23 ; (Dresser), vi. p. 573, pi. 437 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. 
p. 355 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. L 167 ; (Saunders), p. 447 ; (Lil- 
ford), vii. p. 113, pi. 47. 

Morillon, French ; Negrella, Portug. ; Coquinero, Span. ; 
Moretta, Ital. ; Haubenente, tickopfentc, German ; Kuifeend, 
Dutch ; Topand, Dan. and Norweg. ; Vigg, Swed. ; Urib-fietag, 
Lapp. ; Pieni-sorrti Jouhisotka, Finn. ; Tsckemett, Russ. ; Dubzru, 
Ablak, Hindu. ; Kinkurohajiro-gamo, Jap. 

ad. (England). Head, neck, upper parts and wings, breast and under 
tail-coverts black ; head with a long crest arid glossed with purple ; 
speculum white tipped with black ; a few indistinct vermiculatioris on the 
back; under parts white, the lower abdomen washed with grey; bill 
plumbeous tipped with black ; legs dull olive-plumbeous the webs blackish ; 
iris yellow. Culmen 1*8, wing 8 '2, tail 2'8, tarsus 1'5 inch. The female 
has the head, neck, breast, and upper parts blackish brown with a faint 
purplish gloss ; under parts brownish grey ; forehead tinged with brownish 
white ; crest very short. In the late summer the plumage of the male is 
browner on the head and neck, the back and lower neck indistinctly 
powdered with greyish white ; crest shorter than in the spring. 

Hob. Europe generally, north as far as Lapland ; Southern 
Europe and North Africa in winter, ranging south to Abyssinia ; 
Asia east to Japan, north to Kamchatka, south in winter to 
China and India, and of accidental occurrence in the Malay 
Archipelago and Polynesian Islands. 



620 



In general habits it most nearly resembles the Scaup Duck- 
In the summer it frequents fresh-water and then feeds chiefly 
on vegetable matter, aquatic insects, frogs, &c., and in the winter 
it is found chiefly on the sea-coast, and then feeds on small 
shellfish, &c., obtaining its food chiefly by diving. Its nest, 
which is placed on the ground, close to, or not far from water, is 
composed of grass-bents and a few leaves, matted together 
with sooty brownish black down with greyish white centres, 
and its eggs, usually 8 in number are deposited early in June, 
and are uniform pale olive-green or greenish buff, smooth in 
texture of shell and measure about 2'31 by T65. 



860. WHITE-EYED DUCK. 
-flBTHYIA NYROCA. 

. jEthyia nyroca (Giild.), Nov. Comm. Petrop. xiv. p. 403 (1769) ; 
(Naum.), xii. p. 41, Taf. 309; (Saunders), p. 445; (Lilford), vii. 
p. 109, pi. 45 ; Mtlnjia ferruginea (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 528 
(1788) ; Dresser, vi. p. 581, pi. 438 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, 
iv. p. 460 ; M. africana, (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 522 (1788) ;. 
(Salvadori), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 345 ; M. leucophthalma 
(Bechst.), Orn. Taschenb. i. p. 450 (1802) ; (Gould), B. of E. v. 
pi. 368 ; (id.) B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 21. 

Fuligule nyroca, French; Zarro, Portug. ; Pardote, RocJiet, 
Span. ; Moretta-tabaccata, Ital. ; Moorente, German ; Beloglasyi- 
Nyrok, Russ. ; Ziriguil, Moor. ; Karchiya, Burar-mada, Hindu. 

ad. (Volga). Head, neck, and breast chestnut-red ; a small spot at 
the base of the under mandible white ; a blackish brown band round the 
lower neck ; upper parts blackish brown ; speculum white tipped with 
black ; under parts white ; flanks reddish brown ; lower abdomen fulvous ;. 
beak and legs plumbeous ; iris white. Culmen 1'6, wing 6'8, tail 2'3, 
tarsus 0'9 inch. The female is duller in colour, the feathers on the back 
and breast with pale tips ; abdomen marked with brown. 

Hal. Central and Southern Europe ; of somewhat rare 
occurrence in Great Britain ; Canaries ; North Africa, south 
to Abyssinia ; Western Asia, north to the Ob valley, east to 
Kashmir, south to Central India. 

Frequents chiefly fresh water, but is also occasionally to be 
met with on the sea-coast in winter. Its food in summer 
consists chiefly of vegetable substances, but in winter of insects- 
and their larvse, Crustacea, and mollusca. Its call-note resembles- 
that of JE. ferina but is not so loud. Its nest is placed on the 



jETHYIACLANGULA 62 11 



ground, or on a tussock, sometimes in a bush 2 to 3 feet above 
the ground, always well concealed. Its eggs 7 to 12 in 
number are usually deposited in May and are yellowish or 
greyish buff and measure about 2'1 by 1'46. 



861. BEER'S DUCK. 
^ETHYIA 



jEthyia bceri (Radde), Reis. S. 0. Sib. ii. p. 376, pi. 15 (1863) ; (David 
and Oust.), Ois. Chine, p. 509. pi. 124 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap, Emp. 
p. 254 ; (Salvadori), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 344 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. 
Sib. O. p. 1169 ; (Blanf.) F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 461. 

Akahajiro, Jap. 

( ad. Differs from N. ferruginea in having the head and neck black, 
glossed with bottle-green ; bill bluish plumbeous, the base and nail black ; 
feet lead-grey ; iris white or pale yellow. Culmen 2'0, wing 8'0, tail 2*8, 
tarsus 1*25 inch. The female differs from that of N. ferruginea in having 
the head and neck brownish black, with a very faint gloss ; lores rufous 
brown. 

Hal). Kamchatka ; Eastern Siberia ; in winter migrating 
to Japan, China, and India; has once occurred in England 
(cf. Bull. B. O. Club xii. p. 25). 

In its general habits and nidification it resembles- 
j*E. nyroca ; its eggs also resemble those of that species, being 
yellowish buff, and measure about 21 by 1'54. 



CLANGULA, Leach, 1819. 

862. GOLDEN-EYE. 
CLANGULA GLAUCION. 

Clanyula f/laucion (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 201 (1766) ; Gould, B. of Gt. 
Brit. v. pi. 31 ; Dresser, vi. p. 595, pi. 440 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxvii. p. 376 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 464 ; Saunders,, 
p. 451 ; A. clangula, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 201 (1766) ; Natmi. xii. 
p. 161, Taf. 316 ; (David and Oust.), Ois. Chine, p. 505 ; (Tacz.), F. 
O. Sib. 0. p. 1171 ; Ridgway p. 105 ; (Lilford), vii. p. 115, pi. 48 ; 
Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 253 ; C. vulgaris Fleming, Brit. An. 
p. 120 (1828) ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 379 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 435,. 
pi. cxix. fig. 1 ; C. americana Bp. Comp. List. p. 58 (1838) ; Ridg- 
way, p. 105. 



CLANGULA 



Garrot, French ; Ector $ , Perdigana d'aigua $ , Span. ; 

Quatr'occhi, Ital. ; Schellente, German : Brilecnd, Dutch ; 

Hvinand, Dan. and Norweg. ; Knipa, Swed. ; Sotka, Telkha, 
Finn.; Gogol, Russ. ; Shinori-yamo, Jap. 

tf. (Norway). Head and upper neck black glossed with bottle- 
green ; feathers on crown and nape elongated ; lower neck and under 
parts white ; back, rump, lesser wing-coverts, primaries, and tail black, 
the last tinged with grey ; speculum white ; scapulars white externally, 
margined with black ; a large white spot on each cheek close to the gape ; 
lower flanks and crissum marked with black ; bill blackish ; legs orange- 
yellow ; iris yellow. Culmen 1'4, wing 8'8, tail 3'8, tarsus 1 '55 inch. The 
female has the head and upper neck deep rich brown, the lower neck and 
sides of fore-back slate-grey with pale tips ; upper parts greyish black ; 
under parts whiter, the flanks greyish brown. The male in late summer 
resembles the female, but may always be distinguished by its pure white 
wing-coverts. 

Hob. Europe in the high north, migrating in winter to 
south Europe and the northern coasts of Africa : Northern 
Asia as far north as Kamchatka, migrating in winter to Japan, 
Corea, China, arid India ; North America, in summer from 
Maine and Canada northward, migrating in winter south to 
Cuba and Mexico. 

In the summer it is found inland and being usually 
unmolested during the breeding season it is b}^ no means shy, 
but in the winter season, when it frequents the sea-coast it is 
very shy and wary. It is a very expert diver, obtaining its 
food under water and feeding on small crustaceans, aquatic 
insects, and aquatic vegetable substance. It flies swiftly with 
a whistling sound. Jt breeds in the high north in hollow 
trees, in nesting-boxes set up for that purpose, and lines the 
nest-hole plentifully with down. The eggs 10 to 12, sometimes 
as many as 19 in number, are usually deposited in June, and 
are greyish green, smooth in texture of shell and measure 
about 2-40 by T55. 

863. BARROW'S GOLDEN-EYE. 
CLANGULA ISLANDICA. 

Clangula islandlca (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 541 (1788) ; Naum. xii 
p. 186, Taf. 317 ; Dresser, vi. p. 603, pi. 441 ; Salvadori, Cat. B.Br. 
Mus. xxvii. p. 383 ; (Ridgway), p. 105 ; C. barrovii, Swains. Faun. 
Bor. Am. ii. p. 456, pi. 70 (1831) ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi 380. 

Niarkortok, Greenl. ; Husond, Icel. 



CLANGULA 62$ 



( ad. (Iceland). Differs from 0. ylaucion in being larger, tlie head 
more crested and glossed with purple, and between the eye and the bill is 
an irregular cresceiitic white patch ; the white on the wing consists of two 
smaller patches, divided by a broad black band. Culmen 1*5, wing 9'2, 
tail 4'0, tarsus T6 inch. The female and young may be distinguished from 
those of C. fjlaucion by their larger size, the larger and higher bill, and by 
having less white on the wing. 

Hal}. Iceland and Greenland, occasionally straying to the 
northern coasts of Europe, and has occurred as far south a& 
Valencia in Spain ; Northern North America, breeding from the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence northward ; in winter migrating south to 
New York, Illinois, Utah, &c. 

In its habits it resembles C. glaucion, but it breeds amongst 
stones and in holes in the rocks, and even in holes in houses. 
Its eggs 9 to 12 in number are deposited in June, and 
resemble those of C. glaucion, but measure about 2*75 by 175. 



864. BUFFLE-HEADED DUCK, 
CLANGULA ALBEOLA. 

Clangula albeola (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 199 (1766) ; (Audub.) B. Am. 
vi. p. 369, pi. 408 ; Dresser, vi. p. 589, pi. 439 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 385; Tacx. F. 0. Sib. O. p. 1174; (Kidgway), 
p. 106 ; Saunders, p. 453 ; Lilford, vii. p. 117, pi. 49. 

<$ ad. (New Brunswick). Head and upper neck black, glossed with 
metallic green and purple ; a large white patch from behind the eye extending 
across the occiput ; lower neck, central and larger wing-coverts, outer scapu- 
lars, and speculum white ; upper parts otherwise black ; tail grey ; under 
parts white ; bill blackish plumbeous ; legs and feet yellowish pink ; iris 
deep brown. Culmen 1'45, wing 6'7, tail 2'9, tarsus 1*5 inch. The female 
has the head, neck, and upper parts blackish brown ; a white patch on the 
ear-coverts, and a band across the wing white ; under parts white, the- 
flanks tinged with ashy grey. 

Hob. The Northern United States and British North America,, 
migrating south in winter to Mexico and the West Indies ; a< 
very rare straggler to Great Britain, and has once been obtained 
on Bering Island, North-east Asia. 

In general habits it resembles C. glaucion, but is if anything 
a more expert diver, and will dive at the flash of a gun, hence 
its local name on the North American coasts of Spirit Duck 
and Dipper. In the summer it feeds on vegetable matter, 



624 CLAXGULA COSMONETTA 



snails, worms, &c., and in the winter when off the sea-coast on 
.small shell-fish, shrimps, &c. Like the Golden-eye it is a tree- 
breeder, nesting in hollow trees and deposits 8 to 10 eggs 
which are buffy or yellowish white and measure about T98 
% 1-46. 

COSMONETTA, Kaup, 1829. 

865. HARLEQUIN DUCK. 

COSMONETTA HISTRIONICA. 

Cosmonetta histrionica (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 204 (1766) ; (Naum.), xii. 
p. 199, Taf. 318 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 433, pi. cxviii. fig. 2 ; (Gould), 
B. of E. v. pi. 381 ; Dresser, vi. p. 609, pi. 442 ; (Andub.), B. Am. 
vi. p. 374, pi. 409 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 395 ; Tacz. 
F. 0. Sib. O. p. 1176 ; (Ridgway), p. 107 ; Saunders, p. 457 ; Lil- 
ford, vii. p. 121, pi. 51 ; Clangula torquata, Brehm, Vogelfang, 
p. 385 (1855) ; (Gould), B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 32. 

Canard histrion, French ; Kragenente, German ; Tomauiarsuk, 
Oreenl. ; Straumond, Icel. ; Stromand. Dan. and Swed. ; 
Tschernaya~polossataya-0otka t Russ. ; Shinori-gamo, Jap. 

$ ad. (Greenland). A large patch in front of the eye, and a spot 
on the ear-coverts white ; a broad stripe through the middle of the crown 
to the nape black, bordered with white ; from above each eye to the nape 
a broad rusty-red stripe ; rest of head and neck blackish blue, marked with 
a long white stripe on each side of the neck ; breast, back, and lesser wing- 
coverts deep dull blue ; wings, tail, and rump black, the inner secondaries 
and scapulars marked with white ; speculum glossy purple ; on the lower 
neck an interrupted white collar, and another in front of the wing ; under 
parts brown, tinged with blue-grey ; flanks chestnut- red ; under tail-coverts 
black, with a white spot on each side ; bill deep lead-blue, the nail lighter ; 
legs brown ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1'3, wing 8*0, tail 4*25, tarsus 
1-4 inch. The female is greyish brown, paler below ; forehead and at the 
base of the bill brownish white ; a white patch in front of the eye, and 
one on the ear-coverts ; breast and abdomen closely marked with white. 
In the late summer the male has the plumage much duller, the speculum 
dusky brownish grey, with a slight metallic gloss ; under parts greyish 
white, spotted with greyish brown, the flanks and under tail-coverts nearly 
uniform greyish brown. 

Hob. Greenland, Iceland ; of rare occurrence in Great Britain 
and continental Europe ; Eastern Siberia and Kamchatka, 
visiting Japan in winter ; Northern North America, migrating 
in winter south to the Middle United States, the Ohio valley, 
and the coasts of California. 



COSMONETTAHA RELDA 625 



Like its allies it is an expert diver and can remain a con- 
siderable time below the surface. It flies swiftly, usually not 
high above the surface of the water, and if alarmed will dive at 
once from the air into the water. In winter it feeds on small 
mollusca which it obtains by diving, but in summer chiefly 
on aquatic insects and their larvae. Its nest is placed on the 
ground close to some swift-flowing stream, and is most carefully 
concealed. The eggs 8 to 10 in number, are usually deposited 
in June or early in July, and are rich cream-coloured, smooth 
in texture of shell, and measure about 2*32 by 1'45. 

HARELDA, Steph., 1824. 

866. LONG-TAILED DUCK. 
HARELDA GLACIALIS. 

Harelda glacialis (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 203 (1766) ; (Naum.), xii. 
p. 210, Taf. 319 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 431, pi. cxviii. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. 
of E. v. pi. 382 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit, v. pi. 33 ; Dresser, vi. p. 617, 
pis. 443, 444 ; (Audub.), B. Am. vi. p. 379, pi. 410 ; Salvadori, Cat, 
B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 389 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. 0. p. 1179 ; Saunders, 
p. 455 ; Lilford, vii. p. 119, pi. 50 ; A. hyemalis, Linn. Syst. Nat. 
i. p. 202 (1766) ; (Ridgway) ; p. 106. . 

Harelde ylaciale, French ; Moretta codona, Ital. ; Eisente, 
Crerman ; Ijseend, Dutch ; Havlit, Dan. ; Isand, Norweg. ; Alfogel, 
.Swed. ; Aglek, Greenl. ; Havelli, Icel. ; Alii, Finn. ; Vostroh-vostka, 
Polyarnoi-nyrolt, Russ. 

$ ad. (New Brunswick). Forehead and sides of head ashy grey, browner 
round the eye ; a long brown patch on the sides of the neck, becoming 
chestnut-red below ; rest of head, neck, upper breast, back, and scapulars 
white ; sides of and lower back, rump, upper tail-coverts, and elongated 
middle tail-feathers black ; rest of tail white ; wing-coverts, primaries, and 
lower breast brownish black, secondaries washed with chestnut ; abdomen 
white ; bill blackish plumbeous, with a band of pinkish orange ; legs 
plumbeous ; iris reddish brown. Culmen 1*2, wing 9'0, tail 8'0, the middle- 
feathers 5-0 longer than the rest, tarsus 1*4 inch. The female has the crown 
and nape blackish brown, becoming greyish on the hind-neck ; upper parts 
blackish, the scapulars ashy brown with darker centres ; middle tail-feathers 
not elongated ; sides of head dull white ; chin and a patch down the sides 
of the neck brown; throat washed with dull brown; a broad blackish 
brown band across the upper breast ; under parts otherwise white. In the 
summer the male has the forepart of the head sooty grey, the rest of the 
head, neck, and breast black ; upper parts black margined with rusty-red ; 
under parts white. 



626 HARELDACEDEMIA 

Hob. The high northern portions of Europe, Asia, and 
America, visiting the coasts of continental Europe, and the 
British Islands in winter, and has been obtained in Italy : 
Asia, in winter, south to Japan, and in North America to South 
Carolina. 

In the winter season it frequents the sea-coasts and is very 
hardy, only seeking sheltered places during very severe weather. 
It dives extremely well, and seeks its food chiefly under water, 
feeding on small shell-fish. It is a very noisy bird, its peculiar 
gabbling cry being uttered incessantly. It breeds in the high 
north, chiefly within the Arctic Circle, its nest being placed on 
the ground, usually under a bush near the margin of a lake r 
and the eggs 6 to 8 in number are usually deposited late in 
June or early in July, and are greyish buff with a faint greenish 
tinge, and measure about 2'17 by 1*51. 

(EDEMIA, Fleming, 1822. 
867. VELVET SCOTER. 
CEDEMIA FUSCA. 

(Edemiafusca (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 196 (1766); (Naum.) xii. p. 123 
Taf. 313 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 419, pi. cxvi. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of E. 
v. pi. 377 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 29 ; Dresser, vi. p. 657, pi. 448 . 
Salvador!, Cat. B. Br, Mas. xxvii. p. 406; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. (X 
p. 1183; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 250; Saunders, p. 467; 
Lilford, vii. p. 133, pi. 56. 

Grande Macreuse, French ; Orclw-marino, Ital. ; Sammetente, 
German ; Groote Zeeeend, Dutch ; Floielsand, Dan. ; Sjo-orrc, 
Norweg. ; Svdrta, Swed. ; Skoarra, Lapp. ; Pilkasiipi, Finn. ; 
Kuro-tori, Jap. 

ad. (Sweden). Entire plumage deep glossy black, the under parts 
rather duller ; a small patch below the eye and the speculum white ; bill 
broad, swollen over the nostrils, this portion and the margin of the bill 
black, the rest orange-yellow ; legs pinkish red ; iris brown. Gape 2'6 r 
wing 10'7, tail 3'5, tarsus T8 inch. The female has the head, neck, and 
upper parts blackish brown, the latter with pale margins ; under parta 
brighter brown marked with dull white ; a large dull white patch in 
front of and a smaller one behind the eye ; bill blackish plumbeous, less 
swollen than in the male. 

Hob. Northern Europe north to Lapland; not found in 
Iceland, and only once in Greenland ; in winter migrating south 
to the Mediterranean and Caspian ; North Asia east to the 
Yenesei, and also recorded from eastern Siberia and Japan ; 



(EDEMIA 627 



but these references may possibly apply to 0. deglandi, a very 
closely allied, scarcely differing form, which inhabits North 
America, or to 0. carlo. 

Frequents the sea-coasts in winter, only resorting to fresh- 
water lakes and ponds during the nesting season. It swims 
with ease and is an excellent diver, but on land it is clumsy 
and heavy. Its food consists of bivalve mollusca in winter, 
and of aquatic insects, worms, &c., in the summer. Its nest 
may be either near to, or at some distance from water, and is 
a depression in the soil under a bush, lined with down inter- 
matted with grass and a few leaves. The eggs, 8 to 10 in 
number, are usually deposited late in June or early in July, 
and are uniform ivory-white with a creamy buff tinge, and 
measure about 2 '7 5 by 1*95. 

868. KAMCHATKAN SCOTER. 
GEDEMIA CARBO. 

(Edemia carlo (Pall.), Zoog. Koss. As. ii. p. 244 (1811) ; Salvador!, Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 411 ; 0. stejnegeri, Ridgway, p. 112 (1887) ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1185 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 250. 

Differs from 0. fusca, in having the white mark more behind and not 
below the eye ; the knob on the culmen is more elevated and with 
anterior outline concave, the top forming a more or less conspicuous 
projection ; sides of bill bright red. 

Hob. Kamchatka and North-eastern Siberia ; Japan, Mon- 
golia, and China in winter. 

In habits it is said not to differ from 0. fusca, but so far as- 
I can ascertain nothing is known respecting its modification. 

869. BLACK SCOTER. 
CEDEMIA NIORA. 

(Edemia nigra (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 196 (1766) ; (Naum.), xii. p. 108,. 
Taf. 312 ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 378 ; id. B. of Gt Brit, v. pi. 28 ; 
Hewitson, ii. p. 421, pi. cxvi. fig. 1 ; Dresser, vi. p. 663, pi. 449 ^ 
Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 401 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 1189 ; Saunders, p. 465 ; Lilford, vii. p. 129, pi. 55. 

Macreuse, French ; Orchetto marino, Ital. ; Pato negro, Span. ; 
Negrolla, Portug. ; Trauer-Ente, German ; Zwarte-Zeeeend, 
Dutch ; Hrafnsond, Icel. ; Sort-and, Dan. ; Svart-and, Norweg. ; 
Sjoorre, Swed. ; Njurkku, Lapp. ; Merilintu, Finn. ; Chernaya- 
ootka, Kuss. 

T T 



628 (ED EMI A 



(J ad. (Spain). Entire plumage deep black, the head and neck glossed 
with purplish, the upper parts with greenish steel-blue ; under parts 
duller and tinged with brown ; bill with a large bulb at the base of the 
upper mandible, a line through which, and a large patch in front are 
orange-yellow ; rest of bill bluish black ; legs dark olivaceous ; iris dark 
brown. Gape 2'4, wing 9'5, tail 4*1, tarsus 1'8 inch. The female is dull 
dark brown, the upper parts with paler margins ; sides of the head greyish 
black ; chin and upper throat white ; middle of abdomen white marked 
with brown ; bill only slightly swollen at the base of the upper mandible 
and dull bluish black throughout ; legs dull olivaceous. 

Hob. Northern Europe, north to Lapland and Iceland ; in 
winter ranging south to the Mediterranean and North Africa ; 
Asia, east to the Taimyr Peninsula. 

In the summer it frequents inland waters, but in winter it 
is essentially a marine species. It flies low but swiftly, and is 
an excellent diver, like its allies, obtaining its food chiefly by 
diving. Its call-note in winter is harsh, but in the nesting 
season the male utters a series of loud flute-like notes, til, til, 
til, til, which is answered by the female with a harsh re, re, re, 
re, re. Its nest is a mere hollow in the ground, usually under 
a bush, well lined with grass, moss, and down, and the eggs, 
8 to 9 in number, are usually deposited about the middle of 
June, and are creamy white, smooth in texture of shell, and 
measure about 2'35 by T80. 



870. AMERICAN SCOTER. 
CEDEMIA AMERICANA. 

<Edemla americana, Swains, and Kichardson's Faun. Bor. Am. ii. p. 451 
(1831); (Audub.), B. Am. vi. p. 343, pi. 403; Salvadori, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 404 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 248 ; Tacz. F. 0. 
Sib. 0. p. 1191 ; Kicigway, p. 111. 

Kuro-gamo, Jap. 

ad. (New Brunswick). Differs from 0. nigra in having the bill 
decidedly hooked, and the entire upper mandible, including the knob, 
yellow, on the sides shaded with scarlet- vermilion ; under mandible 
blackish ; legs and feet blackish brown ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1*70, 
wing 9*2. tail 4'0, tarsus 1*8 inch. 

Hob. Northern America, breeding in the high north and 
migrating in winter south to New Jersey, the Great Lakes, 



(ED EMI A 629 

and California ; Kamchatka and North-eastern Asia ; migrating 
in winter south to Corea and Japan. 

In habits and nidification it does not differ from 0. nigra, 
Its eggs are said to be pale brownish buff, and to measure 
about 2*55 by 1-80. 



871. SURF SCOTER. 

CEDEMIA PERSPICILLATA. 

fEdemia perspldllata (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p.201 (1766) ; (Naum.), xii. 
p. 140, Taf. 314 ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 376 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. 
pi. 30 ; Dresser, vi. p. 669, pi. 450 ; (Audub.), B. Am. vi. p. 337, 
pi. 402 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 412 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. 
0. p. 1188; Kidgway, p. 113; Saunders, p. 469; Lilford, vii. 
p. 135, pi. 57. 

( ad. (New Brunswick). Entire plumage velvety black ; a large 
patch on the crown, and a large triangular one on the nape pure white ; 
tipper mandible bulged into a large lump on each side of the base, and 
raised centrally nearly to the tooth ; space round the nostrils rich red, 
becoming orange-yellow on the sides ; space before and behind this band 
pure white ; tooth pale yellow ; a large black patch on each side of the bill, 
the space between this patch and the feathers orange-yellow and vermilion- 
red ; legs dull pinkish red ; iris white. Gape 2'5, wing 9'6, tail 3'6, 
tarsus 1*8 inch. The female has the crown blackish brown, the sides of 
head and neck dull brown ; on the nape a triangular whitish patch 
marked with blackish brown ; a brownish white patch in front of the eye, 
and another behind the chin ; plumage otherwise dark brown, the upper 
parts darker and with narrow paler margins ; bill less swollen than in the 
male and blackish plumbeous ; legs warm olivaceous ; iris greyish. 

Hob. Northern America, breeding in the Arctic regions and 
in winter migrating south to Jamaica, the Carolina^, Ohio 
River, and Lower California ; of accidental occurrence in 
Britain, Scandinavia, the northern coasts of continental Europe 
.and those of North-eastern Asia. 

In general habits it resembles the Velvet Scoter, and like 
that species obtains its food chiefly by diving. It breeds in 
Arctic America, its nest being a hollow in the ground, lined 
with weeds and the dark down of the bird, and the eggs, 6 
to 8 in number, resemble those of 0. fusca, but measure 2*45 
by 175. 

T T 2 



630 SOMATERIA 



SOMATERIA, Leach, 1819. 
872. STELLER'S DUCK. 

SOMATERIA STELLERI. 

Somateria stelleri (Pall.), Spic. Zool. fasc. vi. p. 35, Tab. v. (1769) ; 
(Gould), B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 25 ; (Middend.), Sib. Reise, p. 234, 
Taf. 23, figs. 3, 5 (eggs) ; Newton, P.Z.S. 1861, p. 400, pi. xxxix. 
fig. 4 (egg) ; Dresser, vi. p. 649, pi. 447 ; (Salvador!), Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxvii. p. 419 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1200 ; Sannders, 
p. 463 ; Lilford, vii. p. 127, pi. 54 ; (Ridgway), p. 108 ; Anas dispar, 
Sparrm. Mus. Carls, tabb. 7 and 8 (1786) ; Naum. xii. p. 240, Taf. 
320 ; (Gould), B. of E. v. pi. 372 ; (Audub.), B. Am. vi. p. 368, 
pi. 407. 

Scheck-ente, German ; Alforrddare, Swed. 

ad. (Norway). Top and sides of head and a collar encircling the 
back of the neck silky white ; a narrow line across the forehead, a loral 
spot, and an occipital patch dull olive-green ; feathers of the throat, and a 
line dividing the white collar and joining another broad band which 
encircles the neck, glossy blue-black tinged with purple, as are also the 
feathers round the eye, and a spot on each side of the nape ; back 
purplish blue-black ; scapulars elongated, blue-black, margined with white ; 
wing-coverts white ; speculum bluish purple tipped with white ; inner- 
most secondaries sickle-shaped and tipped with white ; quills and tail 
blackish brown ; under parts deep ferruginous inclining to buff on the 
upper breast and flanks ; middle of breast, abdomen, and under tail- 
coverts black ; sides of upper breast marked with two distinct purplish 
blue spots ; bill plumbeous, the nail lighter ; legs and feet greyish brown, 
the webs darker ; iris brown. Culmen 1'45, wing 8*4, tail 3*5, tarsus 
1-2 inch. The female has the head olive-brown tinged with rufous and 
marked with black ; upper parts dark brown mottled with rufous ; breast 
rusty brown spotted and barred with dusky ; abdomen sooty brown ; 
speculum duller than in the male ; falcate inner secondaries dusky. 

Hob. Northern Siberia ; Kamchatka, south to the Kurile 
Islands in winter ; Alaska ; the Arctic coasts of North America to 
Davis Strait, but not common ; Western Greenland, rare ; of 
rare occurrence in Great Britain, the north coast of France, and 
Denmark, and in the Baltic, but commoner off the north-east 
coasts of Norway, and a regular winter visitant to the Varanger 
Fjord. 

In general habits it resembles the Eiders. It breeds in- 
Northern Siberia late in June, its nest being a deep depression 
in the moss of the tundra, well lined with down. The eggs, 7 
to 9 in number, are similar in tone of colour to those of 
S. spedabilis but smaller, measuring 2*51 by T64. 



SOMATERIA 631 



873. EIDER. 
SOMATERIA MOLLISSIMA. 

Somateria moltissima (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 198 (1766) ; (Naum.), xii. 
p. 252, Taf. 321 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 414, pi. cxv. fig. 3 ; Gould, B. of 
E. v. pi. 374 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 26 ; Dresser, vi. p. 629, 
pi. 445 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 425 ; Saunders, p. 459 ; 
Lilford, vii. p. 123, pi. 52. 

Morillon, Eider, French ; Eider gans, German ; Eider eend, 
Dutch ; Edderand, Dan. ; Ejdergds, Estegg, Norweg. ; Ejder, 
Swed. ; JEdur, Icel. ; $ Bliki, Handa, Lapp. ; Haahka, Finn. ; 
Gagka Nor mot a, Russ. 

ad. (Norway). Crown, forehead, and a wedge half-way to the 
nostrils black ; a white line on the sides of the crown, nape and hind 
portion of the auricular region pale sea-green ; cheeks, sides of neck, back, 
lesser and median tail-coverts white ; lower back, rump, upper tail-coverts, 
-and greater wing-coverts black ; quills blackish brown, the inner 
secondaries sickle-shaped and white ; tail greyish brown ; throat white 
tinged with yellow on the lower part ; upper breast pale stone-colour ; 
rest of under parts black with a white patch on each [side of the rump ; 
bill dull yellowish olivaceous ; legs light olive-green ; iris brown. 
C ul men 2'3, wing 11'6, tail 4*0, tarsus 1'75 inch. The female is dark 
brown barred and marked with sandy rufous, the sides of face and throat 
sandy, speckled with black ; two white alar bars ; -middle of abdomen 
greyish brown with traces of black cross-bars. In the summer the male 
is chiefly dark brown or blackish, retaining the white only on the wing- 
coverts. 

Hob. Europe, in the northern portions up to the northern 
end of the Gulf of Bothnia and the Arctic Ocean ; Iceland ; the 
Faeroes ; Spitsbergen ; occurs in winter on the coasts of 
continental Europe and has been obtained as far south as the 
Mediterranean ; Northern Asia east to the Yenesei. The form 
inhabiting Greenland and eastern' Arctic America (S. borealis, 
Brehm) is doubtfully distinct. On the Atlantic coasts of N. 
America it is replaced by S. dresseri, Sharpe, differing but little 
in having the angle on the side of the forehead broad and 
rounded, and the black of the head bordered beneath by pale 
green for nearly its entire length. 

Inhabits the sea-coasts, being but seldom found inland, and 
feeds on crustaceans, mussels, marine insects, &c., which ifc 
obtains chiefly by diving. The call-note of the male is a toler- 
ably loud ali-oTi, and that of the female a loud crock-crock. It 
breeds chiefly on islands off the sea-coast, and being in many 



632 SOMATERIA 



places protected during the breeding season, is then very tame 
and confiding. The nest is a mere depression on the soil under 
a jumper bush or a stone, lined with twigs, bits of seaweed, and 
down, arid it readily nests in places especially prepared for it, 
and its eggs and down are valuable commodities in Iceland 
and Norway. The eggs, 5 to 7, sometimes 8, in number, are 
greenish grey, and measure about 3*0 by 2'0. 

874. PACIFIC EIDER. 
SOMATERIA V. NIGRUM. 

Somateria v. nigrum, G. R. Gray, P.Z.S. 1855, p. 212, pl.'cvii. ; Elliot, 
Illnstr. Am. B. pi. 48 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1192 ; Salvador!, Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 430 ; Ridgway, p. 110. 

(J ad. (N.W. America). Differs from S. uiollissima in having a 
V-shaped black mark on the throat like S. spectalilis and the bill bright 
orange or orange-red with the tip paler. Cu linen 2'0, wing 12'20, tail 5'5, 
tarsus 2'15 inch. The female closely resembles that of S. mollissima but 
is as a rule larger. 

Nab. North-west America, east to the Great Slave Lake ; 
North-east Asia ; the coasts of the Arctic Ocean ; Kamchatka 
and the Commander Islands. 

In habits it is said not to differ from S. mollissima, and its 
eggs also resemble those of that species, being according 
to Mr. Nelson light olive-drab, oval in form, and measure from 
2-87 by 2-03 to 312 by 2-04. Unlike our European Eider, how- 
ever, the Pacific Eider does not breed in colonies, but in single 
pairs, nesting in salt marshes close to a pond or a tide-creek, 
and not often in close proximity to the sea-shore, and the eggs 
are deposited in June. 

875. KING EIDER. 
SOMATERIA SPECTABILIS. 

Somateria spectabilis (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 195 (1766) ; (Naum.), xii. 
p. 285, Taf. 322, 323 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 417, pi. cxv. figs. 1, 2 ; 
Gould, B. of E, v. pi. 375 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 27 ; (Audub.) r 
B. Am. vi. p. 347, pi. 404 ; Dresser, vi. p. 643, pi. 446 ; Salvadori, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 432 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1195 ; 
Saunders, p. 461 ; Lilford, vii. p. 125, pi. 53 ; Ridgway, p. 110. 

Canard d ttte grise, French. ; Prachtente, German ; Pragt- 
edder, Dan. ; Erkonge, Norweg. ; Prcikt-ejder, Swed. ; Pukska- 
haaJika, Finn. ; Pistrak, Russ. 



SO MATE HI A 633 



( ad. (Greenland). Crown and nape pale ashy blue, sides of head 
pale green ; a large protuberance on the upper mandible over the middle 
of which a black line is continued to the gape ; a spot under each eye and 
a large V-shaped mark from the chin to the sides of the upper throat 
black ; upper back, central lesser wing-coverts, and a large patch on 
each side of the rump while ; rest of upper parts,, wings, tail, and 
under parts below the breast black ; inner secondaries elongated 
and curved ; upper throat white ; lower throat and upper breast warm 
cream-coloured ; bill red, the nail yellowish ; naked protuberance bright 
orange ; legs dull orange-reddish, the webs blackish ; iris brown. Gape 
2'35, wing 10'3, tail 3*5, tarsus 17 inch. The female differs from that of 
S. mollissima in being smaller, darker, and in having the central line of 
feathers on the upper mandible extending quite down to the nostrils. 

Hob. The Arctic portions of Europe, Asia, and America, 
straying south in winter, when it occurs rarely in Great Britain, 
Scandinavia, North Russia, North Germany; rare in Spitsbergen; 
has once been obtained near Boulogne and once as far south as 
Venice ; in America it ranges in winter south to New Jersey 
and the Great Lakes. 

In habits and nidification it resembles S. mollissima. It 
breeds in Greenland, Novaya Zemlya, the Arctic shores of Siberia 
and Arctic America, and its eggs, usually 6 in number, are 
similar to those of S. mollissima in shape and colour, but are 
smaller, measuring about 2 '52 by T77. 



876. SPECTACLED EIDER. 

SOMATERIA FISCHERI. 

Somateria fachwi (Brandt ), Mem. As. St. Petersb. v. pp. 6, 10, 14, pi. 1, 
figs. 1, 4 (1847) ; (Elliot), 111. B. N. Am. pi. 47 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 
0. p. 1198 ; (Nelson), Eep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, p. 76, pi. v. fig. 1 ; 
(Salvadori), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 422 ; (Eidgway), p. 198. 

(J ad. (N.W. America). Space round the eye dull satiny white, 
bordered anteriorly and posteriorly by a vertical black line ; fore-head 
and lores covered with stiffened feathers, white anteriorly shading into 
olive-buff and then into greenish buff ; crown and occiput covered 
with a hood of stiff pendant light olive-green feathers ; quills, tail, and 
larger wing-coverts brown ; throat, neck, and upper parts with a patch 
on each side of the rump yellowish white ; rump and under parts dark smoky 
grey ; bill orange ; legs dull olive-brown, but dull yellowish on the front 
of the tarsus ; iris milky white. Culmen TO, wing lO'O, tail 3*0, tarsus 
1-7 inch. The female is barred with light fulvous and black, the abdomen 
plain greyish brown ; head and neck light greyish buff finely streaked 



634 SO MA TERIAERISMA TUB A 

with dusky except on the throat ; wings greyish brown, the greater 
coverts and secondaries indistinctly tipped with whitish ; bill dull blue ; 
legs and feet dull yellowish brown. 

Hob. North Pacific ; the coast of Alaska from Norton Sound 
to Port Barrow on the American side of Bering Sea, and the 
Chukchi peninsula in 67 N. lat. on the Asiatic side. 

In general habits it does not appear to differ from its allies. 
In the summer its food consists of small Crustacea, grass seeds, 
and such other food as the brackish pools afford. Its nest is 
a slight hollow in some dry grassy spot close to a pond on the 
marsh, well lined with grass ; and the eggs, 6 to 8 or 9 in number, 
are deposited about the middle of June, and are described by 
Mr. E. W. Nelson as being light olive-drab in colour, and small 
for the size of the bird, extremes measuring 2*82 by T81 and 
2-60 by 1-87. 

In August the male assumes a plumage much like that of the 
female, as do all the males of the Eiders. 

ERISMATURA, Bonap., 1832. 

S77. WHITE-HEADED DUCK. 

ERISMATURA LEUCOCEPHALA. 

ISi-ismatura leucocephala (Scop.), Ann. i. Hist. Nat. p. 65 (1769) ; 
(Gould), B. of E. v. pi. 383 ; Dresser, vi. p. 677, pi. 451 ; Salvadori, 
Cat, B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 442 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. 
p. 466; E. mersa, Bp. Comp. List. p. 59 (1838); (Naum.), xii. 
p. 149, Taf. 315. 

Canard couronnt, French ; Pato-tarro, Span. ; Gdbbo rugginoso, 
Ital. ; Ruderente, German ; Savka, Russ. 

< ad. (Transylvania). Crown black ; forehead, sides of head to above 
the eye, chin, and nape pure white ; neck black dotted with buffy brown ; 
lower neck to upper breast, and upper back chestnut-red, the two former 
delicately barred with black ; back, scapulars, and rump warm ochreous 
buff, the last darker, and all vermiculated with blackish grey ; secondaries 
and larger wing-coverts similar but more greyish buff ; lesser coverts dull 
ashy and slightly vermiculated ; tail blackish, long and stiff; under parts 
below the breast buffy white, obscurely marked with reddish brown ; 
flanks dull chestnut-brown tinged with buff, vermiculated with dark 
brown ; bill pale ultramarine, and much swollen at the base ; legs 
blackish plumbeous ; iris dark brown. Culmen I'D, gape 1-82, wing 6%3, 
tail 4'3, tarsus T35 inch. The female is more rufous in colour; chin, 
lower cheeks, and a stripe running under the eye towards the nape-white ; 
rest of head blackish tinged with rufous ; upper parts and breast lacking 
the blackish bars ; beak dull plumbeous ; otherwise like the male. 



ERISMATURA MERGUS 635 

Hob. Southern Europe, accidental in Germany and Northern 
France ; Northern Africa ; Central Asia east to Turkestan, 
south in winter to India. 

Appears to affect fresh water and brackish lagoons in prefer- 
ence to the sea, and usually when alarmed seeks safety by 
diving in preference to taking wing. It breeds amongst the 
reeds and aquatic plants, depositing in June 7 to 9 eggs, dull 
white in colour, very coarse in texture of shell, and measuring 
about 275 by 1*95. 



MERGUS, Linn., 1766. 

878. GOOSANDER. 
MERGUS MERGANSER. 

Mergus merganser, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 208 (1766) ; Naum. xii. p. 358, 
Taf. 326 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 439, pi. cxviii. fig. 3.; Gould, v. pi. 384 ; 
Dresser, vi. p. 685, pi. 452 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 510 ; 
Saunders, p. 471 ; Lilford, vii. p. 137, pi. 58 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. O. 
p. 1203 ; M. castor, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 209 (1766) ; Gould, B. of 
Gt. Brit. v. pi. 34 ; (Salvadori), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 472 ; 
(Blanf.), F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 469 ; M. comatus (Salv.), torn, 
cit. p. 475 (1895). 

Grand Harle, French ; Smergo maggiore, Ital. ; Grosser Sager, 
Oerman ; Groote Zaagbek,~D\itch ; Stor Skallesluger,T)&n..;Kdrfdgcl, 
Norweg. ; Storskrake, Swed. ; Kussa-koalsi, Lapp. ; Iso-koskelo, 
Un-koskelo, Finn. ; Bolshoy-Krahal, Kuss. ; Ghtlond, Icel. ; Kawa- 
aisa, Jap. 

ad. (Archangel). Head and upper neck glossed with green, the 
occipital feathers elongated ; lower neck and upper back white, the latter 
marked with black, becoming with the outer webs of scapulars glossy 
"black ; lower back, rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail dark ashy, the last 
darkest ; primaries ashy black ; secondaries white margined with black, 
the innermost black ; primary coverts, edge and base of wing blackish 
grey ; rest of wing-coverts anc^ under parts white, the breast and abdomen 
tinged with warm reddish buff ; bill deep vermilion, the ridge of upper 
mandible and tooth blackish ; legs vermilion ; iris deep reddish brown. 
Culmen 2*4, wing ll'O, tail 5'0, tarsus 1'9 inch. The female has the crown, 
nape, and upper neck rusty red, the lores and round the eye dark brown ; 
upper parts brown, greyish on the back ; chin, lower neck, and under 
parts white, the flanks marked with pale slate-grey ; wings as in the 
male. 



63G MERGUS 



Hob. High north of Europe and Asia in the breeding 
season, in winter visiting Britain, Central and Southern Europe 
to the Mediterranean ; Central Asia east to Japan and 
Mongolia; China and India in winter. The American form, 
M. americanus, Cass, differs very slightly in having a black bar 
across the wings at the base of the greater coverts. 

Frequents fresh water during the breeding season, being 
found on the sea-coast only in the winter. Its cry is loud and 
harsh, chiefly uttered when the bird is on the wing. It feeds 
principally on fish, but also eats water-insects and larvae. It 
usually nests in a hollow tree, and readily takes to a nest-box, 
but sometimes on the ground under a stone, the nest being 
well lined with down, and late in April or early in May deposits 
8 to 12 eggs, which are warm yellowish white, smooth in texture, 
and measure about 2*65 by 1*81. 

879. RED-BREASTED MERGANSER. 
MERGUS SERRATOR. 

Mergus serrator, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 208 (1766) ; Naum. xii. p. 333 ; 
Taf. 325 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 437, pi. cxix. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of E. v. 
pi. 385 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 35 ; Dresser, vi. p. 693, pi. 453, 
David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 511 ; (Salvadori), Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxvii. p. 479 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1206 ; (Blanf.), F. Brit. LwL 
Birds, iv. p. 470 ; (Ridgway), p. 89 ; Saunders, p. 473 ; Lilford, vii. 
p. 139, pi. 59 ; Seebohm, B. Jap..Emp. p. 258. 

Harle huppd, French ; Merganso, Portug. ; Pato de sierra,. 
Span. ; Smergo minore, Ital. ; Mittlere Sdger, German ; ZaagbeJc, 
Dutch ; Toppet-skallesluger, Dan. ; Siland, Norweg. ; Smdskrake, 
Pracka, Swed. ; Toppond, Icel. ; Vuokta-koahi, Lapp. ; Koskelo,. 
Finn. ; Krahal, Russ. ; Umi-aisa, Jap. 

ad. (Finland). Head and upper neck black glossed with purple and 
green ; coronal and nuchal feathers much elongated ; central neck white 
with a narrow black line behind ; back, scapulars, and long inner secondaries 
black with a purple gloss ; rump and upper tail-coverts white vermicu- 
lated with black ; wing-coverts and secondaries white, the latter bordered 
with black on the outer web ; two black bars across the wing ; primaries 
and tail dark greyish brown ; lower neck and upper breast reddish brown 
streaked with blackish ; feathers in front of shoulder white broadly 
margined with black ; under parts very pale warm buff, the flanks white 
vermiculated with black ; bill vermilion, the edge of the mandible and 
nail dusky ; legs vermilion ; iris red. Culmen 2'4, wing 9'5, tail 3'1, 
tarsus 2 P inch. In the summer the male resembles the female, but is- 
larger, and the abdomen and scapulars are differently coloured. The 



MERGUS 637 



female has the head and upper neck dull reddish brown ; chin and front 
of neck dull white ; upper parts dark ash with paler margins ; under parts 
white, the lower fore neck tinged with grey ; flanks sooty grey ; in size less 
than the male. 

Hob. Northern Europe generally, up to the North Cape and 
Iceland ; breeds in Scotland and Ireland ; in winter to the 
Mediterranean and North Africa ; Northern Asia, in winter to 
Japan, China, and Northern India ; North America, breeding in 
the far north, and in winter ranging south to Bermuda. 

In general habits it resembles the Goosander, and like that 
bird it is an expert diver and feeds chiefly on fish. It usually 
nests on the ground, but seldom in a hollow tree, its nest being 
composed of moss, grass, etc., intermixed with down, and in June 
it deposits 8 to 12 eggs, which are dull stone-buff or creamy 
greenish grey, and measure about 2*60 by T76. 

880. HOODED MERGANSER. 
MERGUS CUCULLATUS. 

Mergus cucullatus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 207 (1766) ; Gould, B. of E. v. 
pi. 386 ; (id.), B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 36 : Wils.-Am. Orn. viii. p. 79, 
pi. 69, fig. 1 ; Dresser, ix. p. 296, pi. 696 ; (Salvadori), Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxvii. p. 468 ; Audub. B. Am. vi. p. 402, pi. 413 ; Saunders,. 
p. 477 ; Lilford, vii.' p. 144, pi. 61 ; Eidgway, p. 89. 

ad. (New Brunswick). Forehead dark brown ; head with a semi- 
circular compressed crest, white in the middle, broadly margined with 
black, except behind where the margin is narrow ; upper parts brownish 
black, the scapulars deep black ; speculum white crossed by two black 
bands ; primary quills and tail brown ; upper neck black ; lower neck 
and under parts white ; on each side of the neck two black crescentic 
bands ; flanks reddish brown vermiculated with blackish, under 
tail-coverts greyish white freckled and vermiculated with warm brown ; 
bill black ; feet and legs yellowish brown ; iris yellow. Culmenl'7, wing 
7 '4, tail 3'8, tarsus T25 inch. The female has the crest reddish brown ; 
rest of head, neck, and breast greyish brown, darker above ; chin, upper 
throat, and under parts below the breast white ; flanks brown with pale 
margins. 

Hob. North America, north to Alaska, ranging south in 
winter to Mexico and Cuba; of accidental and very rare 
occurrence in Greenland, a rare winter straggler to the British 
Islands. 

In habits it resembles its congeners, but is very shy and wary, 
flies rapidly, and is an expert diver, subsisting chiefly on fish. 



338 MERGUS 



It affects fresh water arid only visits the sea-coasts in winter 
when ^driven by stress of weather from its usual haunts. It 
nests m hollow trees usually at a considerable height above the 
ground, and lines the cavity with dry grass, leaves, and plenty of 
down. The eggs, 5 to 8 in number, are usually deposited in 
May, and are very round, the shell being remarkably thick and 
smooth, in colour creamy white, and in size measuring about 
2-1 by 176. 

881. SMEW. 
MERGUS ALBELLUS. 

Mergus albellus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 209 (1766) ; Wils. Am. Orn. viii. 
p. 126, pi. 71 ; Naum. xii. p. 314, Taf. 324 ; Audubon, B. Am. vi. 
p. 408, pi. 414 ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 387 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. 
pi. 37 ; Dresser, vi. p. 699, pis. 454, 455 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. 
Hue. xxvii. p. 464 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1208 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iv. p. 467 ; Seebolim, B. Jap. Emp. p. 259 ; Saunders, p. 475 ; 
Lilford, vii. p. 141 ; pi. 60 ; Kidgway, p. 90. 

Petit Harle huppd, French ; Pesciajola, Ital. ; Kleiner Sdger, 
German ; Nonnetje, Dutch ; Hvid-skallesluger, Nonne, Dan. ; 
Hvid-JFisJcand, Norw. ; Salskrcike, Swed. ; Uinelo, Ungilo^ Herna 
Finn. ; Lutok, Pagarika, Russ. ; Nihcnna, Hindu. ; Miko-aisa 
Jap. 

( ad. (Holland). General plumage white except as follows : lores and 
a large patch round the eye, a nuchal patch, middle of the back, a narrow 
line on the upper breast and a mark close to the base of the wing on the 
sides deep black ; primaries blackish ; secondaries, except the inner ones 
andprimary coverts black, tipped with white; scapulars tipped with 
black ; rump blackish ; upper tail-coverts greyish brown, tipped with dull 
white ; flanks vermiculated with black ; bill and legs pale plumbeous, the 
nail paler ; iris silvery white. Ctilmen T25, wing7'6, tail 3'8, tarsus 1-3 
inch. The female has the crown, nape, and hind neck reddish brown ; 
lores and space round the eye dark brown ; upper parts brown, greyish on 
the upper back ; lower parts white, the upper breast washed with slate- 
grey ; wings duller than in the male ; flanks washed with greyish brown. 
In the summer the male resembles the female but has the upper parts 
darker ; the facial patch, and the semilunar mark on the sides of the breast 
black. 

Hal. North Europe and Asia, north into Finnish Lapland 
and Kamchatka, in winter ranging south to Britain and the 
coasts of Europe to the Mediterranean, and in Asia to Japan, 
Corea, China, and India ; of rare and occasional occurrence in 
North-east America. 



MERGUSSPHENOCERC US COL UMEA 6 3 9 

In habits it resembles M. serrator, but appears to frequent 
fresh water more than that species. It is also an expert diver r 
and feeds on small fish, aquatic insects, small frogs, etc. It 
breeds in hollow trees, lining the nest hollow with down, and in 
June deposits 6 to 8 eggs, which resemble those of the Wigeon, 
but are much more polished in surface of shell, and measure 
about 2-05 by 1-48. 

SPHENOCERCITS, G. R. Gray, 1840. 

882. SIEBOLD'S GREEN PIGEON. 
SPHENOCERCUS SIEBOLDI. 

Sphenocercus sieboldi (Temm.), PI. col. pi. 549 (1835) ; (Ternm. and 
Schlegel), Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 102, pi. 60D ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. 
Emp. p. 163 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxi. p. 12. 

Awo-lato, Jap. 

ad. (Japan). Head, neck, and entire breast bright apple -yellow, the 
crown, nape, and hind neck washed with green ; upper parts generally 
dark parrot-green, the fore part of the back slaty bluish ; wing-coverts 
maroon-red ; larger coverts and quills, which are dark slate, margined 
with yellowish white ; outer tail-feathers dark slate, the middle ones like 
the back ; under parts white with a yellowish tinge ; flanks dove-blue and 
green ; under tail-coverts yellowish, with green along the middle. Culmen 
0'82, wing 7'3, tail 4'75, tarsus I'O inch. The female has the yellow 
portions of the plumage greener, and lacks the maroon-red on the wings. 

Hob. Japan only, a summer visitant in the north, resident in 
the south. 

In habits it is said to be exceedingly shy, and frequents the 
moderately high bluffs near the sea-shore, on the sands of which 
latter it frequently alights. Its note is a long and varied coo. 
Respecting its nidification I find nothing on record. This 
species is an insular form of S. sphenurus (Gray) which inhabits 
the Himalayas. 

COLUMBA, Linn., 1766. 

883. ROCK-DOVE. 
COLUMBA LIVIA. 

Columba livia, Bonn. Encycl. Method, i. p. 227 (1790) ; Naum. vi. 
p. 186, Taf. 150 ; Hewitson, i. p. 274, pi. Ixvii. fig. 3 ; Gould, B. of 
E. iv. pi. 245; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 3; Dresser, vii. pAll, 
pi. 457 j Salvadori, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxi. p. 252 ; Blanf. F. Brit. 
Ind. Birds, iv. p. 30 ; Saunders, p. 483 ; Lilford, iv. p. 89, pi. 41. 



640 COLUMBA 



Colombe biset, French ; Pomba, Portug. ; Paloma silvestre, 
Span. ; Piccione selvatico, Ital. ; Fclsentaube, German ; Klippedue, 
Dan. and Norweg. ; Klippdufva, Swed. ; Kesykyyhkynen, Finn. ; 
Golub, Russ. ; Hamam el Berri, Moor. ; Hamam, Arab. 

<J ad. (England). Head, neck, and upper parts slaty blue, the Lack 
and wings paler, the head and neck darker and glossed with green ; lower 
neck on sides and in front glossed with coppery purple ; two bands 
across the wings, and terminal portion of tail black ; rump white ; 
under parts dove-blue tinged with slate ; bill reddish brown ; legs reddish ; 
iris orange. Culm en 0'8, wing 8'5, tail 4*6, tarsus 1'2 inch. Female 
rather smaller and duller. 

Hob. The western Palsearctic area, north to the Faeroes, but 
not found in Scandinavia or in many parts of Eastern Europe ; 
North Africa ; Asia east to Afghanistan and Northern India. 

This, the original stock from which our tame Pigeons have 
sprung, inhabits rocky localities on the sea-coast, and is numerous 
in several parts of the rocky coasts of Britain. Its flight 
is very swift, and performed with a whistling sound. Its note 
is a coo-roo-coo quickly repeated, the last syllable prolonged ; 
and its food consists of grain of various kinds, seeds of wild 
plants, roots of grass, snails, etc. The nest is composed of 
plant-stems and grass, and is placed on the shelf of a rock in a 
cave, and two broods are usually reared in the year, one in 
about April and the second in September. The eggs, like 
those of all the Pigeons, are 2 in number, pure white, and 
measure about 1*59 by 1*07. 

In Africa there are two forms which have been recognized 
by Count Salvadori as species, C. gymnocyclus, Gray, from 
Senegal, and C. schimperi, Bp., from Egypt, Nubia, and Pales- 
tine, which are barely separable from C. lima. 

884. SUBSP. COLUMBA INTERMEDIA. 

Columla intermedia, Strickl. Ann. and Mag. N. H. xiii. p. 39 (1844) ; 
David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 384 ; Gould, B. of A. vi. pi. 56 ; 
Seebohm, B. Jap. E. p. 160 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 29 ; 
Salvadori, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxi. p. 259. 

Kabutar, Hindu. ; Kawara-lato, Jap. 

ad. Differs from C. livia in having the rump slaty grey, not 
white. 

Hob. Southern Persia, India, Ceylon, China, and Japan. 

Frequents rocks arid cliffs, old buildings, walls, &c., and is 
found both inland as well as on the coasts. In general habits 



COLUMBA 641 



it does not differ from C. lima. It breeds in Northern India 
from December to May, later in the South, and nests in holes 
in cliffs, walls, temples, tombs, or wells, depositing 2 white 
eggs, like those of C. livia, which measure about T45 by T12. 

885. HILL ROCK-DOVE. 
COLUMBA RUPESTRIS. 

Columba rupestris, Bp. Consp. Gen. Av. ii. p. 48 (1857) ; Pall. Zoogr. 
Ross. As. i. p. 560, Tab. 35 ; Gould, B. of A. vi. pi. 54 ; David and 
Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 385 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mas. xxi. p. 250 ; 
Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 30 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 729. 

< ad. (Central Asia). Differs from C. livia in having a broad, white 
band across the middle of the tail, in being slightly paler both above and 
below, and the breast tinged with lilac ; bill black ; feet lobster-red ; iris 
golden red. Culmen 0*64, wing 9'0, tail 5*1, tarsus T05 inch. 

Hob. Central Asia, the Himalaya, Tibet, South-eastern 
Siberia, Corea, Northern and Eastern China. 

Inhabits the rocky portions of the mountains in the interior 
of the country, but in general habits does not differ from C. livia. 
It usually nests in the cliffs, but when no suitable place is near 
it nests in buildings, and in March deposits 2 white eggs, 
which measure about T42 by T02. 

886. WHITE-BACKED DOVE. 
COLUMBA LEUCONOTA. 

Columla leuconota, Vig. P.Z.S. 1831, p. 23 ; Gould, Cent. Himal. B. 
pi. 59 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxi. p. 249 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iv. p. 32. 

$ ad. (India). Head dark slate-grey or plumbeous ; neck, lower back, and 
under parts white ; upper back, scapulars, inner secondaries ashy brown ; 
rest of wings above dove-blue, the wings crossed by three blackish brown 
bars ; rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail blackish, the last crossed by a 
broad, white band which is in the middle of the central, but close to the 
end of the outermost feathers ; lower abdomen tinged with dove-blue, the 
under tail-coverts pale dove-blue ; bill and claws horny black ; feet bright 
light red; iris yellow. Culraen 1-0, wing 9'6, tail 5'3, tarsus 1'2 inch. 
Female similar but somewhat duller in colour. 

Hal. Himalayas from Gilgit to Bhutan ; Tibet ; Kan-su. 

Is an inhabitant of the higher mountain ranges at from 
10,000 to 14,000 feet altitude, where it inhabits the most 



642 COLUMBA 



unapproachable and desolate rocks, avoiding woods and never 
perching on a tree, only visiting the alpine meadows and Tangut 
villages in search of food. Nothing is known respecting its 
nidification except that it nests amongst inaccessible crags in 
Kashmir in August, and in Mongolia in May. 

887. STOCK-DOVE. 
COLUMBA GUNAS. 

Colamla cenas. Linn. Faun. Suec. p. 75 (1761) ; Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, 
p. 769 (1788) ; Naum. vi. p. 215, Taf. 151 ; Hewitson, i. p. 273, 
pi. Ixvii. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 244 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. 
pi. 2 ; Dresser, vii. p. 23, pi. 458 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxi. 
p. 261 ; Saunders, p. 481 ; Lilford, iv. p. 85, pi. 40. 

Colombo, French ; Paloma zura, Span. ; Golonibella, Ital. j 
Hohltaube, German ; Kleine-Boschduif, Dutch ; Skovdue, Dan. 
and Norweg. ; Skogsdufw, Swed. ; Sinikyylika, Finn. ; Klintuch, 
Kuss. 

# ad. (England). Head, neck, and upper parts generally blue-grey with 
a slate tinge, the rump, upper tail-coverts and wing-coverts paler and bluer ; 
sides of and hind-neck glossed with metallic green ; a patch of blackish 
grey on some of the inner secondaries and wing-coverts ; tail at base bluish 
grey, then light grey, the terminal portion dark plumbeous ; under parta 
blue-grey, the breast vinous red ; bill red at the base, becoming yellow 
towards the tip, the soft portion at the base of the upper mandible greyish ; 
iris red ; legs pinkish red. Culmen 0'85, wing 8*45, tail 4*7, tarsus 1*1 inch. 
The female is somewhat smaller, and duller in colour. 

Hob. Europe generally, up to about 61 N. lat. ; North-west 
Africa ; Asia Minor, and Asia east to Turkestan. 

In habits it differs from the Rock-Dove in that it affects 
woods and groves inland. It feeds on grain and seeds of various 
kinds, beech -nuts, acorns, and blueberries. Its note is a loud 
guttural, rumbling note. Sometimes two broods are reared 
in the year, the first eggs being deposited late in March or 
early in April, and it nests in hollow trees, holes in the ground,, 
old ivy, and even in old buildings. The eggs, 2 in number, 
are pure white, and measure about 1*51 by T6. 

888. INDIAN STOCK-DOVE. 
COLUMBA EVERSMANNI. 

Columbaeversmanni,lBp. Compt. Eend. xliii. p. 838 (1856) ; Dresser, vii. 
p. 26, pi. 698 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxi. p. 264 ; Blanf. F, 
Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 31 ; C. fusca, Severtz. Turk. Jevot. p. 68- 
(1873 nee. Miill.) ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 732. 



COLUMBA 643 



Koek-Koeptcri, Tekke ; Kiigan, Turki ; Kamar-Kular, Hindu. 

$ ad. (India). Differs from C. cenas in being smaller and paler ; head 
tinged with vinaceous ; rump whitish grey, nearly white ; tail with the 
grey band nearly obsolete ; the metallic feathers on the neck glossed with 
coppery chestnut ; legs and feet yellowish fleshy ; bill pale yellowish green, 
base of lower mandible and gape slaty; iris dark yellow. Culmen 0*75, 
wing 7 '75, tail 4 "5, tarsus 1*0 inch. Female similar but a little smaller. 

Hob. Transcaspia ; Afghanistan ; Turkestan ; South-western 
Siberia ; North-west India in winter. 

In general habits this species does not differ from C. cenas. 
It nests in hollow trees and holes in the ground ; in Transcaspia 
frequently in colonies in holes and cracks in the steep river- 
banks, and late in April deposits 2 eggs, which resemble 
those of C. cenas, but are rather smaller. 



889. CANARIAN DOVE. 
COLUMBA LAURIVORA. 

Columba laurivora, Webb and Berthelot, Orn. Canar. p. 26, pi. 3, lower 
fig. (1841) ; Dresser, vii. p. 31, pi. 460 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. Br. Mns. 
xxi. p. 297. 

Rabiblanco, in the Canaries. 

ad. (Canaries). Head, neck, and back dull slate-blue, the crown and 
nape glossed with green, the sides of the neck with purplish red and 
green ; upper surface of wings brownish slate ; quills dark brown ; tail 
pale brownish ash-grey, becoming paler towards the middle, and greyish 
white at the tip ; throat-feathers reddish tipped with green ; rest of under 
parts coppery red, the under tail-coverts slate-blue ; bill white, but pink 
at the base ; legs dark red ; iris yellowish. Culmen 1'2, wing 8*6, tail 6'2 r 
tarsus 1'5 inch. Female similar. 

Hob. The islands of Gomera and Palma, Canaries. 

Is peculiar to the Canaries, and is essentially a forest bird, 
frequenting the wilder and less accessible parts of the islands of 
Gomera and Palma, where it feeds on laurel berries and tender 
buds, grain, &c. It breeds in the forests, and in May deposits 
a- single egg, which is pure white, and measures about T68 
by 1-12. 

u u 



644 COLUMBA 

890. BOLLE'S PIGEON. 
COLUMBA BOLLII. 

Columba lollii, Godman, Ibis, 1872, p. 217 ; Dresser, vii. p. 29, pi. 459 ; 
Kcenig, J. f. 0. 1890, p. 441, Taf. viii. fig. 12 (egg) ; Salvadori, Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxi. p. 297. 

Paloma turquesa, Torcaza, in the Canaries. 

<$ ad. (Teneriffe). Differs from C. laurivora in being darker and bluer 
above, the throat down to the breast slaty blue, slightly glossed with 
green, the breast and under parts deep vinous red, the flanks, lower 
abdomen, and under tail-coverts deep bluish slate ; tail blackish, broadly 
subterminated with dark dove-blue, and finally tipped with dusky slate ; 
bill red, the tip white ; legs, iris, and edge round the eye coral -red. 
Culmen I'O, wing 8 '2, tail 6 '2, tarsus 1:2 inch. 

Hob. The islands of Teneriffe, Palma, and Gomera (Canaries). 

Like the preceding species, it inhabits the forests and woods, 
and is shy and retiring in its habits. It feeds on berries of 
various kinds, chiefly those of the laurel, and on grain. The 
nest, which is placed in a laurel or tree heath, is constructed 
of twigs, lined with finer ones, and the single egg, which is laid 
in February, March, or April, is pure white, and measures 
about 1-69 by 118. 

891. MADEIRAN DOVE. 
COLUMBA TROCAZ. 

Columba trocaz, Heineken in Brewst. Journ. Sc. 1829, p. 228 ; Jardine 
and Selby, 111. Orn. ii. pi. 98 ; Dresser, vii. p. 33, pi. 461 ; Salvadori, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxi. p. 289. 

Portibo trocaz, in Madeira. 

<- ad. (Madeira). Dove-blue, somewhat paler on the head, fore-neck, 
lower back, rump, and under parts ; feathers on the sides and back of neck 
tipped with silvery grey ; hind- neck and fore-back glossed with green and 
purple ; primary coverts and quills slaty black, the latter with narrow 
grey margins ; tail dark plumbeous slate with a broad subterminal slate- 
blue band ; breast vinous red ; bill and bare space round the eye coral-red, 
the former tipped with blackish ; legs coral-red ; iris straw-yellow. 
Culmen I'O, wing 9*2, tail 7*4, tarsus 1*38 inch. Female similar. 

Hob. Madeira. 



COLUMBA 645 

In habits it does not differ from its allies, and like them 
lays a single white egg in a nest made of twigs, which is placed 
in a tree, usually a laurel, at a considerable height above the 
ground. The egg is rather large, measuring T98 by T20, and 
fresh eggs may be found at almost all seasons. 

892. RING-DOVE OR WOOD-PIGEON. 
COLUMBA PALUMBUS. 

Columba palumbus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 282 (1766) ; Nauru, vi. p. 168, 
Taf. 149 ; Gould, B. of E. pi. 243 ; Dresser, vii. p. 3, pi. 454 ; 
Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxi. p. 299 ; Saunders, p. 479 ; Lilford, 
iv. p. 87, pi. 39 ; G. torquata, Leuch, Syst. Cat. M. and B. Brit. 
Mus. p. 26 (1816) ; Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 1. 

Golonibe ramier, French; Pombo torquaz, Portug. ; Paloma 
torcaz, Span. ; Colombaccio, Ital. ; Ringeltaube, German ; Eingduif, 
Dutch ; Ringdue, Dan. and Norweg. ; Ring-dufva, Swed. ; 
Kaulu&kyyJiky, Finn. ; Wjachir, Lesnoi-Golub, Russ. 

<$ ad. (England). Head and neck dark dove-blue ; mantle brownish 
grey ; wing-coverts dark bluish ; quills blackish, the primaries edged with 
white, and a long white patch on the outer part of the wing ; rump, upper 
tail-coverts, and base of tail dove-blue, the last darker ; terminal half of 
tail black ; sides of neck glossed with violet and purple, on each side a 
large white patch ; lower throat, breast, and abdomen rich vinous, merging 
into pale dove-blue below ; bill bright red, becoming yellow towards the 
tip ; legs coral-red ; iris straw-yellow. Culmen 1*05, wing 9*4, tail 6*5, 
tarsus 12 inch. Female rather smaller and duller. 

Hob. Europe generally, north to about 65 s N. lat. ; Azores ; 
Madeira ; North Africa ; Asia east to about Bagdad. 

In some of its habits it much resembles C. cenas, but never 
breeds in holes of trees or in the ground ; wary and shy, where 
not molested it becomes remarkably tame, as is the case in the 
London parks. Its note is a deep coo-roo-coo-coo and is generally 
uttered when the bird is sitting on an elevated perch. Its food 
consists of grain of various kinds, beech-nuts, acorns, tender 
shoots of plants, &c. Strictly monogamous, it rears at least 
two broods in a season, the first eggs being laid in April, and 
the second pair in June, and eggs have been found as late as 
September. The nest is a very scanty structure of dry twigs, 
or else a deserted nest of some other bird is made use of, 
and the two eggs are pure white, and measuring about 1'56 
by 118. 



646 COLUMBA TURTUR 

893. EASTERN RING-DOVE. 
COLUMBA CASIOTIS. 

Coluniba casiotis (Bp.), Consp. Gen. Av. ii. p. 42 (1857) ; Dresser, ix. 
p. 299, pi. 697 ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxi. p. 302 ; (Blanf.), 
F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 34. 

Dhanua, Hindu. 

<$ ad. (Afghanistan). Kesembles C. palumbus, but differs in having 
the patches on the sides of the neck ochreous instead of white ; bill orange 
at the tip, whitish at the base ; feet red ; iris yellowish white. 

Sab. Southern Persia, Afghanistan, Central Asia and North- 
west India. 

In habits it does not differ from C. palumbus. It breeds in 
North-west India in May and June, its nest and eggs being 
similar to those of C. palumbus, the latter measuring about 1'6 
by 1-1. 

894. JAPANESE DOVE. 
COLUMBA IANTHINA. 

Coluniba ianthina (Temm.), PI. Col. 503 (1830) ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. 
Einp. p. 165 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxi. p. 310. 

Karaw-bato, Jap. 

( ad. (Japan). General colour slaty black, the crown, back, rump, 
and wing-coverts glossed with metallic purple, the neck, fore part of back 
and breast with metallic green ; under parts paler and more slaty blue 
than the upper parts ; bill dark bluish ; legs reddish ; iris brown. 
Culmen 1*0, wing 9*4, tail 7*0, tarsus 1*2 inch. Female similar but duller. 

Hob. Japan and Loo-Choo Islands. 

I do not find anything on record respecting the habits of the 
present species. It is said to nest in trees about five feet from 
the ground, and in May deposits 2 white eggs. 

TURTUR, Selby, 1835. 

895. TURTLE-DOVE. 
TURTUR COMMUNIS. 

Turtur communis, Selby, Nat. Libr. Pigeons, pp. 153, 171 (1835) ; Blanf, 
F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 42 ; Saunders, p. 485 ; Lilford, iv. p. 93, 
pi. 42 ; Columba turtur, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 284 (1766) ; Naum. 



TUETUR 647 



vi. p. 233, Taf. 152 ; Hewitson, i. p. 275, pi. Ixvii. fig. 4 ; Gould, 
B/J of E. iv. pi. 246 ; (Salvador!), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxi. p. 396 ; 
T. vulgaris, Eyton, Cat. B. B. p. 32 (1836) ; Dresser, vii. p. 39, 
pi. 462 ; T. auritus, G. E. Gray, List of G. of B. p. 38 (1840) ; 
Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 4. 



. ; Bola, Portug. ; Tortola, Span. ; Tortom, 
Ital. ; ' Turteltaube, Germ.; Tortelduif, Dutch ; Turteldue, Dan. 
and Norweg. ; Turturdufoa, Swed. ; TurturUeyyKka t Finn. ; 
Grorlitza, Russ. 

< ad. (England). Head, neck, breast, and flanks bluish ash, the neck 
and breast washed with rosy vinous ; back brownish ash marked with 
reddish brown ; shoulders and most of wing-coverts blackish brown 
margined with bright rufous ; larger and external smallest coverts pale 
dove-blue ; rump dove-blue marked with brown ; upper tail-coverts and 
middle tail feathers clove-brown, the rest blackish brown tinged with blue 
and broadly tipped with white ; on each side of the neck four rows of 
black feathers tipped with white ; rest of under parts white ; beak brown ; 
legs coral-red ; iris reddish brown ; bare skin round the eye red. 
Culmen 0'8, wing 7'0, tail 4*8, tarsus 0'85 inch. Female similar, but rather 
smaller and duller. The young bird is browner and duller, and lacks the 
black and white bars on the sides of the neck. 

Hob. Europe generally, north as a straggler to Northern 
Scandinavia; Madeira and the Canaries; Northern Africa in 
winter, south to Shoa ; Asia east to Yarkand and Kashgar. Is 
a migrant, arriving in England in May, leaving for the south 
early in the autumn, and in general habits is a timid bird, 
and frequents woods and groves. 

Its note is a rough tuw-turr, turr-twr, chiefly uttered in 
the warm weather, and its food consists of grain and seeds of 
various kinds. Its nest is a very slight platform of twigs, and 
is placed on a bush or a tree, and its eggs, 2 in number, are 
usually laid towards the end of May, and are pure white, 
measuring about T20 by 0'91. 

896. ISABELLINE TURTLE-DOVE. 
TURTUR ISABELLINUS. 

Turtur isabellinus, Bp. Compt. rend, xliii. p. 942 ; Dresser, vii. p. 49, 
pi. 464, fig. 1 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxi. p. 400 ; T. sharpii, 
Shelley, Ibis, 1870, p. 447 ; id. B. of Egypt, p. 215, pi. 10, fig. 2. 

cJ ad. (Egypt). Differs from T. communis in being smaller, in having 
the head, hind neck, and upper parts generally tawny reddish brown, the 
head paler and ochreous in tinge ; wing-coverts broadly margined with 



64S TURTUR 



warm rufescent ochreous brown ; rump and upper tail-coverts dark brown 
broadly margined with tawny brown ; tail without any blue tinge ; chin 
and upper throat pale brownish ochreous, gradually fading into deep 
coppery pink, and on the lower abdomen and under tail-coverts into white. 
Culmen 0*7, wing 6'0, tail 4'3, tarsus O8 inch. 

Hob. North-east Africa, north to Cairo; of doubtful occurrence 
in Asia Minor. 

In habits and nidification this species does not differ from 
T. communis, of which it is a desert form. 

897. EVERSMANN'S TURTLE-DOVE. 
TURTUR FERRAGO 

Turtur ferrago (Eversm.), Add. Pall. Zoogr. Ross. As. fasc. iii. p. 17 
(1842) ; Salvadori, Cat, B. Br. Mus. xxi. p. 401 ; Blanf. F. Brit. 
Ind. Birds, iv. p. 41. 

ad. (Turkestan). Differs from T. communis in being larger, with 
the edges of the scapulars and upper wing-coverts more rufous, the black 
feathers on the sides of the neck tipped with dove-grey and not with white, 
und the tips of the tail-feathers are sometimes very pale grey, though 
generally pure white. Culmen 0'75, wing 7'6, tail 5 '25, tarsus I'O inch. 

Nab. Himalaya from Sikhim to Afghanistan ; Central Asia ; 
Turkestan and S.W. Siberia ; Northern India in winter. 

In general habits it does not differ from T. communis. It 
breeds in the Himalaya at from 4,000 to 8,000 feet elevation, 
from May to August, and lays 2 pure white eggs, which measure 
about 1-22 by 0'93. 

898. CHINESE TURTLE-DOVE. 
TURTUR ORIENTALIS. 

Turtur orientalis (Lath.), Ind. Orn. ii. p. 606 (1790) ; Dresser, vii. p. 45, 
pi. 463 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxi. p. 403 ; Blanf. F. Brit. 
Ind. Birds, iv. p. 40 ; T. rupicola (Pall.), Zoogr. Ross. As. i, p. 566 
(1811) ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 385 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 733 ; Saunders, p. 487 ; C. cjelastes, Temm. PI. Col. 550 (1835) ; 
id. Schlegel, Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 100, pi. 60 B ; C. meena, Sykes, 
P.Z.S. 1832, p. 149. 

Kala-fukhta, Basko-fukhta, Hindu. ; Kiji-bato, Jap. 

ad. (Japan). Differs from T. communis in being larger and much 
darker, the forehead dark ashy blue, the rest of head, neck, and upper 
parts ashy brown, the tips of the black feathers on the sides of the neck, 



TURTUR 649 

and of the tail-feathers ashy bine and not white ; under parts brownish 
vinous, becoming rosy vinous on the middle of the abdomen ; bill brown 
tinged with vinous on the basal half ; legs vinous red ; iris orange ; 
eyelids pale blue ; edges of eyelids red. Culmen 0'8, wing 7*5, tail 5'7, 
tarsus 1*1 inch. 

Hob. South-eastern Siberia ; Mongolia ; Manchuria ; Corea ; 
Japan ; the eastern Himalayas and India, north of 15 N. lat. 
A rare straggler to Europe, having occurred at least twice in 
Sweden, and once in England. 

In habits it does not differ from T. communis, but is a 
resident throughout most of its range. In India the breeding 
season is from December to April, and in Dauria late in May 
or early in June, and the 2 white eggs measure about 1'31 
by 0-98. 

899. COLLARED TURTLE-DOVE. 
TURTUR DECAOCTO. 

Turtur decaocto (Frivaldsky), Balkanyi Termes. Utaz. p. 30, pi. viii. 
(1838) ; ? T. risorius (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 285 .(1766 partim) ; 
Pall. Zoogr. Koss. As. i. p. 565 ; Dresser, vii. p. 51, pi. 464, fig. 2 ; 
David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 387 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. 
p. 46 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 162 ; T. douraca, Hodg. in Gray's 
Zool. Misc. p. 85 (1844 descr. nullti) ; Salvador!, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxi. p. 430 ; T. torquata (Bogd.), Tr. Sib. Obtsch. Jestestv. xii. p. 9 
(1881) ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. 0. p. 736. 

Dhor-fakhta, Perki, Panduk, Gugi, Hindu. ; Shirako-bate, Jap. 

<J ad. (Palestine). Head, neck, and breast pale greyish vinous, the 
crown tinged with blue-grey ; upper parts dusty brown, the sides of the 
rump dove-blue ; quills ashy blue at the base, otherwise blackish brown ; 
secondaries and outer coverts dove-blue ; middle tail-feathers dusky brown, 
the rest dove-blue, fading to white towards the tips ; a black collar 
margined with white from the back half round the neck ; under parts pale 
vinous, becoming dove-blue on the lower abdomen and under tail-coverts ; 
flanks washed with blue-grey ; bill black ; le^s and feet pinkish red ; iris 
crimson, orbital skin whitish. Culmen 0'8, wing 7'15, tail 5*7, tarsus 0'95 
inch. Sexes alike. 

Hal. Turkey, Asia Minor, Asia east to India, Ceylon, China, 
Mongolia, Manchuria, Corea, Japan, and as far north as the 
southern Amoor. 

Frequents hedges and trees in cultivated localities, and bush 
and reed jungle, and its note is a deep kookoo-koo. Its nest 



650 TURTUR 



is a slight platform of twigs, and is placed on the ground, and 
its 2 eggs are pure white, and measure about 1'18 by 0*87. 
It is said to breed in every month from December to August 
in India. 

900. SENEGAL TURTLE-DOVE. 

TURTUR SENEGALENSIS. 

Turtur senegalensis (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 283 (1766) ; Salvador!, Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxi. p. 448 ; Dresser, vii. p. 55, pi. 465 ; T. cegyptiacus, 
Lath. Ind. Orn. ii. p. 607 (1790). 

<J ad. (Egypt). Head and neck purplish pink ; back and scapulars 
warm brown, becoming clay rufous on the inner wing-coverts ; lower back, 
rump, upper wing-coverts and secondaries greyish plumbeous ; primaries 
blackish ; upper tail-coverts and middle tail-feathers greyish brown, the 
rest bluish grey, becoming blackish, and then slate-grey at the end, the 
outer ones having the terminal half white ; a broad collar round the front 
and sides of the neck black tipped with yellowish coppery ; chest pinky 
vinous, gradually fading into white towards the vent ; bill dusky, with a 
reddish shade towards the base ; legs and feet pinkish red ; iris orange- 
red ; eyelids lilac-red. Culmeii 0'75, wing 5*8, tail 4*7, tarsus 0'85 inch. 
Female similar, but paler in colour. The young bird is much duller, and 
lacks the collar. 

Hob. Africa from Egypt to the Cape, Socotra, the Canary 
Islands ; Palestine, Greece, and Turkey. 

In its general habits it is very sociable and tame, especially 
in Mohametan countries, where it is never molested, and is 
found in trees, groves, and gardens. Its nest is a mere platform 
of sticks or twigs, and is placed in a tree or bush, or even on 
the ground, and the 2 eggs are pure white, measuring about 
1'19 by 0'92, and are generally deposited in March. 

901. INDIAN BROWN TURTLE-DOVE. 
TURTUR CAMBAYENSIS. 

Turtur cambayensis (GmeL), Syst. Nat. ii. p. 779 (1788) ; Dresser, ix. 
p. 305 ; Key, J. f. 0. 1875, p. 291 (egg) ; Salvadori, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxi. p. 451 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 45. 

Tortru-fachla, Chota fakhta, Hindu. 

ad. (India). Differs from T. senegalensis in having the upper parts, 
including the rump, pale dull earth-brown, without any reddish tinge ; 
bill blackish ; legs lake-red ; iris dark brown with a whitish inner circle. 
Culmen 0'75, wing 5'7, tail 5'0, tarsus 0'82 inch. 

Hob. Turkey, Asia Minor, Transcaspia, Central Asia, and 
almost the whole peninsula of India. 



TURTUR 651 

In habits it does not differ from T. senegalensis, and like that 
species makes a very slight nest. Its coo, is said to be a low 
subdued, musical, dissyllabic sound, repeated four or five times 
successively. Its eggs, which, like those of its congeners, are 
pure white, are deposited late in February or early in March, 
and vary in size from O95 by 0'75 to T02 by 0'77. 

902. SURAT TURTLE-DOVE. 

TURTUR SURATENSIS. 

Turtur sumtensis (Gmel.), S.yst. Nat. i. p. 778 (1788) ; Salvador!, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxi. p. 444 ; Blanf. F. Brit.lnd. Birds, iv. p. 43. 

Chitroka fakhta, Hindu. 

ad. (India). Head and nape vinous, forehead bluish ; lower hind 
neck black closely spotted with white ; upper parts brownish spotted with 
warm buff, the spots fading on the lower back and rump, which latter is 
tinged with blue ; outer edge of wing dove-blue, with long blackish 
terminal spots ; quills and middle tail feathers brown, the other tail 
feathers blackish slate on the basal and bluish on the terminal half, the 
two outer feathers on each side white on the terminal half ; chin whitish ; 
neck, breast, and upper abdomen rosy vinous, fading to whitish on lower 
abdomen ; under tail-coverts white ; bill dull blackish plumbeous ; legs 
dark purplish red ; iris dark hazel surrounded by a reddish sclerotic ; 
orbital skin red. Culmen 0'8, wing 5*4, tail 5-3, tarsus 0'85 inch. Female 
rather smaller. Young duller and lacking the black and white on the 
hind neck. 

Hob. Afghanistan, the Himalaya up to 7,000 feet ; India 
and Ceylon. 

Frequents well-wooded districts and gardens, and has a 
plaintive trisyllabic note. It breeds throughout the year, in 
Northern India from October to May, placing its slight nest of 
sticks on a bush or low tree, and lays 2 pure white eggs, which 
measure about T06 by 0'82. 

903. RED TURTLE-DOVE. 
TURTUR TRANQUEBARICUS. 

Turtur tranquebaricus (Herm.), Obs. Zool. p. 200 (1804) ; Salvadori, Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxi. p. 437 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 47 ; 
Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 163 ; T. humilis (Temm.), PI. Col. pi. 259 
(1824) ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 388 ; Salvadori, torn. cit. 
p. 434; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 738; Berez. and Bianchi, Ptitz. 
Gan-su, p. 29. 



652 TURTUR PTEROCLES 

Seroti fakhta, Biki, Hindu. 

<$ ad. (Burma). Head and nape dove-blue, a black collar round the 
hind neck ; upper parts warm dark vinous red ; lower back, rump, upper 
tail-coverts, and middle tail-feathers slaty blue, the last brownish towards 
the tip ; remaining tail-feathers blackish slate on the basaJ, and greyish or 
white on the terminal half ; quills brown ; chin pinkish white ; rest of 
under parts warm rosy vinous, the under tail-coverts white ; bill black ; 
legs vinous brown ; iris dark brown ; eyelids plumbeous. Culmen 0-68, 
wing 5-4, tail 4'8, tarsus 0'8 inch. The female is brown above, greyish on 
the head, rump, flanks, and edge of wing; breast brown tinged with 
vinous. The young bird is brown and lacks the black collar. 

Hob. South-eastern Siberia and Japan (rare); Ala-shan: 
Kan-su ; India, Burma and the Andamans ; China, Cochin 
China, and the Philippines. 

Is said to be more shy than its congeners, and though it 
frequents cultivated localities, it does not approach habitations. 
It is not unfrequently found in small flocks, and its note is 
short and deep. Like its congeners it builds a very slight nest 
of sticks, which is placed on a tree or bush. In India it breeds 
from January to July and in November, and its 2 eggs are 
creamy white, and measure about 1'02 by 0'8. 



PTEROCLES, Temm., 1815. 

904. BLACK-BELLIED SAND-GROUSE. 
PTEROCLES ARENARIUS 

Pterocles arenarius (Pall.), Nov. Com. Petrop. xix. p. 418, pi. viii. (1774) ; 
Naum. vi. p. 258, Taf. 153 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 257 ; Dresser, 
vii. p. 61, pi. 4615; Ogilvie Grant, Cat B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 18 ; 
Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 54. 

Cortiqol, Portug. ; Ortega, Corteza, Span. ; Koudhre, Arab. ; el 
Koudri, Moor. ; Bhat-titar, Bakht, Hindu. 

cJ ad. (Spain). Crown, nape, and hind neck ashy pearl-grey ; back, 
scapulars, lesser wing-coverts variegated greyish black and orange-clay 
colour, the rump rather darker ; larger wing-coverts orange-yellow ; 
secondaries marked with orange-yellow on the outer web ; primaries slate- 
grey externally ; tail brownish ash tipped with white, the terminal 
portion indistinctly barred with dark brown ; chin and upper throat 
rusty red, becoming rusty orange on the sides of the neck, below this a 
large black mark ; lower neck and breast isabelline pearl-grey, the latter 
crossed by a distinct black stripe ; abdomen black ; bill dull horn-blue j 



PTEROCLEX 653 



tarsus feathered, the feet dull lead-grey ; iris brown. Culmeii 0*65, 
wing 9'2, tail 4*1, tarsus 1-3 inch. Female pale sandy ochreous, the head, 
neck, and upper breast spotted, the upper parts and middle tail-feathers 
cross-banded with black ; sides of head and upper throat clay-yellow, 
lower throat and breast more rufous ; a blackish stripe across the throat 
and a black band across the lower breast ; abdomen black ; lower tibia 
and tarsus ochreous ; under tail-coverts dirty white. 

Hal}. South-western Europe ; a rare straggler in other parts 
of Southern Europe ; North Africa ; Canaries ; South-western 
Asia to Turkestan, and N.W. India in winter. 

Inhabits the plains, especially in sandy desert localities ; in 
Spain it is found in the dry marismas. It is very shy and 
wary, and extremely swift on the wing, and has a peculiar loud 
croaking cry. It feeds on seeds of various kinds, and frequents 
regular drinking places in the mornings and evenings. Its 
nest is a mere depression scratched in the soil, and its 3 eggs are 
usually deposited in June, and are elongated oval in shape, light 
stone- buff marbled with indistinct purplish grey shell-markings, 
and light brown surface blotches, and measure about 1'85 by 
1-30 to 2-00 by 1'35. 

905. CORONETED SAND-GROUSE. 
PTEROCLES CORONATUS. 

Pterocles coronatus, Licht. Verz. Doubl. p. 65 (1823) ; Gould, B. of A. 
vi. pi. 63 ; Dresser, ix. p. 313, pi. 700 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxii. p. 23 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 57. 

Quata, Arab. 

ad. (India). Middle of forehead and a small space over the eye 
creamy white ; crown cinnamon, surrounded by a blue-grey band ; a 
black patch on each side of the forehead, chin, and middle of the throat ; 
upper parts sandy isabelline, the scapulars and wing-coverts marked with 
brown, and with a terminal spot of creamy buff ; tail sandy isabelline, all 
but the middle feathers tipped with white, and with a subterminal black 
bar ; primaries blackish brown ; throat, cheeks, ear-coverts, and upper neck 
yellow ; rest of under parts sandy isabelline, the lower throat and fore 
breast washed with grey ; under tail-coverts white ; beak and feet 
plumbeous black ; iris brown. Culmen 07, wing 7'8, tail 4'0, tarsus I'l 
inch. The female is paler than the male, lacks the black on the head and 
throat, has the upper parts barred and slightly spotted, and the lower 
throat and breast narrowly barred with blackish brown. 

Hob. Algeria, Tunis ; Egypt; Arabia; Syria; Persia; Afghani- 
stan, Baluchistan, and S 



654 PTEROCLES 



Like its congeners it frequents sandy, desert localities, and is 
extremely swift on the wing. In its general habits it resembles 
P. senegallus, but its flight and cry, which latter is very loud, 
are said to differ from those of all allied species. Its eggs, 2 
or 3 in number, are deposited in June or July, and are ashy 
white with a few pale brown markings, and measure about 1'5 
by 1-06. 

906. PIN-TAILED SAND-GROUSE. 
PTEROCLES ALCHATA. 

Pterocles alcliata (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 276 (1766) ; Dresser, vii. 
p. 67, pi. 467 ; (Ogilvie Grant), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 7 ; (Blanf.) 
F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 58 ; P. pyrenaicus (Briss.), Orn. i. p. 195 ; 
pi. xix. (1760) ; (Ogilvie Grant), Cat, B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 9 ; P. 
setarius (Temm.) Pig. and Gall. iii. p. 256 (1815) ; Gould, B. of E. 
iv. pi. 258. 

Ganga cata, French. ; Co-rti$ol, Portug. ; Ganga, Span, and 
Ital. ; el Guett'-ha, Arab. 

ad. (Spain). Crown, nape, and hind neck dark brownish ash-grey 
washed with yellowish ; back and scapulars brownish ash,, broadly tipped 
with golden yellow ; primaries bluish ash externally ; secondaries dull 
white on inner and ashy brown margined with white on outer web, the 
elongated innermost dark brown ; smaller outer larger, and median 
coverts bluish ash at base, then pale dove- blue, then chocolate-red 
bordered with pale sulphur, and with a narrow black apical border ; 
inner large coverts dark ash, then golden yellow margined with black'; 
rump and upper tail-coverts, and tail light yellowish narrowly barred with 
black, the elongated middle tail-feathers black on the terminal portion, the 
rest broadly tipped with white ; sides of head warm orange, passing on the 
neck into olivaceous buff ; chin, upper throat, and a broad line behind the 
eye jet black ; a broad chestnut-red band bordered with black passes 
across the upper breast ; rest of under parts white ; under tail-coverts 
blackish grey barred with yellowish and broadly tipped with white ; beak 
dull horn-brown, feet greyish brown ; iris dark brown ; bare orbital space 
dull lead-grey. Culmen 0'65, wing 7'3, tail 5'3, tarsus T15 inch. The 
female has the chin and centre of throat white, not black, the Clipper parts 
yellowish barred with black and ashy grey, and there are three black 
bands across the lower throat and breast. 

Hob. Southern Europe ; North Africa ; Asia Minor,. east to 
Central Asia ; North-west India in the winter. 

In habits this Sand -Grouse does not appreciably differ from 
P. arenarius, and like that bird is wild and shy, flies very swiftly, 



PTEROCLES 655 



and feeds on seeds, and to some extent also on insects. Except 
during the breeding season it is found in flocks, and its call-note, 
Jcaat, kaat, ka, may be heard at a great distance and is generally 
uttered when the bird is on the wing. The nest is a mere 
depression in the ground, and the eggs, 2 to 3 in number, are 
usually deposited in May, and are elongated oval in shape, clay 
coloured tinged with warm rufous isabelline, with purplish grey 
underlying shell markings and dark reddish brown surface spots 
and blotches, and measure about 1'83 by T22. 

The eastern form has been subspecifically separated from the 
western form ( P. pyrenaicus) as being somewhat less brightly 
coloured and having the submarginal bars on the chestnut wing- 
coverts white and not yellowish or buff, but I do not find these 
characters permanent in a series and consequently do not 
separate the forms. 



907. SENEGAL SAND-GROUSE. 
PTEROCLES SENEGALLUS. 

Pterocles senegallus (Linn.), Mantissa, p. 526 (1771); Gould, B. of A. 
pi. 62 ; (Ogilvie Grant), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii, p. 14 ; Dresser, ix. 
p. 309, pi. 699 ; (Blanf.), F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 61 ; P. guttatus 
(Licht.), Verz. Doubl. p. 64 (1823). 

Fuku, Somdi. ; Kittamah, Berber. ; Quata, Arab. ; Nandu- 
Katingo, Gutu, Sind. 

( ad. (Sind). Crown, back, rump, lesser wing-coverts and upper tail- 
coverts dark isabelline, the last tinged with yellow ; sides of crown to 
below the eye, nape, and hind neck blue-grey ; primaries greyish or 
brownish isabelline ; secondaries brown margined with isabelline ; 
larger coverts greyish at base, then warm brown tipped with isabelline ; 
elongated middle tail-feathers yellowish isabelline on basal, dark brown 
on terminal half, the rest brown at base, then blackish tipped with white 
sides of head and throat ochreous, the lower throat bluish grey ; rest of 
under parts isabelline, the middle of the abdomen black ; under tail- coverta 
creamy white, but black at the base ; bill bluish grey ; feet bluish white ; 
iris brown, orbits yellowish. Culmen 0'65, wing 8'0, tail 5'75, tarsus 1*1 
inch. The female has the crown, nape, and upper parts, lower throat, and 
breast isabelline spotted with black, the sides of the head below the eye,. 
chin and upper throat ochreous. 

Hob. Algeria, Tunis, Egypt ; Arabia, Palestine, east to Persia 
and Afghanistan ; India W. of 73 E. long, and north as far as 
33 N. lat. 



656 PTEROCLES 

Frequents sandy, dry localities, and except during the breed- 
ing season keeps together in flocks of from 5 to 50, running 
about picking up seeds and insects on the dry soil. In the 
early morning and evening these fly to the drinking places often 
far distant, and like their congeners are very shy and wary. 
Their call-note is a peculiar gurgling sound like Quiddle, quiddle, 
quiddle. They nest on the ground in March or April, the 2 to 3 
eggs being in ground-colour similar to those of P. alchata but 
much smaller, and the brown surface spots are very faint. 

908. SINGED SAND-GROUSE. 
PTEROCLES EXUSTUS. 

Pterocle* exmtw (Teinm.), PI. Col. Nos. 354, 360 (1825) ; Gould, B. 
of Asia, vi. pi. 64 ; (Ogilvie Grant), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 12 ; 
(Blanf.), F. Brit. Iml. Birds, iv. p. 60 ; P. ellioti, Bogd. Mel. Biol. 
xi. p. 54 (1881). 

HJtat-titar, Kwnartit, Hindu. 

ad. (Egypt). Head, throat, and upper parts sandy buff or isabelline, 
the face and neck tinged with yellow, and the back with brown ; scapulars 
arid some of the median coverts tipped with reddish brown, some of the 
larger coverts with a subterminal white spot ; quills, primary coverts, and 
middle tail-feathers blackish brown, the rest of the tail-feathers dark 
brown tipped with white or buify white ; breast warm buff crossed by a 
black gorget edged with buffy white ; abdomen and flanks dark brown, 
the middle of abdomen black'sh ; tarsi, vent, and under tail-coverts pale 
buff ; bill and feet slaty grey ; iris dark brown ; orbital skin yellowish. 
Culmen 0*52, wing 7'?, tail 5'3, tarsus 0'85 inch ; middle tail-feathers 
about 2-0 longer than the lateral ones. The female is suridy buff mottled 
and barred with black on the upper parts ; sides of head, throat, and upper 
breast sandy buff mottled with black on the lower throat ; a narrow 
double black band across the breast ; abdomen barred dark brown and 
rufous, the middle darker. 

Hab. North Africa, in the west south to Senegal, in the 
east to the Pagani River ; Palestine, Central Asia, and the chief 
part of the Peninsula of India. 

Like its allies it frequents the open country, where it feeds on 
seeds and insects, and visits the drinking places in the morning 
and evening. Its call is a double clucking note, uttered when 
on the wing, and which may be heard at a considerable distance. 
It breeds in April in N. Africa, but in India at all seasons, the 
nest being a small depression in the sand, usually without any 
lining, but sometimes lined with a little dry grass ; the eggs, 3 



PTKKOCLESSYRKIIA /'/7> 657 

in number, are pale butV tinned with salmon pink, with under- 
lying purplish grey and overlying brown surface spot*, and 
measure about 1 '4-"> In 1 ,">. 

SYRRHAPTES, Illig,, 1811. 



SYRRHAPTES PARADOXUS 

. Fxeise l\uss. Reiehs. ii. App. p. 71:2, T;il>. 



F. (ITT.r : (nuild, r,. of Asia, vi. pl. 60 ; id. B. of Gt Brit. iv. pi. 11 ; 
Newton. P.Z.S. 1861, p. :W7, pi. xxxix. tig. 1 (egg),; Dresser, vii. p. 75, 
pl. 4liS : David and Oust. Ois. rhine, p. 389; Newton, Ibis, 1890, 
p. '207, pl. vii. (pull.) ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 2 ; 
Tae . F. O. Sib. ( >. p. 740 ; Saunders, p. 488 ; Lilford, iv. p. 97, pl. 43. 

HsthuJin, German; Sirrattc, Ital. ; Steppehone, Dan.; 
m. Swed. ; Hieta-kana, Finn.; Stepnaya-Kuritza, Russ. ; 

S/nt-chcc, Chinese. 

ad. (E. Siberia). Crown and sides of head dull gold colour ; nape 
greyish ImtV: across tlu> hind neck a patch of golden orange extending 
upwards on each side ; back, scapulars and rump warm sandy ochreous, 
tho two former boldly, the last narrowly barred with black ; primaries 
bluish jjrey, the tirst long and attenuated, the inner ones oclireous tipped ; 
secondaries ochreous on the inner and blftckifiH on the outer webs ; wiiii^- 
coverts sandy ochreous, the larger tipped with foxy red ; outer edge of 
wing spotted with black; tail-covrerts and elongated middle tail-feathers 
ochreous washed with blue-grey, the latter tipped with black ; rest of tail- 
feathers slate-grey tipped with white ; under parts delicate dove-buff, 
tinged with grey fading to dull white on the lower abdomen, legs and feet ; 
upper In-east crossed by an irregular black bar and the middle of the 
abdomen by a broad black band ; bill pale horn ; iris dark brown. 
Oulmen 0\>. wing 9'0, the first quill I'l longer than the second, tail 7'6, 
the middle feathers 3'6 longer than the rest, tarsus 1*1 inch. The female is 
duller and greyer, has the crown and nape striped with black, lacks the 
yellow and orange on the head and neck and the pectoral band, and has the 
first quill and middle tail- feathers shorter. 

Hal). The steppes of Southern Russia, and Asia east to North 
China, north to Lake Baikal ; large flocks have visited Europe 
at uncertain intervals, and it has been obtained in almost every 
country, while it has bred in Great Britain and Denmark. 

In habits it resembles the other Sand-Grouse, and like them 
tlies \vry swiftly. It feeds on seeds, and its call-note, which is 
uttered when the bird is on the wing, is a loud frtM&Htontcfe, 
truok-turuck. Its nest is a mere depression in the soil., sometimes 
lined with a few grass-bents, and the eggs, 3 in number, are 



658 SYRRHAPTESPHASIANUS 

deposited late in Ma} 7 or early in June, and are stone-buff, often 
with a greenish tint, marked with purplish brown shell-blotches 
and dark brown surface-spots, and measure about T69 by 1*16. 
The young bird was taken in Scotland on the 8th of August. 

910. TIBETAN SAND-GROUSE. 
SYRRHAPTES TIBETANUS. 

Syrrhaptcs iibetanus, Gould, P.Z.S. 1850, p. 92 ; id. B. of Asia, vi. pi. 61 ; 
Prjev. Mongol i Strana Tangut. ii. p. 14 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxii. p. 5 : Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 63. 

fttcpnaya-kurutza-Tibetskaya, Russ. ; Kuk, Kaling, Ladak. 

( ad. (Tibet). Forehead, lores, cheeks, and chin whitish slightly 
speckled with black ; crown white irregularly barred with black ; sides of 
head, throat, and a band round the neck deep ochreous yellow ; lower neck 
and breast whitish, narrowly barred with black ; upper parts pale fawn, 
finely vermiculated with black ; scapulars spotted with black ; quills and 
larger wing-coverts black ; lower back, rump and upper tail-coverts with 
ground colour whitish ; middle tail-feathers tinged with rufous, the long 
tips black, the rest chestnut tipped with white, and obsoletely barred ; 
lower breast pale greyish brown fading to white on the abdomen ; under 
tail-coverts chestnut, barred with black, and tipped with white ; bill 
bluish ; iris brown. Culmen 0*5, wing 10'15, tail 8'0, tarsus I'l inch. In 
the female the markings on the upper parts are much coarser, the whole 
breast is barred and the middle tail-feathers are shorter. 

Hob. Tibet and the Pamir, where it is resident and found in 
summer at elevations above 12,000 feet, north of Sikhim ; Koko- 
nor in Mongolia, Ladak and the upper Sutlej valley. 

Frequents barren, sandy localities, and in habits resembles 
S. paradoxiis ; frequents sandy plains, where it feeds on seeds of 
various kinds, and is not shy. Its call-note, which is uttered 
on the wing, is a loud caga, caga, caga. So far as I can ascertain 
its eggs are unknown. 

PHASIANUS, Linn., 1766. 
911. PHEASANT. 

PHASIANUS COLCHICUS. 

Phasianus colcJiicus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 271 (1766) ; Naum. vi. p. 433, 
Taf. 162; Hewitson, i. p. 276, pi. Ixviii. ; Gould, B. of E. iii, 
pi. 247 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 12 ; Dresser, vii. p. 85, pi. 469 ; 
Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 320 ; Saunders, p. 499 ; 
Lilford, iv. p. 114, pi. 51 ; P. c. septentrionalis, Lorenz, J. f. 0. 1888, 
p. 572. 



PHASIANUS 659 



Faisan. French ; Fagiano, Ital. ; Edelfasan, German ; Fasan, 
Swed. ; Madsharski-Petuck, Russ. 

ad. (Asia Minor). Head and upper neck black, on the crown and 
nape glossed with bottle-green, and on the sides of the head, chin, and 
upper neck with violet-purple ; lower neck, breast, and upper back 
feathers black at the base, then rufescent golden margined with black, 
some with an apical black spot ; scapulars and rest of back coppery purple, 
most of the feathers with a central buff horseshoe mark ; quills dark brown 
slightly barred with ochreous buff ; wing-coverts golden olivaceous varied 
with ochreous and coppery purple ; rump and upper tail-coverts fiery 
reddish glossed with purple ; tail golden olivaceous barred with black ; 
flanks like the breast but more golden orange in tinge ; middle of abdomen 
bluish black ; wattles on the sides of the head rich blood-red ; legs dull 
brown ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1*2, wing 9'3, tail 18'2, middle feathers- 
13'5 longer than the outside ones, tarsus 2*7 inch. The female has the 
upper parts blackish, broadly margined with clay-buff, the neck washed 
with vinaceous ; under parts clay-buff vermiculated with blackish, the 
black bases showing here and there especially on the flanks and neck ; 
quills and wing-coverts dark brown variegated with clay-buff ; tail dull 
ochreous vermiculated with blackish, the middle feathers blacker and 
tinged with rufous ; wattles absent. 

Hob. South-eastern Europe (Greece and Turkey), Asia Minor, 
north to the Volga, south to the Caucasus, east to Transcaucasia ; 
introduced and naturalised in most parts of temperate Europe. 

First introduced into England by the Romans, it is believed, 
the Pheasant has spread throughout the United Kingdom, and 
is one of our most esteemed game birds ; it inhabits the wood- 
lands and groves, especially where the undergrowth is thick, 
and damp places, and feeds on grain of various kinds, acorns, 
beech-mast, and other seeds, berries, and insects, &c. The usual 
call is a loud cock, cock, cock, but the pairing note of the male is 
a feeble crow, and is followed by a clapping of the wings. The 
Pheasant is polygamous, and in the spring the males fight for 
the possession of the females. The nest is a depression in 
the soil lined with dry grass, roots, and leaves, and the eggs, 
usually 10 to 12 in number, are uniform pale olivaceous brown 
in colour, sometimes with a bluish tinge, and measure about 
1-79 by 140. 

It has been known to use a deserted owl's or squirrel's nest for 
the purpose of nidification, but this is uncommon, it being as a 
rule, a ground breeder. I have carefully compared specimens of 
Mr. Lorenz's P. septentrionalis, and cannot find any difference 
between it and true P. colchicus. 

x x 



660 PHASIANUS 



912. SUBSP. PHASIANUS TALISCHENSIS. 

Phasianus talischensis, Lorenz, J. f. 0. 1888, p. 571 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 324. 

< ad. Differs from P. colchicus in having the under parts a trifle 
duller and redder, the blackish margins to the feathers narrower and 
fewer ; wing-coverts as in P. colchicus. 

Hob. Lenkoran, and the Alazan river, Transcaucasia. 

In habits and nidification this species does not differ from 
P. colchicus. 

913. MURGHAB PHEASANT. 
PHASIANUS PRINCIPALIS. 

Phasianus principalis, Sclater, P.Z.S. 1885, p. 322, pi. xxii. ; Ogilvie 
Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 325 ; Dresser, ix. p. 321, pi. 702 ; 
"P. komarovi, Bogd.," Zarudny, Ois. Transcasp. p. 63 (1885). 

Kargooule, Tekke. 

$ ad. (Merv). Differs from P. colchicus in having the wing-coverts 
white, the ground colour of the upper parts golden orange, tinged with 
brick-red on the lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts ; tail redder, 
the bars narrower and further apart ; under parts, more especially the 
breast, richly tinted with peach-carmine. Culmen 1'3, wing 9'4, tail 22'0, 
tarsus 2'7 inch. The female is much paler than that of P. colchicus, the 
general colour being pale clay-buff, and the dark markings are fewer. 

Hob. Transcaspia and Afghanistan, the rivers Murghab, 
Tedgend, and Dushak, the district of Kaakuk, and along the 
rivers running from the mountains of Deregez and Keliat to the 
N. and N.E ; North-eastern Persia. 

In habits and nidification it does not differ from P. colchicus, 
and like that species it affects damp wooded localities, and makes 
its nest on the ground, depositing late in May, 8 to 12, and even, 
it is said, as many as 18 eggs, which closely resemble those 
of P. colchicus. A specimen in' the Tring Museum, labelled 
P. kancarowii, does not differ from typical P. principalis. 

914. SHAW'S PHEASANT. 
PHASIANUS SHAWI. 

Phasianus shawi, Elliot, P.Z.S. 1870, p. 403 ; id. Monogr. Phas. ii. pi. 1 ; 
Gould, B. of As. vii. pi. 35 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. 
p. 326 ; P. insignia, Elliot, P.Z.S., 1870, p. 404 ; id. Monogr. Phas. 
ii. pi. iii. 



PHASIANUS 661 



ad. (Yarkand). Differs from P. princlpolis in having the white of 
the wing-coverts slightly tinged with greyish, the upper parts rather 
redder and less marked with black, the rump slightly tinged with green, 
the tips of the flank feathers blacker and less purple in tinge, and the 
carmine-peach tinge on the breast is wanting. Culmen 1*25, wing 9*5, 
tail 16'5, tarsus 2*55 inch. Sometimes the males of this species have a 
trace of a white collar. The female resembles that of P. principaUs. 

Hcib. The valleys of the Yarkand, Kashgar, Aksu, and 
Khotan rivers. 

In habits this bird does not differ from P. colchicus, and eggs 
in my collection are not distinguishable from those of that 
species. 

915. PERSIAN PHEASANT. 
PHASIANUS PERSICUS. 

Phasianns persicus, Severtzoff, Bull. Mosc. xlviii. pi. 3, p. 208 (1870) ; 
Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 324 ; Dresser, ix. p. 317, 
pi. 701. 

Kargowal Gargaul, Persian. 

$ ad. (Transcaspia). Differs from P. colchicus in having the feathers 
on the breast and fore part of the back less rufous and more golden orange 
in colour, the rump and upper tail-coverts coppery red, the breast and 
sides of abdomen washed with purplish carmine, the feathers 011 the flanks 
with broader purplish black margin, those on the breast with narrower 
margins, the black bars on the tail much narrower, and the lesser and 
median wing-coverts nearly white. Culmen 1*2, wing 9'5, tail 19'8, 
tarsus 2*9 inch. The female is undistinguishable from that of P. colchicus. 

Hob. The south-east Caspian, the valleys of the Soumbar, 
Tschandyr and Atrek rivers, Achour-Ade and the peninsula of 
Potemkine, north to the main portions of the Kopet-dag, 
Kuerendag, and Zar-i-kouh mountains. 

In habits it does not differ from P. colchicus, and like that 
species is a ground breeder, depositing in May 8 to 10 eggs, 
olivaceous grey-green with a leather-yellow tinge, which measure 
about 1-67 by T43. 

916. SUBSP. PHASIANUS ZARAFSCHANICUS. 

Phasianus zarafscJianicus, Tarnovski, Field, Ixxvii. p. 409 (1891) ; 
Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 326 ; P. tarnovskii, Seebohm, 
P.Z.S. 1892, p. 271. 

$ ad. Is nearest allied to P. persicus but has the upper parts rather 
paler, the ground-colour of the whole including the rump and upper tail- 

x x 2 



662 PHASIANUS 



coverts pale golden orange ; under parts rather more boldly barred than 
in P. persicus ; a somewhat faintly defined collar on the sides and b*ck of 
the neck. 

Hal. Zarafschan Valley. 

This Pheasant frequents the damp reedy parts along the 
Zarafschan river and frequents the fields and gardens in search 
of food. Nothing appears to be known respecting its nidifica- 
tion, which doubtless does not differ from that of P. persicus. 

917. SUBSP. PHASIANUS TARIMENSIS. 

Pkaslanus tarimensis, Prjev. Dritte Reise in Centr. As. &c. p. 95 (1883) ; 
Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 327. 

$ ad. Wing covers as in P. colchicus but rather paler and with a faint 
greenish grey tinge ; back with the ground-colour golden orange, the 
rump and upper tail-coverts tinged with greenish ; tail paler than in 
P. colchicus, under parts with the feathers but faintly margined or tipped 
with black. Culmen 1'5, wing 9'2, tail 16'5, tarsus 2~55 inch. The 
female resembles that of P. sJiawi. 

Hob. Karaschar in the lower valley of the Tarim river, 
and the valley of the Tschertsche-Darya to the shores of the 
Lob-nor. 

In habits and nidification this sub-species does not differ 
from P. colchicus. 

918. SEVERTZOFF'S PHEASANT. 
PHASIANUS CHRYSOMELAS. 

Phaslanus cJirysomelas, Severtzoff, Bull. Mosc. xlviii. pt. 3, p. 207 
(1875) ; Gould, B. of As. vii. pi. 36 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxii. p. 327 ; P. dorrandti and P. oxianus, Severtz. J. f. 0. 
1875, p. 225. 

ad. (Amu-Darya). Differs from P. sTtawi in having the ground 
colour of the upper parts orange-red, more orange on the upper back, and 
redder on the lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts, the mantle-feathers 
broadly margined with greenish black ; bars on the tail very narrow ; 
under parts more boldly marked with glossy greenish black ; ground- 
colour of flanks golden orange. Culmen 1-5, wing 9'3, tail 21 '4, tarsus 2-75 
inch. The female resembles that of P. shawi, but the breast is more 
boldly spotted with black. Like P. shawi the males of this species some- 
times have an indication of a white collar. 

Hob. The valley of the Amu-Darya. 

Does not differ in habits or nidification from P. colchicus. 



PHASIANUS 663 



919. STRAUCH'S PHEASANT. 
PHASIANUS STRAUCHI. 

Phasianus strauchi, Prjev. Mongol, i Strana Tangut. ii. p. 119, pi. xvii. 
(1876) ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 330. 

c ad. (Kan-su). Upper parts much as in P. colchicus, but the 
lower neck more orange in tinge, the lower back washed with green, 
the sides of the rump, upper tail-coverts, and margins of the tail-feathers 
bluish, with a faint greenish tinge ; tail more boldly barred than in 
P. colchicus ; wing-coverts blue ; under parts darker and more bluish 
purple in tinge. Culmen 1*2, wing 9*7, tail 23'0, tarsus 2'55. The female 
resembles that of P. colchicus, but is rather darker. 

Hob. The wooded portions of the Kan-su Mountains to an 
altitude of 10,000 feet, being most numerous in the Tetunga and 
Buguk-gol valleys ; the mountains of Szechuen. 

In habits it does not differ from its allies. It is resident and 
breeds in Kan-su, the breeding season being from early in April 
to the middle of July. 

A specimen in the Rothschild collection obtained by 
Berezovski in Kan-su, has the upper parts rather paler and more 
boldly marked, the tail more purplish grey in tinge, the bars 
broader; breast and flanks golden orange with narrow black 
margins to the feathers. 

Phasianus decollatus, Swinhoe (P.Z.S. 1870, p. 135), may 

Frobably be found within the limits of the Palsearctic area, but 
do not find any proof that such is the case. It differs from 
P. strauchi in having the sides and flanks buff instead of orange- 
red, and from P. torguatus in having the wing-coverts blue, the 
rump bluer, and the white collar very indistinct or wanting. 

920. SUBSP. PHASIANUS BEREZOWSKYI. 

Phasianus lerezowstyi, Eothschild, Bull. B. 0. Club, xii. p. 20 (1901). 

(J ad. (Kan-su). Resembles P. strauchi in having the upper wing- 
coverts blue, but the breast is as in P. colchicus, though the dark margins 
to the golden feathers are narrower ; upper parts paler and more yellow 
in tinge than in P. colchicus, the rump and upper tail-coverts blue 
slightly marked with black, the latter slightly varied with rufous ; tail 
grey and golden grey at the base, washed with rufous on the outer webs, 
but not so rufous as in P. strauchi, and broadly barred with black. 
Culmen 1*1, wing 7'9, tail 16'9, tarsus 23 inch. 



664 PHASIANUS 



Hcib. Kan-su. 

In habits and nidification this Pheasant probably does not 
differ from P. strauchi. 

921. VLANGAL'S PHEASANT. 
PHASIANUS VLANGALI. 

Phasianus vlangali, Pijev. Mongol, i Strana Tangut. &c., ii. p. 116, pi. 
xvi ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 330. 

( ad. (Tsaidam). Differs from P. strauchi in having the upper back, 
scapulars, and least wing-coverts golden orange, the rump and upper tail- 
coverts bluer, the under parts rather paler, the tail paler, more narrowly 
barred, and not margined with greenish blue. Culmen 1'45, wing 9'5 T 
tail 19'6, tarsus 2'6 inch. The female resembles that of P. colchkus but 
is paler, and the chin and throat are pure white. 

Hob. Tsaidam, west to the Tsaidam marshes, north to the 
Koko-nor mountains. 

Frequents the cane brakes and bush-covered localities, and 
in winter feeds on berries. It commences nidification very 
early, sometimes as early as the middle of February. 

922. JAPANESE PHEASANT. 
PHASIANUS VERSICOLOR. 

Phasianus versicolor, Yieill. Gal. Ois. ii. p. 23, pi. 205 (1825) ; Gould, 
B. of As. vii. pi. 40 ; Elliot, Monogr. Phas. ii. pi. ix. ; Seebohm, B. 
Jap. Emp. p. 370 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mas. xxii. p. 334. 

Kiji, Jap. 

$ ad. (Japan). Wing-coverts blue ; crown, nape, lower neck, and 
entire breast deep glossy green ; upper neck rich purple ; scapulars 
orange-red, these and the dorsal feathers with black centres and margined 
with buff ; rump greenish blue ; tail greenish grey margined with 
purplish red, and barred with black ; abdomen glossy blue ; flanks dark 
green. Culmen 1'25, wing 9'0, tail 13'0, tarsus 2'5 inch. Female 
resembles that of P. colchicus but is much darker. 

Hob. The Japanese Islands except Yezo. 

Does not differ from its allies in habits. It nests on the 
ground, depositing, from the latter part of April to the end of 
July, 5 to 6 eggs, which resemble those of P. colchicus in colour, 
and measure T54 by T38. Has been introduced into Europe, 
and breeds freely with P. colchicus. 



PHASIANUS 665 



923. MONGOLIAN PHEASANT. 
PHASIANUS MONGOLICUS. 

Phasianus mongolicug, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. iii. p. 51 (1844) ; 
Gould, B. of As. vii. pi. 41 ; Elliot, Monogr. Phas. ii. pi. iv. ; 
Ogilvie Grant, Cat, B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 328 ; P. brandti, Eothsch. 
Bull. B. 0. Club, xii. p. 20 (1901). 

ad. (Turkestan). Upper parts richly glossed with purplish carmine 
without any trace of golden orange ; wing-coverts white with a faint 
greyish tinge ; tail rather darker than in P. chrysomelas ; under parts 
more rufous ; flanks fiery red barred with greenish black, a conspicuous 
white collar continued round the back of the neck, but interrupted in 
front. Culmen 1-5, wing 9*2, tail 22'2, tarsus 2-5 inch. The female 
resembles that of P. chrysometas, but on the dorsal feathers there is a 
subterminal black spot and a central bar. 

Hob. The valley of the Syr-Darya east to Lake Zaisan, and 
the valley of the Black Irtisch, south to the valley of the Hi 
and Issik-Kul. 

In habits and nidification it does not differ from its allies. 
Eggs from Issik-Kul resemble those of P. colchicus, but are 
rather paler and measure about 1/91 by 1*44. 

924. SUBSP. PHASIANUS SEMITORQUATUS. 

Phasianus semitorquatus, Severtz. Ibis, 1875, p. 491 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat, 
B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 329. 

<$ ad. Differs from P. mongolicus only in having the upper parts and 
breast more glossed with green, and the white collar is smaller and more 
widely interrupted in the fore neck. 

Hal. Dzungaria, north-east of Kuldj a and Ebi-nor; Province 
of Gutchen and Urumtsi. 

I do not find anything on record respecting the habits or 
nidification of this Pheasant. 



925. RING-NECKED PHEASANT. 
PHASIANUS TORQUATUS. 

PJiasianus torquatus, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 742 (1788) ; Gould, B. of As. 
vii. pi. 39 ; Elliot, Monogr. Phas. ii. pi. v. ; David and Oust. Ois. 
Chine, p. 409 ; Prjev. Mongol, i Strana Tangut. p. 114 ; Seebohm, 
B. Jap. Emp. p. 369 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 331 ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 785 ; Lilford, iv. p. 116, pi. 57. 



666 P II AS I ANUS 



ad. (China). Crown and nape olive-buff, the former margined with 
creamy white ; forehead, sides of head, and upper throat black glossed 
with steel-blue, a white collar encircling the neck broad in front, narrow 
behind ; upper parts pale golden orange varied with black and buff ; 
scapulars and least wing-coverts pale chestnut-red ; rump chiefly blue ; 
upper tail-coverta orange, somewhat varied with red ; tail paler than in 
P. colchicus ; breast and flanks golden orange, the former washed with 
purple on the sides and slightly marked with glossy blackish, the latter 
broadly marked with black ; wing-coverts chiefly pale bluish white. 
Culmen 1'5, wing 9*5, tail 19'8, tarsus 2'5 inch. The female is rather 
smaller, and closely resembles that of P. colchicus. 

Hob. The lower Amur and the Ussuri country ; Mongolia ; 
Manchuria ; Corea ; Tsusima island in the Strait of Corea ; 
Eastern China south to Canton ; has been introduced into 
Great Britain. 

In general habits it does not differ from P. colchicus ; it 
frequents bush-covered places and does not perch in the trees 
except when calling in the spring. It nests on the ground like 
its allies, and deposits in May, June, and even as late as the 
beginning of July, from 8 to 12, and even as many as 20 eggs, 
which closely resemble those of P. colchicus. Introduced into 
England early in the 18th century, and breeds freely with 
P. colchicus. 

Mr. Rothschild (Bull. B. O. Club, xii. p. 21) separates the 
form from N.E. Mongolia, Amur, and Corea, under the name 
Phasianus torquatus mongolicus (Pall.). This form has the 
inner wing-coverts and scapulars much paler chestnut-red, the 
rump pale greenish olivaceous, and not blue, and the crown and 
occiput are browner in tone of colour. 

926. SUBSP. PHASIANUS HAGENBECKI. 

Phasianus hagenbeclci, Kothschild, Bull. B. 0. Club, xii. p. 20 (1901). 

<$ ad. (Kobdo Valley, N.W. Mongolia). Is nearest allied to the 
Mongolian form of Ph. torquatus, but the crown and occiput are browner, 
the upper parts paler and less rufous, the rump rather bluer and boldly 
barred with black, the ground-colour of the tail paler ; flanks paler, and 
with fewer and smaller purplish black markings. Culmen T3, wing 9'1, 
tail 17'2, tarsus 2'2 inch. 

Hob. Mongolia. 

I find no record of the habits and nidification of this Pheasant, 
which probably do not differ from those of P. torquatus. 



P HAS I ANUS 667 



927. SUBSP. PHASIANUS SATCHUENSIS. 

Phasianus satchuensis, Prjev. Iz Zaisan cherez, Khami v. Tibet, etc., 
p. 95 (1883) ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 333. 

ad. Differs from P. torquatus in having the wing-coverts bluer, the 
upper parts paler, the ground-colour being dull orange-buff ; rump and 
upper tail-coverts bluer ; bars on the tail narrower ; the white collar 
narrower and interrupted in front. Culmen 1'45, wing 9'5, tail 2T5, 
tarsus 2*5 inch. Female paler than that of P. torquatus. 

Hal. Satchen, north of the Nan-Shan Mountains. 
Does not differ in habits from P. torquatus. 

928. SCEMMERRING'S PHEASANT. 
PHASIANUS SCEMMERRINGI. 

Phasianus scemmerruigi, Teram. PI. Col. v. pis. 8, 9 ; Gould, B. of As. 
vii.pl. 37; Elliot, Monogr. Phas. ii. pi. xii. ; Seebohm, B. Jap. 
Em p. p. 370 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 336. 

Yamadori, Jap. 

c ad. (Japan). General colour chestnut with a brownish tinge, the 
feathers on the upper parts glossed with purplish carmine shot with gold, 
the basal portions of the feathers black ; quills blackish brown mottled 
with rufous buff ; tail very long, rich chestnut, the middle feathers with 
narrow black bars which are above dark margined, the outer feathers 
broadly tipped with black ; under parts vinous chestnut, paler towards the 
margins of the feathers. Culmen I'lO, wing 8 '6, tail 36*0, tarsus 2'55 inch. 
The female has the crown blackish brown, the feathers margined with 
rufous buff, the upper parts rufous buff and cinnamon buff, marked with 
black ; middle tail-feathers rufous mottled with black, the outer ones sub- 
terminally barred with black and tipped with white ; throat and neck 
pale buff, the feathers tipped with black ; breast and under parts paler 
and black at base of feathers, tail shorter, only 7'6 inch. 

Hdb. The islands of Hondo and Kiu-siu, Japan. 

Soemmerring's frequents both the plains and higher portions 
of the mountains. I do not find any special record of its 
habits, and, indeed, have very meagre information respecting 
the range of this, and the next two subspecies in the Japanese 
Islands. 

929. SUBSP. PHASIANUS SCINTILLANS. 

Phasianus scintillans, Gould, Ann. Mag. N. H. (3) xvii. p. 150 (1866) 
id. B. of As. vii. pi. 38 ; Elliot, Monogr. Phas. ii. pi. xiii. ; Ogilvie 
Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 337. 



668 PHASIANUS CHRYSOLOPHUS 

$ ad. (Japan). Differs from P. scemmerr'myi in being paler and not so 
red, the feathers on the back margined with golden yellow, those on the 
lower back, scapulars, wing-coverts, and rump narrowly margined with 
white edged with black ; tail with bars of black margined with buff and 
buffy white ; under parts vinous, varied with black and dull white. 
Culmen 1-15, wing 9'2, tail 34'0, tarsus 27 inch. 

Hob. Hondo (Yokohama and Nagasaki). 

In habits it does not differ from P. scemmerringi ; eggs from 
Kozugo are uniform creamy white, and measure about 1'81 
by 1-36. 

930. SUBSP. PHASIANUS IJIIVLE. 

Phasianus ijimce, Dresser, Ibis, 1902, p. 656. 

ad. (Kiu-siu). Differs from P. scemmerringi in having the lower- 
back and rump white, only the concealed bases of the feathers being dark, 
the rest pure white ; the dark feathers on the upper parts lack the golden 
yellow margins, and have narrow, purplish black edges ; the under parts 
are as in P. scemmerringi) but more rufous in tint and less marked with 
black. Culmen 1-4, wing 8'7, tail 29'0, tarsus 2'4 inch. The female 
resembles that of P. seintillans, but has the upper parts darker, and the 
middle tail-feathers uniformly coloured without transverse markings. 

Hob. The island of Kiu-siu, Japan. 

I have no information respecting the habits or nidification of 
this Pheasant. 

CHRYSOLOPHUS, Gray, 1833-4. 

931. GOLDEN PHEASANT. 
CHRYSOLOPHUS PICTUS. 

Chrysolophus pictus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 272 (1766) ; Gould, B. of As. 
vii. pi. 19 ; (Elliot), Monogr. Phas. pi. xv. ; (David and Oust.), Ois, 
Chine, p. 414 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 339 ; (Berezov. 
and Bianchi), Ptitz. Gan-su, p. 17. 

Kin-ky, Chinese. 

<$ ad. (China). Crown, long crest, lower back, and tail- coverts rich 
yellow ; nuchal cape golden yellow margined with glossy bluish black ; 
fore back glossy dark green margined with bluish black ; outer seconr 
claries purplish blue ; scapulars rich crimson ; wing-coverts chestnut 
mottled with . black ; some of the lateral tail-coverts scarlet ; middle 
tail-feathers and elongated tail-coverts black,, ocellated with warm 
brown, the latter with the terminal half crimson, the former tipped 
with pale bun 1 ', the outer tail-feathers rufous buff, barred with black \ 



CHRYSOLOPHUS 669 



chin, upper tliroat, and middle of lower abdomen warm buff ; rest of 
under parts rich scarlet ; bill greenish yellow ; legs greenish horn ; 
iris brown. Culnien 1*0, wing 7'7, tail 27 '0, tarsus 2' 7 inch. The female 
has the head and upper back brown, barred with buff and black, the lower 
back, rump and upper tail-coverts paler brown vermiculated with black ; 
under parts buff, the chin and throat paler, the former all but the middle 
of the abdomen barred with blackish ; middle tail feathers brown, irregu- 
larly barred with black, the rest more rufoue, marked with buff, and barred 
and mottled with blackish ; tail 14*0. 

Hob. The mountains of Western and Southern China; Koko- 
nor ; south-east and south-west Kan-su. 

Inhabits the woods and the mountains at a moderate altitude, 
and is a resident throughout its range. I have never seen any 
eggs but those laid in confinement, which are uniform cream- 
colour or pale buff, and measure about 1'26 by 1/6. 

932. LADY AMHERST'S PHEASANT. 
CHRYSOLOPHUS AMHERSTLfE. 

Chrysoloplius amkerstice (Leadb.),. Trans. Linn. Soc. xvi. p. 129, pi. 15 
(1828) ; (Gould), B. of As. vii. pi. 20 ; (Elliot), Monogr. Phas. ii. 
pi. xiv. ; (David and Oust.), Ois. Chine, p. 415, pi. 103 ; Ogilvie 
Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 342. 

Sng-ky, Chinese. 

ad. (China). Crown, sides of head, and throat blackish bronze-green ; 
elongated occipital crest blood-red ; nuchal cape white, margined and 
barred with black ; mantle, scapulars, fore neck, and breast deep green 
margined with black ; lower back and rump black, tipped with dull 
yellowish, and with a subterminal band glossed with green ; upper tail- 
coverts white, barred with blackish and tipped with red ; middle tail- 
feathers mottled and broadly barred with greenish black, the rest pale 
buff, barred with black ; beak brownish horn, darker at the base ; legs 
bluish grey ; iris pale yellow, the bare skin round the eye pale greenish. 
Culmen 1 '2, wing 8'5, tail 35 '0, tarsus 3 '09 inch. The female resembles that 
of C. pictus, but the naked skin round the eye is as in the male. 

Hob. The high mountains of Eastern Tibet, Szechuen, and 
Yunnan, where it is a resident. 

The present species inhabits the wooded portions of the 
mountains to an altitude of 7,000 to 9,000 feet, and especially 
the wild bamboo thickets, on the buds of which it feeds. Its 
eggs (laid in confinement) are rich cream-colour, in size about 
the same as those of C. pictus. 



670 PUCRASIA 



PUCBASIA, G. R. Gray, 1841. 

933. MONGOLIAN PUCRAS. 
PUCRASIA XANTHOSPILA. 

Pucrasia xanthospila^ Gray, P.Z.S. 1864, p. 259, pi. xx. ; Gould, B. of 
As. vii. pi. 24 ; Elliot, Monogr. Phas. i. pi. 30 ; David and Oust. 
Ois. Chine, p. 407, pi. 104 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. 
p. 315 ; Berez. and Bianchi, Ptitz. Gan-su, p. 19. 

( ad. (Kan-su). Median occipital crest olivaceous buff, the long pos- 
terior lateral tufts with the sides of head, nape, and throat glossy black ; a 
large white patch on each side of the neck ; hind neck to back white, 
margined with golden buff ; lower back and rump grey, striped with black ; 
wings varied with black, buff, and rufous ; elongated tail-coverts and 
middle tail-feathers, margined with chestnut, edged with black, the rest 
grey subterminally barred with black, and tipped with white ; middle of 
throat, neck, breast and abdomen chestnut-red, the rest of the under parts 
greyish white, striped with black ; under tail-coverts chestnut, tipped with 
white ; bill blackish ; legs dark grey ; iris brown. Culmen l - 5, wing 8'9, 
tail 8'0, tarsus 2*5 inch. The female is buff or brown, varied with 
black and rufous ; the crest is short, and the outer tail-feathers are as in the 
male, otherwise it resembles the female Hima'ayan P. macrolopha. 

Hob. N. W. China ; Manchuria ; Eastern Tibet ; Kan-su. 

Inhabits the wooded portions of the mountains, where it is 
found singly or in pairs, and feeds on seeds of various kinds, 
especially those of conifers. Its habits are similar to those of its 
congeners, but I find no account of its nidification. 

934. CHESTNUT-BELLIED PUCRAS. 
PUCRASIA CASTANEA. 

Pucrasia castanea, Gould, P.Z.S. 1854, p. 99 ; id. B. of Asia, vii. pi. 27 ; 
Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 314. 

$ ad. (Kafiristan). Differs from P. xanthospila in having the lower 
neck, upper mantle and under parts rich chestnut-red, the rest of the upper 
parts paler and greyer, the elongated upper tail -co verts and middle tail- 
feathers brownish grey, with median black stripes, the latter also marbled 
with blackish ; rest of tail-feathers blackish brown, narrowly tipped with 
buff ; primaries dark brown, externally margined with buff. Culmen 1'2, 
\\ing 9'2, tail 9'5, tarsus 2*7 inch. 

Hob. Northern Afghanistan and Kafirisban. 

Nothing is on record respecting the habits or nidification of 
this species, and so far as I can ascertain only three specimens 
are known, the two types in the British Museum, and one in the 
Stuttgart Museum. 



PUCRASIACROSSOPTILUV 671 

935. MEYER'S PUCRAS. 

PUCRASIA MEYERI. 

Pucrasid meyeri, Madirasz, Ibis, 1886, p. 145; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. 
Br. Mil.?, xii. p. 315. 

& ad. Differs from P. zanthospila, in having the breast and abdomen 
richer chestnut, the upper tail-coverts fawn colour, striped and freckled 
with black, the middle and tail-feathers rufous, becoming lighter at the 
tips, with two irregular black lines on each side, margined with fawn 
colour ; outer tail-feathers rich rufous on the outer webs and brownish on 
the inner margins, banded with black, each feather tipped with pure white. 
Culmen 1 '10, wing 9'84, tail 9'45, tarsus 2'56. The female differs from 
that of P. xanthospila in having the middle tail-feathers rufous, irregularly 
patched with black, and the rest rich rufous, thinly margined on the inner 
sides with dusky brown, each feather banded with black and tipped with 
white. 

Hob. Yer-ka-lo, Upper Mekong to Central Tibet. 

I have not been able to examine a specimen of this Pheasant, 

CROSSOPTILUM, Hodgs., 1838. 

936. TIBETAN SNOW-PHEASANT. 
CROSSOPTILUM TIBETANUM. 

Crossoptilum tibetanum, Hodgs. J. A. Soc. Beng. vii. p. 864, pi. 46 (1838) ; 
Elliot, Monogr. Phas. i. pi. 14 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 407, 
pi. 107 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 293 ; C. drouynii, 
Verreaux, N. Arch. Mus. Bull. iv. p. 85, pi. iii. (1868) ; Elliot, 
Monogr. Phas. i. pi. 15. 

( ad. (Tibet). General plumage pure white ; crown glossy black, the 
feathers short, soft, and curled ; outer primaries white on the outer, brown 
on the inner web ; rest of quills brownish grey ; tail greyish at extreme 
base, then rich bronze and purple, naked portion of sides of head scarlet ;. 
bill reddish horn ; legs red ; iris orange yellow. Culmen 2*0, wing 13'4 r 
tail 18'0, tarsus 3'75 inch. Female similar, excspt that she lacks the 
spurs. 

Hob. The mountains of Western China and Eastern Tibet. 
In habits this species is said not to differ from its congeners. 

937. WHITE-TAILED SNOW-PHEASANT. 
CROSSOPTILUM LEUCURUM. 

Crossoptilitm leucurum, Scebohm, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, iv. p. xvii. (1892) ; 
Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 294. 



672 CROSSOPTILUM 



$ ad. Differs from G. tibetanum in having the quills pure white, the tail 
white from the base nearly to the end ; the shafts black and tipped with 
rich purple. Culmen '1'75, wing 13*4, tail 18'0, tarsus 3'2. The female is 
similar, but has the tail-feathers tipped and margined with dark grey, the 
middle and outer pairs with the inner webs grey. 

Hob. Eastern Tibet, between the Sok Pass, Chiamdo, and 
Lhassa. 

I have no data respecting the habits of this species. 

938. MANCHURIAN SNOW-PHEASANT. 
CROSSOPTILUM MANTCHURICUM. 

Crossoptilum mantchuricum, Svvinhoe, P.Z.S. 1862, p. 286 ; Gould, 
B. of As. vii. pi. 22 ; Elliot, Monogr. Phas. i. pi. 16 ; David and 
Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 405, pi. 106 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxii. p. 294. 

Holey, Chinese. 

$ ad. (China). Crown and neck glossy black, gradually fading into 
the brown of the upper and under parts ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
white ; quills brown, the secondaries slightly glossed with purple ; the 
middle tail-feathers brownish grey tipped with purple, the rest rather 
darker brownish, similarly tipped ; chin, upper throat, and elongate, 
recurved ear-tufts pure white ; naked portion of face scarlet, bill light rose 
colour ; legs coral-red ; iris orange-yellow. Culmen 1*75, wing 12'9, 
tail 23'0, tarsus 4'0 inch. Female similar but without spurs. 

Hob. The mountains of Manchuria, and Pechi-li, China. 
Does not differ from its congeners in habits. 

939. PALLAS'S SNOW-PHEASANT. 
CROSSOPTILUM AURITUM. 

Crossoptilum auritum (Pall.), Zoogr. Ross. As. ii. p. 86 (1811) ; Elliot, 
Monogr. Phas. i. pi. 17 ; Prjev. Mongol, i Strana Tangut. ii. p. 121, 
pi. xx. fig. 1 (egg) ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 406, pi. 108 ; 
Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 295 : Berezovsky and 
Bianchi, Ptitz. Gan-su, p. 24. 

Maky-Shandgi, Chinese ; Hara-Talda, Mongul ; Shariama, 
Tangut. 

ad. (Kan-su). Crown and upper nape velvety black ; chin, upper 
throat, and ear-tufts pure white ; rest of plumage slate-grey ; quills 
brownish ; middle tail-feathers slate-grey, tipped with deep purple, the six 



GROSSOPTIL UML OP HOP HO R US 673 



pairs of outer ones white, tipped with purplish black ; soft parts as in 
C. mantchuricum. Culrnen 1'65, wing 12'2, tail 20 P 5, tarsus 3'5 inch. 
Female similar but spurless. 

Hob. Mountains of North-eastern Szechuen, Eastern Koko- 
nor, South-western Kan-su, and Ala-shan. 

Inhabits the wooded districts on the mountains up to 10,000 
feet, and is a resident. In the autumn and winter they are 
generally in small flocks or family parties, but in the spring in 
pairs. Its call-note or crow is long and disagreeable, not 
unlike the cry of the Peacock. Nidification takes place in 
May, when the female deposits from 5 to 7 eggs, which in shape 
resemble those of the domestic fowl, but are very smooth in 
texture, uniform pale olive-grey in colour, and measure 2*16 
by 1-62. 

940. HARMAN'S SNOW-PHEASANT. 
CROSSOPTILUM HARMANI. 

Crossoptilum harmani, Elvves, Ibis, 1881, p. 399, pi. xiii. ; Ogilvie Grant, 
Cat. B. Br/Mus. xxii. p. 296. 

$ ad. Differs from C. auritum in having a white band across the back 
of the head, and no white on the lateral tail-feathers. 

Halt. Tibet, 150 miles east of Lhassa. 

Nothing is known respecting the habits of this species and 
the only specimen known is the type, now in the British 
Museum, which is in an advanced state of decay. 

LOPHOPHORUS, Temm., 1813. 

941. MONAL. 
LOPHOPHORUS REFULGENS. 

LopJtophorus refulgens, Temm. Pig. and Gall. ii. p. 355 (1813) ; Ogilvie 
Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 278 ; Blaiiford, F. Brit. Ind. Birds 
iv. p. 96 ; L. impeyanus, Gould, Cent. Himal. B. pis. 60, 61 (1832 
nee. Lath.) ; id. B. of As. vii. pi. 53 ; Elliot, Monogr. Phas. i. 
pi. 18. 

Lont $ , Ham $ , Kashmir. 

ad. (Himalaya). Head, crest of spatulate feathers, bend of wing and 
upper tail-coverts rich metallic green ; back and sides of neck copper- 
bronze, becoming bronze-green on the upper back ; interscapulary region, 
scapulars, wing-coverts, and ramp rich metallic purple, in parts glossed 
with blue-green ; lower back white ; quills brownish black ; tail pale 



674 LOPHOPHORUS 



rufous, becoming darker towards the end ; under parts black ; the throat 
and under tail-coverts glossed with golden green ; bill dark horn ; legs 
dull ashy green ; naked orbits blue ; iris brown. Culmen 2'0, wing 12*5, 
tail 9'5, tarsus 3'1 inch. The female is brown, the head and neck above 
and on the sides, upper back, and wing-coverts black, streaked and mottled 
with buff ; lower back and rump buff, barred with black, the upper tail- 
coverts partially tipped with white ; tail broadly barred with rufous buff ; 
chin and throat white ; rest of under parts blackish brown, speckled and 
streaked with buffy white. 

Hob. The Himalaya from Afghanistan to Bhutan from 
8,000 to 15,000 feet in summer and in winter as low as 4,500 
feet. 

Inhabits the upper portions of the hill forests, and is 
generally seen singly or in twos or threes, the females collecting 
together more than the males. It feeds on insects, seeds, 
berries, leaves, etc., and its call is a loud plaintive whistle. 
Its nest is a mere depression in the ground under a bush, rock, 
or stone, a tuft of grass, or a tree trunk, and in May or early in 
June it deposits 4 to 6 eggs, which resemble those of the Turkey, 
being buffy white, thickly and coarsely freckled with reddish 
brown, and measure about 2*55 by 1'78. 

942. CHINESE MONAL. 
LOPHOPHORUS LHUYSI. 

Lophophorus Ihuysi, Verr. Bull. Soc. d'Accl. 2nd ser. iv. p. 706 (1867) ; 
Sclater, P.Z.S. 1868, p. 1, pi. 1 ; Elliot, Monogr. Phas. i. pi. 19 ; 
Gould, B. of Asia, vii. pi. 54 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 403, 
pi. 110 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 281 ; Berez. and 
Bianchi, Ptitz. Gan-su, p. 22. 

Pae-mou-Jcy, Ho-than-ky , Chinese. 

ad. (Moupin). Differs from L. refulgens in having the upper mantle 
dark red-golden, the lower mantle bronze-purple, glossed with blue-green, 
the crest composed of ordinary feathers and purple-br >nze, the tail black 
spotted with buff, the margins of the feathers broadly glossed with bottle- 
green, the rump white ; soft parts as in L. refulgens. Culmen 2*1, wing 13*0, 
tail 12*5, tarsus 3'0 inch. The female differs from that of L. refulgens in 
having the lower back white. 

Hob. The more elevated portions of the mountains of 
Moupin, Szechuen, Eastern Koko-nor, South-west Kan-su ; 
probably also Yunnan and E. Tibet. 

In habits it resembles L. refulgens, and also lives at high 
altitudes. It feeds on vegetable matter, especially on succulent 



LOPHOPHORUSITHAGENES 675 

roots. It is very shy and wild, and its cry, which is uttered in 
the early morning and during rain, consists of three or four 
shrill detached notes. At night it roosts in a tree. 

ITHAGENES, Wagl., 1832. 

943. BLOOD-PHEASANT. 
ITHAGENES CRUENTUS. 

Ithagencs cruentus (Hardw.), Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 237 (1822) ; Gould, 
B. of As. vii. pi. 43 ; Elliot, Monogr. Phas. ii. pi. 30 ; Ogilvie Grant, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 268 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 103 ; 
David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 558. 

Chilimb, Nepal. ; Semo, Bhot. ; Sumong, Lepch. 

$ ad. (Sikhim). Forehead and space round the eye to ear-coverts 
black ; crest white and grey, tinged with warm buff on the crown ; upper 
parts slate-grey, the mantle with buffy white shaft-stripes ; rest of the 
upper parts similar, but the stripes edged with black and the scapulars and 
wing-coverts washed with green ; quills brown ; tail brown at base, fringed 
with crimson, and whitish at tip ; chin and upper throat crimson ; rest of 
fore neck greenish white, margined with black ; under parts to lower 
abdomen pale green, margined with darker green ; lower abdomen like the 
back ; under tail-coverts scarlet, tipped with white ; bill black ; cere, gape, 
orbital skin, and legs red ; iris brown. Culmen 0'9, wing 8'5, tail 7'0 ; 
tarsus 2 - 9 inch. The female is brown, finely vermiculated with black, 
"the head, neck, and upper throat paler and yellower, the under parts paler 
and more rufescent. 

Hob. The higher ranges of the Himalayas in Nepal, Sikhim, 
and Bhutan, east to China ; Tibet. 

Inhabits the pine-forests at from 10,000 to 14,000 feet 
elevation, and is said to feed on the tender shoots of the pine 
and juniper, and on the berries of the latter, leaves, seeds, small 
fruits, &c. It has a peculiar long call, resembling the squeal of 
a Kite, and a shorter monosyllabic call-note. It is by no means 
shy, but very averse to take wing. In the autumn it is found 
in small flocks or family parties. Nothing appears to be known 
respecting its nidification. 

944. CHINESE BLOOD-PHEASANT. 
ITHAGENES SINENSIS. 

Ithageiies s'mensis, David, Ann. Sc. Nat. 5th ser. xviii. art. 5, p. 1 (1874) ; 
David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 402, pi. 114; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxii. p. 270 ; Berez. and Bianchi, Ptitz. Gan-sn, p. 15 ; 
/. ffeoffroyi, Prjev. Mongol, i Strana Tangut. ii. p. 122 (1876, nee. 
Verr.). 

Y Y 



676 ITIIAGENES 



Jfoa-ky, Soiiy-JLoa-ly, Chinese : Serwiun, Mongol. 

g ad. (Kan-su). . Differs from /. gco/royi in having the crest, throat, 
and neck much paler and greyer, the sides of the crest brownish black, the 
inner secondaries and wing-coverts washed with golden buff, not green, 
and the tail rather darker and greyer. Culmen 0'9, wing 8'5, tail 6*0, 
tarsus 2 '5 inch. The female resembles that of /. cruentvs, but has the 
upper parts paler, the -chin and throat whitish grey, and the under parts 
pale brownish buff, but slightly vermiculated on the breast, 

Hal). South-west Kan-su ; the Nan-shan Mountains and the 
Sinling Mountains between Shansi and Honan. 

In habits this Pheasant does not differ from its allies, and 
also inhabits the woods and bamboo-thickets at considerable 
elevations in the mountains. 



945. GREY-NECKED BLOOD-PHEASANT. 
ITHAGENES GEOFFROYI. 

Ithayenes yeo/royi, Verr. Bull. Soc, d'Acclim. (2nd ser.), iv. p. 706 ; 
(1867) ; Gould, B. of As. vii. pi. 42 : Elliot, Monogr. Phas. iL 
pi. 31 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 401, pi. 113 ; Ogilvie Grant, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 269. 

Tsong-ky, Chinese. 

ad. (Moupin). Differs from /. crventus in having the crown, crest, and 
throat slate-grey, much more green on the wings, the sides and flanks green r 
the breast and middle of abdomen slate-grey, and the tail much paler. 
Culmen 0'9, wing 9*2, tail T'O, tarsus 1*5 inch. The female is greyer above 
than that of /. cruentus^ has the head, chin, and throat brownish, the tail 
more mottled and slightly margined with crimson. 

Hob. Eastern Tibet, Eastern Szechuen, and the Mantzes^ 
country. 

Inhabits the more elevated mountain forests, and is said to- 
perch on the trees, and to feed on seeds, buds, and moss. Its 
note is a prolonged, clear, but not loud, whistle. Nothing appears 
to be on record respecting its nidification, but eggs in the British 
Museum said to belong to this species are elongate oval in 
shape, smooth in texture of shell, blotched with dark reddish 
brown on a pale reddish buff ground, and measure from T85 
to 2'05 in length, and from T25 to 1*3 in breadth. 



C AC CAB IS 677 

CACCABIS, Kaup, 1829. 

CACCABIS SAXATILIS, 

946. GREEK PARTRIDGE. 

Cacculis xc'.'-atttiit (Wolf and Meyer), Naturg. Vog. Deutschl. p. 87, pi. 48 
(1805) ; (Xauin.), vi. p. 546, Taf. 164 ; (Gould), B. of E. iv. pi. 261, 
fig. 2 ; Dresser, vii. p. 93, pi. 470, fig. 1 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. 
MILS. xxii. p. Ill ; C. f/rccca (Steph.), in Shaw's Gen. Zool. xi. p. 346 

(1819). 

Bartai'dlc, French ; Cortornice, Ital.; Steinhuhn, German. 

( ad. (Switzerland). Forehead, feathers round the base of the bill, 
lures, and a stripe passing through the eye down the sides of the neck, 
where it broadens and joins in front, black ; crown and upper parts 
including the scapulars and inner secondaries dove-blue, the nape tinged 
with vinous buff, the back washed with warm vinous, and the scapulars 
and inner secondaries with buffy brown ; quills dark brown, externally 
ochreous ; middle tail-feathers dove-blue, the rest dove-blue at the base, 
otherwise fox-red ; chin and throat white ; breast-feathers dove-blue 
edged with pale buff; abdomen and under tail-coverts warm ochreous; 
flank-feathers dove-blue crossed by a black, then a white, and then a black, 
band, and slightly tipped with chestnut-red ; bill, legs, and edge'of eyelid 
coral-red ; iris dark brown. Culmen 0'85, wing 6*4, tail 3*9, tarsus 17 
inch. Sexes aliko. 

Hal. The mountains of Southern Europe, the Eastern 
Pyrenees, the Alps, Apennines, Carpathians, and Balkans; 
Sicily. 

Inhabits stony, mountainous regions, only descending when 
driven clown by stress of weather. As a rule it is tame and 
unsuspicious, but very quarrelsome during the breeding season. 
Its note resembles the syllables JcaJcabi, kakdbet uttered several 
times in succession, and also coJc, cok, cokroo also several times 
uttered. It feeds on grain, seeds, tender shoots, and insects. 
It nests on the ground amongst the rocks, the nest being 
merely a depression lined with a few leaves and grass-bents. 
The eggs, which are deposited late in May or in June, vary in 
number from 8 to 18 or even sometimes more, and are very 
finely marked with reddish yellow on a pale yellowish ground ; 
in size they measure about T59 by 119. 

Y Y 2 



678 CACCABIS 

947. CHUKAR PARTRIDGE. 
CACCABIS CHUCAR. 

Caccalis chucar (Gray), 111. Ind. Zool. i. p. 54 (1830-32) ; (Gould), Cent. 
B. Himal. pi. 71 (1832) ; Dresser, vii. p. 97, pi. 470, fig. 2 ; David and 
Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 395 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. 
p. 113 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 131 ; C. pallescen*, 
arenarius and pallidus, Hume, Lah. to Yark. pp. 283, 284 (1873). 

Kurotschka, Russ. ; Kalik, Persian ; Chukar, Hindu. 

$ ad. (Rhodes). Differs from C. saxatilis in having the upper 
parts paler, more rufous and less grey in tinge, the auriculars marked 
with rufous, the chin and throat yellowish buff and not white, and the 
lores buffy white and not black. Culmen I'O, wing 6 '4, tail 3*8, tarsus T85 
inch. 

Hob. South-eastern Europe ; the Ionian Islands ; Palestine ; 
Asia Minor and Central Asia, east to Turkestan, Mongolia, 
Tibet, and China, south to the Punjab in India. 

Frequents similar localities to G. saxatilis, which it closely 
resembles in habits, but in India it is found on open hillsides, 
amongst bushes and grass, and in cultivated fields. It breeds 
from April to August, its eggs being somewhat similar to those 
of C.- saxatilis, but the spots are more rufous and as a rule 
somewhat larger. In size they vary from 1*50 by 1*17 to 1'62 
by 1-22. 

948. MONGOLIAN PARTRIDGE. 
CACCABIS MAGNA. 

Caccalis magna, Prjevalsky, Mongol, i Strana Tan gut. etc. ii p. 127 
(1876) ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 120. 

< ad. Differs from C. saxatilis in being considerably paler, the general 
colour being pale sandy isabelline, the black collar rather narrow with an 
outside margin of rusty red. Culmen I'O, wing 7 '4, tail 4'8, tarsus T65 
inch. 

Hob. The Southern Koko-nor mountains, the Tsaidam plains, 
.and Northern Tibet. 

In habits it does not differ from C. chucar, but is said to 
be more silent. When taking wing it utters a peculiar hollow 
note, something like cuta-cuta, different from the call of C. chucar. 
Nothing appears to be on record respecting its nidification. 



C AC CAB IS 679 



949. RED-LEGGED PARTRIDGE. 
CACCABIS RUFA. 

Caccalls rufu (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 276 (1766) ; (Hewitson), i. p. 282, 
pi. Ixxi. fig. 2 ; Dresser, vii. p. 103, pi. 471, fig. I ; Ogilvie Grant, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 118 ; Saunders, p. 503 ; Lilford, iv. p. 120, 
pi. 53 ; C. rubra (Temm.), Pig. and Gall. iii. p. 361 (1815) ; 
(Naum.), vi. p. 563, Taf. 165, figs. 1, 2; (Gould), B. of E. iv. 
pi. 260 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 14. 

Perdrix rouge, French ; Perdiz, Portug. and Span. ; Pernice, 
Ital. ; Rothfeldhulm, German. 

ad. (England). Differs from C. saxatilis in having only the fore- 
head and fore crown ash-grey, the hind crown, nape, hind neck, and upper 
parts being reddish brown, the wing-coverts, lower back and scapulars 
tinged with grey ; below the black band, which encloses the white throat, 
the lower neck is greyish white, spotted and splashed with black ; the 
four middle tail-feathers like the back, the rest deep fox-red. Culmen 0'75, 
wing 6 4 0, tail 3'65, tarsus 1/7 inch. Sexes alike. 

Hal. Western and Southern Europe ; Britain (introduced) ; 
Madeira, Azores, and Canaries ; Elba, Corsica, and the Balearic 
Islands. 

Much more shy and restless than the common Partridge, it 
frequents heavy soil and wild heaths, and as it runs before the 
dogs was by no means a favourite with old-fashioned sportsmen. 
It also sometimes perches on trees, and its cry is chuck, chuck, 
chuck, her, kerr. Its nest is placed on the ground, and its eggs, 
which are usually deposited in May, are yellowish buff or stone 
buff, faintly spotted with rufous, or pale purplish pink, and 
measure about 1*63 by T22. 



950. BARBARY PARTRIDGE. 
CACCABIS PETROSA. 

Caccalls petrosa (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 758 (1788) ; (Gould), iv. pi. 261, 
fig. 1 ; Dresser, vii. p. 11 1, pi. 471, fig. 2 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxii. p. 120. 

Pernice di Sardegna, Ital. ; El Hedjel, Moor. 

$ ad. (Sardinia). Differs from C. rufa in having the crown, nape, and 
hind neck rich chestnut-red, the sides of the head above and below the eye 
and the throat bluish ash ; the collar, which is broad on the sides and 



680 CACCABIS AMMOPERDIX 



narrow in the middle, rich chestnut-red spotted with white ; throat below 
the collar bluish ash ; outer scapulars and some of the wing-coverts deep 
bluish ash broadly margined with chestnut ; soft parts as in C. rufa. 
Culmen 0'9, wing 6'1, tail 3'75, tarsus 1*85 inch. 

In habits it does not differ from C. rufa, and its eggs, 10 to 
15 in number, are deposited in April and resemble those of 
C. rufa, but are as a rule more richly marked with rufous. 



AMMOPERDIX, Gould, 1851. 

951. SEESEE PARTRIDGE. 
AMMOPERDIX BONHAMI. 

Ammoperdix bonhami (Fraser), P.Z.S. 1843, p. 70 ; Gould, B. of A. vii. 
pi. 1 ; Dresser, vii. p. 117, pi. 472 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxii. p. 123 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 133 ; A. grlseogularU 
(Brandt), Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. 1843, p. 278. 

Sisi, Hindu. 

$ ad. Crown ashy blue-grey, tinged with vinous behind ; forehead 
and a line passing over and behind the eye black ; lores and ear-coverts 
silky white, the latter rufous posteriorly ; upper parts pale isabelline grey, 
indistinctly barred and freckled with darker grey and creamy brown ; 
primaries dark brown, the outer web barred with buffy white ; middle 
tail-feathers like the back, the rest chestnut-red, becoming greyish towards 
the tip ; chin, sides of head, and throat blue-grey ; sides of neck ashy grey 
spotted with white ; breast pale vinous ; flank-feathers vinous grey 
margined with black and rich rufous, forming stripes ; abdomen greyish 
white tinged with pale rufous ; under tail-coverts pale rufous ; bill 
orange ; legs wax-yellow ; iris orange-brown. Culmen 62, wing 5'15, 
tail 2'5, tarsus T25 inch. The female lacks the blue-grey, white and black 
on the head, is generally browner and more variegated with rufous bufT ; 
breast and flanks rufous buff narrowly barred with dark grey ; abdomen 
and under tail-coverts buffy white. 

Hal. The Euphrates valley, south to Aden ; Transcaspia, 
Persia, Afghanistan, Turkestan, Baluchistan, and all the ranges 
of the Punjab and Sind, west of the Indus ; is said by Gould to 
occur in Tibet. 

Affects bare stony and rocky localities in the hills, and is 
never found in the woods or amongst bushes. Generally it is 
found in pairs and only occasionally in winter in small coveys. 
Its flight resembles that of the Quail, and when it rises it utters 
a whistling note, but the ordinary note is a double one repeated 



A MMOPERDIXFRA NCO LINUS 6 8 1 



>'veml times. It breeds from April to June, making a slight 
nest on the ground often under a bush or between stones. The 
s, 8 to 12, are creamy white, and measure about 1'40 by 1*0 



FRANCOLINUS, Stcph., 1819. 
952. FRAXCOLIX. 

FRANCOLINUS VULGARIS. 

Fnincoltnus vulnaris, Sleph. in ShaAv's Gen. Zool. xi. p. 319 (1819) ; 
Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 259 ; Dresser, vii. p. 123, pi. 473 ; Blanf. F. 
Brit. Intl. Birds, iv. p. 135 ; Tctrcto francolinus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 
p. 27.3 (1766) ; (Ogilvie Grant), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 132. 

Fi'ancolino, Ital. ; Tii-ntti, Turkish ; Durmj, Persian ; Kula- 
titar, Hindu. 

g ad. (Asia Minor). Crown and nape-feathers brown with blackish 
centres ; sides of hind crown and lower nape marked with white ; sides of 
head black with a long white patch below and behind the eye ; a broad 
chestnut-red collar round the neck ; chin, throat, neck, and breast other- 
wise deep black, spotted with white on the hind neck ; upper parts blackish 
brown varied with bright ochreous and whitish ochreous ; rump, upper 
tail-coverts, and tail black barred with white ; quills blackish brown 
barred with reddish ochre ; flanks black spotted with white ; abdomen 
rufous varied with white ; under tail-coverts chestnut tipped with white ; 
bill black; legs reddish orange; iris brown. Culmen I'O, wing 6'9 
tail 4*1, tarsus 2'2 inch. The female is much paler and duller, the 
chestnut collar is restricted to a patch on the hind neck, the rump and 
upper tail-coverts brown barred with brownish buff ; sides of head buffy 
white ; chin and upper throat white ; rest of under parts buffy white 
barred and blotched with blackish brown ; under tail-coverts chestnut 
marked with pale brown and black. 

ffab. Cyprus, Palestine, Asia Minor, Armenia, Persia, India 
east and south to Manipur ; now extinct in Sicily. 

Frequents grassy places and scrub near cultivation, and also 
cultivated ground, and feeds on grain, seeds, and insects. The 
note of the male is five syllabled, harsh, and not unlike the crow 
of a Pheasant. It breeds, in India, from May to August, 
usually in June, and deposits 6 to 10 eggs, making a loosely 
constructed nest of straw, grass, roots, or leaves, placed on the 
ground. The eggs are of a uniform warm drab, buffy brown, or 
stone-colour, and measure 1*56 by 1'28. 



682 FRA NCOLINUS PERDIX 

953. SENEGAL FRANCOLIN. 
FRANCOLINUS BICALCARATUS. 

\ Francolinus bicalcaratus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 277 (1766) ; Ogilvie Grant, 
Cat, B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 160 ; Dresser, ix. p. 325, pi. 703 ; Perdix 
senegalensis, Bonn. Tabl. Encycl. and Metli. i. p. 212, pi. 93, fig. 2 
(1791). 

Hadjel el Sahdra ; Eardgli, Arab. 

$ ad. (Morocco). Fore crown and a stripe on each side black ; rest 
of crown reddish brown ; superciliary stripe, space in front of the eye 
and sides of the head white, the last striped with blackish ; hind neck and 
fore back varied black and rufous and margined with creamy white ; upper 
parts brown, vermiculated with black, the scapulars and wing-coverts with 
a submarginal creamy white stripe ; quills and tail dark brown, the former 
barred, the latter clouded and irregularly barred with warm and rufous 
buff ; chin and upper throat white ; breast and under parts buff, with a 
drop-shaped black median spot, barred with buff, and basally bordered 
with chestnut, the last wanting on the lower flanks and under tail-coverts ; 
bill greenish at the base, otherwise yellow ; legs dull greenish yellow ;. 
iris brown. Culmen ri5, wing 7'3, tail 3'25, tarsus 2'6 ; the male has two 
pairs of spurs on the legs. Sexes otherwise alike. 

Hob. West Africa from the Niger to the Mogador coast ;. 
Casa Blanca and as far north in Morocco as Rabat. 

But little is on record respecting the habits of this Francolin, 
which is said to frequent grass lands, and, except during the 
breeding season, goes in coveys of 5 to 12 individuals. I find, 
no record of its nidification, but possess two eggs laid in an 
aviary, which are dull in texture, uniform creamy buff in 
colour, and measure 1*86 by T40 and T92 by 1*43. 

PERDIX, Briss., 1760. 

954. THE PARTRIDGE. 

PERDIX CINEREA. 

Perdix cinerea, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii. p. 645 (1790) ; Naum. vi. p. 478, Taf.. 
163 ; Hewitson, i. p. 281, pi. Ixxi. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of E. 
iv. pi. 262 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 13 ; Dresser, vii. p. 131, 
pis. 474, 475 ; Saunders, p. 501 ; Lilford, iv. p. 118, pi. 52 ; 
P. damascena, Briss. Orn. i. p. 223 (1760) ; Ogilvie Grant, op. cit. 
p. 192 ; Tetrao perdi^ Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 276 (1766) ; (Ogilvie 
Grant), op. cit. p. 185. 



PERDIX 683 



Perdrix grise, French; Starna, Ital.; Rcbhuhn, German; Patrys,. 
Dutch : Agerhona, Dan. ; Eaphona, Norweg. ; Bapphwa 
Swed. ; Twrkwipyy, Peltopyy, Finn. ; Kouropatka, Russ. 

ad. (England). Crown, nape, and ear-coverts warm brown ; fore- 
head, a broad stripe over the eye, sides of the head, chin, and upper throat 
orange chestnut ; hind neck and upper parts brownish grey, vermiculated 
with reddish brown and dark brown, the wing-coverts marked with chest- 
nut, and with a central ochreous shaft stripe ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
banded with chestnut ; tail chestnut-red, the middle feathers buffy and 
vermiculated with brown towards the tip ; lower throat and breast pale 
blue-grey, vermiculated with dark grey ; on the lower breast a dark chest- 
nut horseshoe patch ; flanks barred with chestnut ; lower abdomen and 
thighs greyish white ; under tail-coverts yellowish buff, vermiculated with 
dark greyish ; legs and feet bluish grey, with a brown tinge ; bill bluish 
white ; iris hazel-brown. Culmen 0'75, wing 6*1, tail 3*95, tarsus l ! 75inch. 
The female is rather smaller, has the upper parts darker and browner, the 
light chestnut on the throat covers a smaller area, the horseshoe pectoral 
band is either wanting or much smaller, and the wing-coverts have buff 
cross-bars. 

Hal}. Temperate Europe generally, north to central 
Scandinavia and Great Britain, south to the Mediterranean; 
Asia east to the Altai and Northern Persia. 

Frequents open, cultivated ground or heaths and commons, 
not woodlands, and except during the breeding season is found 
in coveys. Its flight is strong, with a loud whirring sound, 
and it is essentially a ground bird, never perching on a tree, 
and its call-note is Jcertchup, Jcertchup. It nests also on the 
ground, lining a depression in the ground with a few dry straws 
or grass-bents,^and in May deposits 12 to 16 sometimes even 
more eggs, which are uniform pale olivaceous brown, and 
measure about 1'43 by 1*07. 

955. DAURIAN PARTRIDGE. 
PERDIX DAURICA. 

Perdu: daurica (Pall.), Zoogr. Ross. As. ii. p. 78 (1811) ; David, N. Arch. 
Mu3. Bull. iii. p. 38 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 192 ;. 
P. larlata, Verr. and Desm. P.Z.S. 1863, p. 62, pi. ix. ; Gould, B, 
of As. vi. pi. 73 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 776. 

Kourcpatka-bwadataya, Kamenoi-ItiabtscJiik^viss. 

$ ad. (Dauria). Differs from P. cinerea in having the chin, throat, 
sides of the head and the breast warm golden ochreous, the feathers on the 
side of the throat elongated, and the pectoral horseshoe-shape 1 patch deep 
black. Culmen 1-0, wing 6-0, tail 3'4, tarsus T45 inch. 



-684 PERDIX 



Hal. Central and Eastern Asia ; north and east to Dauria 
.and the southern Baikal, west to the Altai; Yenesei and Russian 
Dzungaria ; Eastern Turkestan ; Mongolia, Manchuria, Tibet, 
-and Northern China. 

In habits it does not differ from P. cincrea, and its nest and 
-eggs are similar, but the latter, which are usually deposited 
early in June, are somewhat smaller, measuring about 
1-35 by 1-03. 

95G. TIBETAN PARTRIDGE. 
PERDIX HODGSONI2E. 

PerJlx liodgsoiua\ Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. xxv. p. luo. and pi. (1807) ; 
Gould, B. of As. vi. pi. 74 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. U. Br. MILS. xxii. 
p. 193 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 1 42. 

Sakpl ICL, Tibetan. 

$ ad. (Ladak). Forehead butty white, edged with black before and 
lieliind ; crown deep chestnut, washed with white ; lores, supercilium, and- 
-cheeks buffy white ; sides of and lower hind neck foxy red with grey mar- 
gins to the feathers, forming a collar ; upper parts, wings and tail as in 
P. cincrea ; chin and tipper throat white, with a buff tinge ; sides of head 
below the eye, and nearly meeting the front, black, below which is a white 
kind ; under parts whitish, barred down to the lower abdomen with black, 
and a black patch on the middle of the body ; flanks washed with rufous ; 
bill and legs horn-green ; orbital skin reddish. Culmen 0'9, wing 6'4, 
tail 3'4, tarsus 1'G inch. Sexes alike. 

Hal). Tibet north of Sikhiin and Nepal and as far west as 
Hanle, at 14,000 to 18,000 feet elevation ; Kashmir. 

In habits it is said to resemble P. cincrea, and the eggs are 
pale drab, with a faint reddish brown tinge over the large end, 
.and at the point of the smaller end, and measure T77 by 1*2. 

957. KANSU PARTRIDGE. 
PERDIX SIFANICA. 

Perd'ix slfanica, Prjevalsky, Mongol, i Strana Tangut. &c., ii. p. 124 
(1876) ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 195 ; Berez. and 
Bianchi, Ptitz. Gan-su, &c. p. 13. 

$ ad. (Kan-su). Differs from P. hodgsonice in lacking the black patch 
on the under surface of the body, and those on the sides of the head are 
reduced to a smallish patch below the eye. Culmen 0'9, wing 5'55, 
.tail 3'0, tarsus 1-6 inch. 



PERDIX CO TURN IX 6 8 5 



ffab. The alpine regions of south-west Kan-su, the Amdos 
plateau, the Nan-shan and Si-ning Mountains and Northern 
Tibet. 

In habits it is said to resemble P. danrica, but its call-note 
is harsher, and when taking wing it utters a more squeaking 
and louder note than that bird. It is not found lower than 
about 10,000 feet above the sea level. It breeds in May, the 
number of eggs being about 15, these being similar to those 
of P. hodgsonice. 

COTURNIX, Bonn., 1790. 

958. THE QUAIL. 
COTURNIX COMMUNIS. 

Cotimiix comniunis, Bonnaterre, Tabl. Encycl. Meth. i. p. 217 (1790) ; 
Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 15 ; Dresser, vii. p. 143, pi. 476 ; Blanf. 
F. Brit. Intl. Birds, iv. p. 114; Saunders, p. 505; Lilford, iv. 
p. 121, pi. 54 ; Tetrao cotumic, Linn. Syst. Nat. i.p. 278 ; (Naum.), 
vi. p. 576, Taf. 166 ; (Ogilvie Grant), Cat. B. IJr. Mus. xxii. p. 231 ; 
C. i-tf/i/a.m, Bout. Orn. Dauph. p. 72, pi. 43, %. i. (1843) ; Hewitson, 
i. p. 284, pi. Ixxii. 

Caille, French ; Codorniz, Portug. and Span. ; Quaglia, Ital. ; 
Waclitel, German; Xwartel, Dutch; Vagtel, Dan. and Norweg; 
Vciktel, S\ved. ; PcU<yyy, Finn. ; Percpelka, lluss. : Jjildcrtschin, 
Persian ; Better, Hindu. 

ad. (England). Crown and nape blackish, brown, variegated with 
rufous buff, and with a central and two lateral buff lines ; upper parts 
warm light brown, broadly marked with dark brown and black, and with 
long dashes of light buff ; wings and tail brown, barred with buff ; sides 
of head pale brown ; throat and sides of neck buffy white ; a black patch 
on the chin, a black band at the base of the throat, and a rufous band 
below ; sides of neck washed with rufous ; breast pale rufous dashed with 
white ; rest of under parts buffy white, the flanks rufous with buff central 
stripes ; bill brownish horn ; legs fleshy brown ; iris brown. Culmen 0'5, 
wing 4'15, tail 1'6, tarsus 1-1 inch. The female has the chin and throat 
buffy white, unmarked with black, and the breast reddish buff, spotted 
-with blackish brown. 

Hal). Europe generally, breeding north to Scandinavia and 
Britain, and south to North Africa, migrating into South 
Africa in winter ; Asia Minor and Asia, north to Siberia and 
south to India in winter: not occurring in South-eastern Asia ; 
in South Africa and the islands off the African coast it is re- 
placed by a closely allied form, U. capensis, Licht., which, in the 



686 COWRNIXTETEAOPHASIS 



male, has the throat bright rufous chestnut with a black anchor- 
shaped mark down the middle. 

Is chiefly migratory throughout its range, and is a less gre- 
garious bird than the Partridge, but when migrating they 
collect in vast flocks. Its flight is swift, whirring and direct, 
and its food consists of seeds, grain, and insects. Its note is a 
short harsh and deep prelude rowow, followed by a loud pickemic 
or wet-my-lips, or wet-my-feet, and both sexes call each other with 
a note resembling the syllables beebewe. It is monogamous, and 
breeds late, the eggs being deposited late in June or early in 
July, in a depression in the ground scantily lined with a few 
grass bents or plant stems. The eggs, 8 to 14 in number, are 
brownish yellow, richly blotched with blackish brown, and 
measure about 118 by 0'92. 

959. SUBSP. COTURNIX JAPONICA. 

Coturnix japonica, Temm. and Schlegel, Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 103, pi. 61 
(1842) ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 239 ; C. ussuriensis, 
Bogcl. Consp. Av. Imp. Ross. i. p. 45 (1884) ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 780. 

Udzursi, Jap. 

$ ad. (Japan). Differs from C. communis in having the lores, sides of 
the head, chin, and throat uniform dull brick red, without any black mark 
in the middle, and the flank feathers with rufous margins, and less spotted 
with black. Culmen 0'5, wdng 3'8, tail T15, tarsus TO inch. The female 
differs from that of C. communis in having the chin and throat feathers 
elongate and lanceolate, those on the sides of the throat margined with 
rufous on the outer web. 

Hob. Japan, Corea, China, Manchuria, Mongolia, Ordos, 
Kan-su, and Koko-nor, north to the Ussuri country and Dauria 

In habits it does not differ from C. communis, and its eggs are 
similar to those of that species. 

TETRAOPHASIS, Elliot, 1871. 

960. MOUPIN PHEASANT. 
TETRAOPHASIS OBSCURUS. 

Tetraophasis olscurus (Verr.), N. Arch. Mus. Bull. v. p. 33, pi. vi. (1869) ; 
Elliot, Mon. Phas. pi. xxi. ; Gould, B. of As. vii. pi. 44 ; Prjev. 
Mongol, i Strana Tangut. &c, ii. p. 429, pi. xx. fig. 2 (egg) ; Ogilvie 
Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 102. 



TETRAOPHASIS 687 



Cundeck, Tangut. 

$ ad. (Kan-su). Crown and sides of head dark grey, the former with 
dark shaft-stripes ; neck and upper parts wood-brown with a few dark 
spots, the wing-coverts and secondaries with broad grey-white terminal 
margins ; lower back, rump, and tail-coverts greyish brown, the last with 
pale tips ; quills brown ; middle tail-feathers greyish brown, vermiculated 
with dark brown, the rest blackish brown broadly tipped with white ; 
chin and fiont of throat rich chestnut ; breast pale slate-grey with blackish 
spots ; rest of under parts brownish grey broadly tipped with pale is- 
abelline ; under tail -coverts warm chestnut, tipped with white ; tarsi 
spurred. Culmen 1'45, wing 8'5, tail 6'3, tarsus 2'1 inch. Female similar 
but without spurs. 

Nab. Eastern Tibet, Koko-nor, Kan-su, east to Szechuen. 

Inhabits the central mountain ranges where these are wooded, 
and bush-covered rocks and ravines. Its note resembles that 
of Crossoptilum auritum but is more varied and prolonged. In 
the pairing season and also when surprised, it erects the tail 
spreading it out fan-like, and droops the wings. The pairing 
season commences in March, and the nest is said to be placed 
on the ground under thick bushes, and constructed of grass, 
and the eggs, which are deposited late in April, are yellowish 
grey or dirty grey spotted with brown, the spots being most 
numerous at the smaller end, and measure about 1*9 by T48 
to 2-3 by 1-53. 



961. TIBETAN PHEASANT. 
TETRAOPHASIS SZECHENII. 

Tetraophasis szecJienyii, Madarasz, Zeitech. Ges. Orn. ii. p. 50 pi. ii. 
(1885) ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 103 ; T. dcsgodinsi, 
Oustal. Le Nat. 1886, p. 276. 

< ad. (Tibet). Differs from T. obscurus in having the chin, throat, and 
fore neck pale fawn instead of chestnut, the upper parts much greyer, and 
the middle of the breast and abdomen marked with rufous buff and chest- 
nut like the flanks. Culmen 1'42, wing 87, tail 67, tarsus T9 inch. 

Hob. The mountains of Central Tibet, north to the Sok Pass, 
south to Yer-ka-lo, Mekong River, and east to Fa-tsien-lou. 

Respecting the habits and nidification of this species I find 
nothing on record. 



688 TETRAOGALLUS 



TETRAOGALLUS, Gray, 1833. 

962. CAUCASIAN SNOW-PARTRIDGE. 
TETRAOGALLUS CAUCASICUS. 

Tetraoyallas caucasicus (Pall.), Zoogr. Ross. As. ii. p. 76, and pi. (1811) ; 
Dresser, vii. p. 237, pis. 491, 492 ; (Eadde), Orn. Caucas. p. 335, 
pi. xxi. figs. 1, 2 (eggs); Ogilvie Grant, 'Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii, 
p. 109. 

Gornaya-Indcika- Chourtka, Russ. 

ad. (Caucasus). Crown, nape, and hind neck ashy grey ; a broad 
ashy grey patch, covering a large portion of each side of the head, passes 
down the side of the neck ; throat, and rest of the neck white ; upper 
parts greyish black, finely vermiculated with buff, the lower neck and 
fore back unspotted, the rest of the upper parts with buff and fox-red 
spots ; primaries white, broadly terminated with blackish ; secondaries 
white at the base, then like the back ; middle tail-feathers black, vermi- 
culated with buffy white, the rest black tipped with chestnut, vermiculated 
at the base with buff, and at the tip with blackish ; lower throat and 
breast-feathers buffy white margined with black ; rest of under parts 
blackish ash-grey closely vermiculated with buffy white ; flank-feathers 
tinged with slate, margined on each side with fox-red, and externally 
edged with black ; under tail-coverts white ; bill dull yellowish, becoming 
horn-brown towards the tip ; legs orange-yellow ; iris brown ; bare skin 
round the eye yellow. Culmen 1*2, wing 10'5, tail 7'0, tarsus 2'25 inch. 
The female is duller and paler, the crown and hind neck are tinged with 
reddish brown, the stripe down the neck is reddish brown, and the barring.-* 
on the lower throat and breast are narrower and ill-defined. 

Hal. The mountains of the Caucasus. 

According to Dr. Radde this bird inhabits only the Great- 
Caucasus, where it is found close to the snow line in rocky, 
almost inaccessible places, on the sides of the mountains where 
the sun has melted the snow, above the tree growth. In its 
habits it is said to be a true Partridge, and it feeds on tender 
buds and shoots of various Alpine plants, and lays up a store 
in some sheltered place for the winter. Its nest is a mere de- 
pression, or is a scanty bed of plant-stems, on the shelf of a 
rock in some sheltered position, and the eggs, 12 to 15 in num- 
ber, are deposited late in April, and are dull light clay-buff in 
colour with an oil-green tinge, somewhat sparingly spotted with 
dull rufous, and measure about 2*65 by T78. 



TETRAOGALLUS 680* 

963. CASPIAN SNOW-PARTRIDGE. 

TETRAOGALLUS CASPIUS. 

Tetmoyalluj caspius (S. G. Gmel.), Reise Russl. i\ r . p. 67, pi. x. (1784) - r 
Gould, B. of As. vii. pi. 29 ; Raddo, Orn. Oauc. p. 343, pi. xxii. ; 
Ogilvie Grant, ("'at. I>. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 108 ; Dresser, vii. p. 241 - r 
pi. 493. 

( T t'-Kdd'd-, in the Taurus: Kaljk-i-dareh , Persian. 

3 (. (Taurus). Differs from T. caucasicus in having the head, neck r 
and upper parts paler and tinged with buff, the larger wing-coverts bluer 
and less vermiculatcd on the basal portion ; sides of head and neck creamy 
white, the space below the eye pale blue-grey with a darker blue-grey stripe 
down the side of the neck ; feathers of lower throat and upper breast 
tipped with ashy buff, becoming ashy buff on the sides, and on the fore- 
part boldly spotted with black ; rest of breast ashy buff, vermiculated 
with blackish grey ; middle of abdomen sooty slate ; crissum dull buff ; 
under tail-coverts creamy white ; bill yellowish horn, paler at the base \ 
legs rich orange-red ; iris dark brown ; bare space round and below the 
eye brilliant Indian yellow ; nostrils orange-red. Culmen 1'7, wing 11 '8 r 
tail 8'0, tarsus 2'6 inch. The female is rather smaller and duller,- has the 
crown slightly marked with light buff and dark grey, the stripes on the sides- 
of the neck and the band on the lower throat buffer in tinge, the latter ver- 
miculated with giey, and both mottled with black, soft parts duller tlmn 
irTthe male, and the spur"on the hind tarsus wanting. 

Hal). The Taurus Mountains, west to the Gok or Geyee 
Mountains, east to Transcaspia, Armenia, Kurdistan, and 
Northern Persia, north to the Caucasus. 

Like T. caucasicus the present species inhabits the more ele- 
vated portions of the mountains, and is extremely shy and wary. 
It feeds on bulbous roots, young grass blades, moss and scale-fern, 
and the young are probably fed on insects. The call-note is a 
full clear prolonged whistle ending with an abrupt jerk, and the 
male utters a loud cackle which is continued during flight. It 
breeds late in April, the nest being a deep round hollow scraped 
in the stony soil, slightly lined with dry grass and a few feathers, 
and the eggs, 6 to 9 in number, resemble those of T. caucasicus 
both in size and colour, but are, if anything, a trifle darker in 
ground colour. 



'690 TETRAOGALLUS 



964. HIMALAYAN SNOW-PARTRIDGE. 
TETRAOGALLUS HIMALAYENSIS. 

Tefraogallushimalayensis, Gray, P.Z.S. 1842, p. 105 ; Gould, B. of As. vii. 
pi. 30 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 106 ; Blanf. F. Brit. 
Ind. Birds, iv. p. 143 ; T. nigeUii, Jard. and Selby, 111. Orn. pi. Ill 
(nee. pi. 76) ; Hume and Marsh, Game B. iii. pi. 3 (egg). 

Kulla Lupu Boer a, t in W. Nepal ; Kablt-i-dara, in Afghanistan. 

ad. (Himalayas). Differs from T. caucasicus in having the head, 
hind neck and fore back pale blue-grey, the sides of the neck marked with 
chestnut ; upper parts paler and greyer, the spots redder ; chin and upper 
throat white, below which is a narrow, indistinct chestnut band ; breast 
white, tinged with grey, sparingly marked with dark chestnut ; rest of 
under parts slaty blue slightly vermiculated with brown and striped with 
rich chestnut and black ; under tail-coverts white ; bill pale horn, legs 
yellowish red ; iris dark brown ; naked skin behind the eye yellow. 
Culmen 1'6, wing 12*0, tail 8'4, tarsus 2'5 inch. The female resembles 
the male, but lacks the spurs. 

Hob. Himalayas, west of Kumaun at about 11,000 to 18,000 
feet in summer, lower in winter, Afghanistan and the various 
ranges north to the Altai. 

Is chiefly to be met with near the snow-line, on rocks and 
barren ground, usually in flocks or coveys, and feeds on grass, 
tender shoots, bulbs, and seeds. Its note is a soft whistle. The 
nest is a mere depression scratched in the ground under shelter 
of a rock, stone, or bush, and the eggs, 5 to 6 in number, are 
usually deposited late in April, and are paler or darker olive- 
brown spotted or blotched with brownish red, pale chestnut, or 
purplish brown, and measure about 2*72 by T85. 

965. TIBETAN SNOW-PARTRIDGE. 
TETRAOGALLUS TIBETANUS. 

Tetraogallus tlbetanm, Gould, P.Z.S. 1853, p. 47 ; id. B. of As. vii. pi. 32 ; 
David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 391 ; Prjev. Mongol, i Strana 
Tan gut. ii. p. 127 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 104 ; 
Berezoff. and Bianchi, Ptitz. Gan-su, etc. p. 14. 

Hrcik-pci t Bhot. ; Hailik, Mongol. ; Cunmo, Tangut. 

ad. (Tibet). Differs from T. altaicus in being smaller, the head, 
neck, and upper breast darker slate-grey, gradually merging into the colour 



TETRAOGALLUS 691 

of the back ; upper parts more marked with white, the outer webs of 
secondaries white ; upper breast crossed by an irregular white band ; 
under parts white with black stripes, which are bolder on the flanks ; 
under tail-coverts black with broad terminal central white stripes ; middle 
tail-feathers like the back, the rest brownish black tipped with rufous 
buff; bill orange-red; legs coral-red; iris brown. Culmen T52, 
wing 10'5, tail 67, tarsus 2*0 inch. Female similar but without the 
spur. 

Hal. The mountains of Kan-su, Koko-nor, Eastern Turkestan 
and Northern Tibet east to the Sanju Pass at from 10,000 to 
16,000 feet altitude. 

In general habits it resembles T. attaints and is very wary 
and shy. When at rest it utters a note like that of the domes- 
tic hen, occasionally interrupted by a peculiar whistle ; when 
alighting it utters click, click, click several times in succession ; 
when settling down it makes a sound like goooo, goooo, and when 
collecting its young its call-note is a whistle. Its eggs resemble 
those of T. himalayensis, and measure about 2*4 by 17. 



966. ALTAI SNOW-PARTRIDGE. 
TETRAOGALLUS ALTAICUS. 

Tetraogallus altaicus (Gebler), Bull. Sci. Acad. St. Petersb. i. p. 31 
(1837) ; Gould, B. of As. vii. pi. 31 ; (Tacz.), F. O. Sib. O. p. 775 ; 
Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 110. 

$ ad. (Altai Mountains). Differs from T. himalayensis in having the 
head, fore back, and upper breast pale blue-grey unmarked with chestnut ; 
a patch in front of the eye, a narrow supercilium, chin, and middle of 
upper throat white ; breast sparingly marked with white and black ; a 
black line across the upper back ; rest of upper parts as in T. himalayensis, 
but greyer and only marked with white ; primaries brown, not white on 
basal portion ; under parts white, the thigh-feathers and lower flanks dark 
slaty blackish ; bill blackish horn ; legs orange ; iris brown. Culmen 1'5, 
wing 11-0, tail 7'0, tarsus 2*35 inch. 

Hob. The Altai Mountains. 

In habits and nidification this bird is said to resemble 
T. himalayensis, and its eggs, which are deposited in May, re- 
semble those of that species but are paler. One in my collection 
measures 2 '64 by 2*0. 

z z 



692 L AGO PUS 



LAGOPUS, Briss., 1760. 
967. WILLOW GROUSE. 
LAGOPUS ALBUS. 

Lagopus albus (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. p. 750 (1788) ; (Nauin.), y i- P- 38 1> 
Taf. 159 ; Dresser, vii. p. 183, pis. 483, 484 fig. 1, 485 (feet only) ; 
Elliot, Monogr. Tetr. pis. xvii. xviii. ; Tetrao. lagopus, Linn. Syst. 
Nat. i. p. 274 (1766) ; (Ogilvie Grant), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 40 ; 
Kidgway, p. 199 ; L. subalpina (Nilss.), Orn. Suec. p. 307 (1817) ; 
L. brachydactylus, Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 256. 

Lirype Dalrype, Norweg. and Dan. ; Dalripa, Swed. ; Rievsak, 
Lapp. ; .Riekko, Finn. ; Kprttpatka, Russ. 

$ ad. in spring (Finland). Head, neck, breast, upper flanks, and 
upper parts rich dark red, the crown marked, and the neck, breast, and 
back more or less vermiculated with black ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
partly white ; wings, middle tail-feathers, nostrils, region round and 
behind the eye, a small space at the base of the lower mandible, and 
under parts white j rest of tail -feathers blackish partially tipped with 
white j comb above the eye red ; bill blackish horn ; iris brown. 
Culmen 0'88, wing 8'1, tail 5'1, tarsus T7 inch. Later on in the summer 
the white is restricted to the wings and middle of the abdomen. The 
female is somewhat smaller and duller in colour. In the winter both 
sexes have the whole plumage pure white except the tail, which is black 
tipped with white. 

Hcib. Europe from Central Scandinavia to the extreme north ; 
not found in Britain or Iceland ; Asia, north to Kamchatka, 
south to the Amoor ; Arctic America beyond the United States ; 
Newfoundland. 

During the spring and summer it is found in pairs, usually 
in the tracts covered with low bushes, but in the winter large 
flocks are often seen. It feeds on seeds of various kinds, berries, 
and the tender shoots of the birch and willow. Its call-note is 
similar to that of the Red Grouse, and when in the spring it struts 
before the female the male utters a clear note, kavao kavao, which 
the female answers with a subdued mewing note, neiau nceau. 
When startled and taking wing the male utters a cackling note 
like that of L. scoticus. The Willow Grouse is monogamous, and 
the female deposits late in May, in a depression scratched under a 
bush and scantily lined with a few grass stems or twigs, her 8 to 
14, sometimes even more, eggs, which closely resemble those of 
L. scoticus in size, colour, and markings. The Newfoundland 
bird has been subspecifically separated by Dr. Stejneger under 
the name Lagopus lagopus alleni. 



LAGOPUS 693 



968. RED GROUSE. 
LAGOPUS SCOTICUS. 

Lagopus scoticus (Lath.), Ind. Orn. ii. p. 641 (1790) ; Hewitson, i. 
p. 279, pi. Ixx. figs. 1, 2 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 252 ; id. B. of Gt. 
Brit. iv. pi. 7 ; Elliot, Monogr. Tetr. pi. xix. ; Dresser, vii. p. 165, 
pi. 479 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. %5 ; Saunders, 
p. 495 ; Lilford, iv. p. 107, pi. 46. 

< ad. (Scotland). General plumage blackish brown vermiculated with, 
rusty red, the head, neck, breast, rump, and upper tail-coverts more rusty 
red in colour ; wings and tail blackish brown, the middle tail-feathers 
vermiculated with reddish brown ; feathers over and under the eye, and 
an irregular line from the base of the lower mandible, white ; some of the 
abdominal feathers tipped with white ; leg feathering greyish brown 
above, merging into dirty white towards the feet ; beak dark horn ; comb 
red ; iris hazel. Culmen 0*85, wing 8'2, tail 4'2, tarsus T8 inch. The 
female is somewhat smaller and paler, the general colour being warm 
yellowish brown barred and vermiculated with black. Unlike the Willow 
Grouse, the Red Grouse has 110 special winter plumage. Specimens from 
England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland vary considerably in tone of colour. 

Hob. The British Islands only, except where introduced. 

Inhabits the moors and open places in various parts of the 
United Kingdom, chiefly in the north, and is highly esteemed as 
a game bird. It feeds on berries, tender shoots of the heather 
and ling, also grain when obtainable, &c. It is strong on the 
wing, and when taking flight, or when danger threatens, the male 
utters a note of warning, kok, kok, kok. During the breeding 
season the grouse are in pairs, but in the autumn in coveys 
and sometimes in flocks or packs. The nest is a mere hollow 
scratched in the ground, scantily lined with grass, moss, or 
heather twigs, and in April or May, 8 to 12 eggs are deposited, 
which are pale olive or olive-buff, strongly spotted and blotched 
with dark reddish brown or blackish brown, and vary consider- 
ably. In size they measure about 1 75 by 1'33. 

969. ALPINE PTARMIGAN. 
LAGOPUS MUTUS. 

Lagopus mutus (Montin.), Physiogr. Sallsk. Handl. Lund. i. p. 155 
(1776-86) ; Hewitson, i. p. 280, pi. Ixx. fig. 3 ; Gould, B. of E. 
pi. 253, 254 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pis. 8, 9, 10 ; Dresser, vii. p. 157, 
pis. 478, 484, fig. 2 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 44 ; 
Saunders, p. 497 ; Lilford, iv. p. 112, pis. 47, 48, 49 ; Tetr. lagopus, 
Scop. Ann. i. p. 118 (1769 nee. Linn.) ; Nanm. vi. p. 401, Taf. 160, 
161 ; T. alpinus, Nilss. Orn. Suec. i. p. 311 (1817). 

z z 2 



694 LAGOPUS 



Perdrix blanche, French ; Perdiz blanca, Span. ; Roncaso, Ital. ; 
Schneehuhn, German ; Fjeldrype, Dan. and Norweg. ; Fjallripa, 
Swed. ; Kirun, Lapp. ; Kiiruna, Finn. 

< ad. in summer (Norway). Head, neck, breast, tipper back, and upper 
flanks black, on the neck slightly intermixed with white, the chin nearly 
pure white ; lower back, inner wing-coverts, scapulars, rump, and upper 
tail-coverts black vermiculated with brown, here and there narrowly 
marked with white ; tail blackish, the middle feathers narrowly tipped 
with white ; wings, lower breast, and under parts white ; bill blackish 
horn ; iris brown. Culmen 1'05, wing 7 '7, tail 4'8, tarsus T35 inch. The 
female has the head, neck, upper parts, breast, and flanks blackish, marked, 
barred, and vermiculated with rusty yellow, and here and there marked 
with white. In the autumn the male has the head, neck, upper parts, 
upper breast, and flanks ashy grey, narrowly vermiculated with black, the 
head and neck tinged with reddish brown. In the -winter both sexes are 
pure white, the tail only black tipped with white, but the male has the 
lores black. 

Hob. The mountains of Scandinavia, Scotland, the Ural, 
Pyrenees, Alps, Tyrol, Styria, and Carinthia ; how far its range 
extends in Asia it is impossible to state with certainty. 

Is essentially a mountain bird, inhabiting elevated, barren, 
rocky and stony localities, only descending to lower alti- 
tudes when driven by stress of weather. Its food consists of 
tender shoots, seeds, and berries ; in its flight it resembles 
L. scoticus, but its call- or alarm-note is a harsh frog-like croak. It 
breeds high up in the mountains, its nest being a mere depression 
scratched in the ground, under a bush or stone, scantily lined with 
grass-bents or twigs, and the eggs, which are deposited late in May 
or early in June, 7 to 10 or 12, seldom more, in number, resemble 
those of L. scoticus, but the ground-colour is paler, and they are 
smaller, measuring about 1*67 by T14. 

970. ROCK-PTAKMIGAN. 
LAGOPUS RUPESTRIS. 

Lagopus rupestris (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 751 (1788) ; Audub. B. Am. 
pi. 301 ; Dresser, vii. p. 175, pis. 480, 481 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxii. p. 48 ; Ridgway, p. 200 ; Elliot, Monogr. Tetr. 
pi. 23 ; L. islandorum, Faber, Prodr. Isl. Orn. p. 6 (1822). 

Riupa, $ Kieri, Icel. 

(3 ad. (Iceland). Differs in summer plumage from L. mutus in having 
the head, neck, upper parts, and breast blackish brown barred and vermi- 
culated with reddish brown; supraocular comb light vermilion; bill 



LAGOPUS TETRAO 695 



brownish horn ; iris dark hazel. Culmen I'O, wing 7*82, tail 4*95, 
tarsus 1-2 inch. In the autumn dress it is browner than L. mutus. The 
female is yellower and more ochreous in tone than the female of L. mutus. 
In the winter both sexes are white like L. mutus. 

Hob. Iceland ; Greenland ; Northern Asia ; Kamchatka ; 
Bering Island ; Aleutian Islands ; Arctic North America and 
Newfoundland. 

In habits and nidification this bird does not differ from 
L. mutus, and its eggs are undistinguishable from those of that 
species. 

971. SUBSP. LAGOPUS HYPERBOREUS. 

Lagopus hyperloreus, Sundevall, in Gaim. Voy. Scand. Atl. Livr. xxxviii. 
and pi. (1838) ; Elliot, Monogr. Tetr. pi. 24 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 51 ; L. hemileucurus, Gould, P.Z.S. 1858, 
p. 354 ; Dresser, vii. p. 179, pi. 482. 

( ad. (Spitsbergen). Differs from L. rupestris in having the tail white 
at the base and tip, black only in the middle, the two middle feathers 
white with an irregular o\ 7 al black mark in the middle, and the outside 
feathers broadly edged with white. Culmen 0'7, wing 7*6, tail 5*8, 
tarsus 11 inch. 

Hob. Spitsbergen. 

In habits and nidification this bird does not differ from 
L. mutus and L. rupestris. 

TETRAO, Linn., 1766. 
972. CAPERCAILLY. 
TETRAO UROaALLUS. 

Tetrao urogallus. Linn. Syst, Nat. i. p. 273 (1766) ; Naum. vi. p. 277, 
Taf. 154, 155 ; Hewitson, i. p. 277, pi. Ixix. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of E. 
iv. pi. 248 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 5 ; Dresser, vii. p. 223, pis. 489 
fig. 2, 490 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 60 ; Saunders, 
p. 491 ; Lilford, iv. p. 101, pi. 44. 

Coq de bruydre, French; Gran Gctllo de'bosque. Span.; Gallo 
cedrone, Ital. ; Auerhalin $ and -huhn $ , German ; Tjur, Dan. ; 
Tiur $ , Ebj , Norweg. ; Tjdder, Swed. ; Gukca $ , Koappil $ , 
Lapp. ; Metso $ , Koppdo $ , Finn. ; Glouhar $ , Kopoluha $ , Russ. 

$ ad. (Sweden). Head and neck slate-grey narrowly barred with 
black ; chin-feathers much elongated, black glossed with purple ; back, 
scapulars, and wing-coverts dark reddish brown vermiculated with black ; 
rump and upper tail-coverts black vermiculated with greyish white, the 
latter tipped with white ; tail rounded, black, some of the feathers marbled 
with white, which forms an irregular band ; quills brown externally 



696 TETRAO 



marbled with, pale sandy brown ; breast and under parts black, the former 
glossed with green ; abdomen blotched with white ; under tail-coverts 
marked and tipped with white ; tarsi feathered to the feet ; feet dull 
brown ; bill whitish horn ; iris brown. Culmen 2 -5, wing 14'8, tail 11*0, 
tarsus 3*0 inch. The female is rather smaller, has the head, neck, and 
upper parts and tail pale rusty red barred with black, many of the 
feathers tipped with white ; tail tipped with white ; chin, sides of head, 
neck, and breast pale rufous, the lower neck spotted with black ; rest of 
under parts pale rufous sparingly barred with black, and broadly tipped 
with white ; vent and tarsi whitish ; bill dull horn, paler at the base 
below. 

Hal. The pine forests of Scandinavia, North Russia, extinct 
but introduced into Scotland, the Pyrenees, Alps, and Car- 
pathians ; North Asia, east to Lake Baikal, south to the Altai 
and north-eastern Turkestan. 

Inhabits pine woods and feeds on tender conifer shoots, 
berries, &c. The pairing game, or play (lek in Swedish), com- 
mences early in spring, when the male, with drooping wings, 
expanded and erected tail, and ruffled feathers, seated either on 
a tree or strutting on the ground, utters his call, pcllep, pellep, 
pellep, Jdickop hede, hcdc, hede, which is answered by a croak- 
ing note, gock, gock, gock, by the female, and during this season 
the males fight furiously for the possession of the females, who 
after the pairing season retire to their breeding places. The 
nest is a mere depression scraped in the ground under a 
tree or bush, and the eggs, 6 to 12 or 15 in number, are de- 
posited early in May, and are dirty yellowish spotted and blotched 
with light brown and measure about 27 by T65. 

Hybrids between Tetrao tctrix and T. urogallus are not 
uncommon, but those between Phasianus colchicus and 
T. urogallus, and Lagopus albus and T. urogallus are much 
rarer. 

973. SUBSP. TETRAO URALENSIS. 

" Tetrao uralemis, Severtz. and Menzb." Nazaroff, Bull. Mosc. Ixii. 
part 2, p. 365 (1886, desc. null.) ; Menzbier, Ibis, 1887, p. 303 ; 
Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 65 ; Dresser, ix. p. 331, 
pi. 705. 

ad. (Ural). Differs from T. urogallus in being paler and greyer, 
the tail conspicuously marked with white, and the abdomen white, but 
slightly marked on the sides and upper parts with blackish. Culmen 2'4, 
wing 15 -5, tail 12/25, tarsus 3'2 inch. The female is paler than that of 
T. urogallus, the feathers on the upper parts have broad, white margins^ 
and the abdomen is white with but few black and pale rufous markings, 
the lower abdomen nearly pure white. 



TETRAO 697 



Hal. The southern branches of the Ural range. 

In habits it is said to resemble Tetrao tetrix more than 
T. urogallus, and its note is also said to differ from that of the 
latter species. 

974. SIBERIAN CAPERCAILLY. 
TETRAO PARVIROSTRIS. 

Tetrao parvirostris, Bp. Compt. Rend. xlii. p. 880 (1856) ; Ogilvie Grant, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 66 ; T. urogalloides, Micld. Sib. Reis. ii. 
pi. 2, p. 195, Taf. xviii. figs. 1-3 (1851 nee. Nilss.) ; Elliot, 
Monogr. Tetr. pi. vi. ; David and , Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 390 ; 
T. urofjalloides var. sachalinensis, Bogdanoff, Consp. Av. Ross. fasc. i- 
p. 122 (1884). 

$ ad. (Saglialien), General colour of plumage black ; head and neck 
glossed with purplish blue, the breast with bottle-green ; upper parts dull 
black, the scapulars, secondaries, and larger wing-coverts with terminal 
white spot ; upper tail-coverts irregularly tipped with white ; under parts 
brownish black slightly spotted with white, and indistinctly vermiculated 
on the flanks ; tail uniform black, much graduated and long ; bill black ; 
iris brown ; bare skin round the eye scarlet ; bill much smaller than in 
T. uroyallus, 0'9 from the end of feathering to tip ; wing 15'3, tail 14'9, 
the outer feather 4*2 shorter than the middle ones, tarsus 3'0 inch. The 
female is distinguishable from that of T. urogallus not only by the white 
on the scapulars, secondaries, and wing-coverts, and on the upper tail- 
coverts, but by the long, greatly graduated tail. 

Hah The Transbaikal country to the southern portion of the 
sea of Ochotsk ; the lower Amoor and the island of Saghalien ; of 
rare occurrence in the mountains of the north of China. 

This Capercailly is said to differ considerably from T. urogallus 
both in its play or " lek " and in its note, but it frequents the pine 
forests like that species. Its "lek" is, however, almost always 
performed, like that of T. tetrix, on the ground, and seldom on 
a tree. The nest is a mere depression scratched in the ground, 
and the eggs, which are deposited late in May, resemble those 
of T. urogallus, but are more oblong in shape, and measure 
about 2-38 by T60. 

975. SUBSP. TETRAO KAMTSCHATICUS. 

Tetrao Jcamtschaticus, Kittlitz, Denkw. einerReis. Russ. Am. etc. i. p. 314 
(1858) , Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 67 ; Tacz. F. 0. 
Sib. O. p. 763, 



698 TETRAO 



$ ad. In general colouration intermediate between T. urogallus and 
T. parvirostris and approaches nearer the former in colouration, but has the 
head and neck but slightly vermiculated, the upper parts less rufous 
brown, the scapulars and tail coverts broadly marked with white, forming 
continuous bands ; bill small as in T. parvirostris ; bill from end of feathering 
to tip 0'8, wing 147, tail 11-0, tarsus 3*3 ; outer tail feathers 3'2 inch 
shorter than the middle ones. 

Hob. The peninsula of Kamchatka. 

In habits it does not differ from T. parvirostris, but I do not 
find any record of its nidification. 

976. BLACK GROUSE. 
TETRAO TETRIX. 

Tetrao tetrix, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 274 (1766) : Nauni. vi. p. 324, Taf. 
157 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 250 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 6 ; 
Hewitson, i. p. 278, pi. Ixix. fig. 1 ; Dresser, vii. p. 205, pi. 487 ; 
(Elliot), Monogr. Tetr. pi. xii. ; (Ogilvie Grant), Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxii. p. 53 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 766 ; Saunclers, p. 493 ; Lilford, 
iv. p. 106, pi. 45. 

Coq de bruy&re, French ; Pequeno-, Gallo de bosque, Span. ; 
Fagiano di monte, Ital. ; JBirkhahn $ , Birkliuhn $ , German ; 
Berkhoen, Dutch ; Urfugl, Dan. ; Aarfugl, Norweg. ; Orre, 
Swed. ; Teiri, Tetri, Finn. ; Tetereff$ , Kosach $ , Russ. 

( ad. (Sweden). General colour black, glossed with blue on the head, 
neck, and upper parts ; secondaries and larger wing-coverts white on the 
basal portion, forming a conspicuous alar patch ; outer tail-feathers elongated 
and curved outwards ; lower abdomen and thighs varied with greyish 
white ; under wing- and tail-coverts white ; over the eye a large red warty 
comb ; bill black ; feet and iris dark brown. Culmen I'l, wing 10*4, 
tail in the middle 4*2, outer feathers S'5, tarsus 1*8 inch. Female : upper 
parts rich rufous tinged with grey, the feathers banded or marked with 
black, the secondaries at the base and tip white, forming two indistinct 
alar bars ; tail forked ; breast more rufous and less marked with black 
than the other parts ; middle of abdomen and legs greyish white, the 
latter indistinctly marked with dull brown ; Under tail- and wing-coverts 
white barred with brown and black. 

Hob. Europe, from about lat. 67 in Scandinavia south to 
North Italy and Styria ; west to Great Britain ; Asia, east to 
Eastern Siberia, north to 67 N. lat. on the Yenesei, south to 
Turkestan, Manchuria, and, it is said, to North China. 

Like the Capercailly the Black Grouse is an inhabitant of 
the forest and woodland, bat in Scotland it is found on the moors, 



TETRAO 699 



and is as a rule shy and and wary. It feeds on tender twigs, 
berries, seeds, &c., and is more of a ground bird than T. urogallus. 
In the spring it frequents a " lek " or drumming place, where the 
males fight for the possession of the females, and it is almost 
always held on the ground, in an open place in the forest, or a 
tree-surrounded morass, for this species is also polygamous. The 
call-note is loud and clear, and can be heard at a long distance. 
The " lek " lasts about 8 to 14 days, after which the females 
retire to their breeding places. The nest is a depression in 
the ground, sometimes scantily lined with grass or leaves, and 
the eggs, 6 to 10 or 12 in number, which are usually deposited 
in May, are yellowish white spotted and blotched with yellowish 
red and rusty red, and measure about 2'0 by 1 42. 

The Black Grouse not unfrequently interbreeds with other 
species, and wild hybrids have been obtained between it and 
Tetrao urogallus, Lagopus albus, L. scoticus, Tetrastes bonasia, 
and Phasianus colchicus. 

977. GEORGIAN BLACK GROUSE. 
TETRAO MLOKOSIEWICZI. 

Tetrao mlokosiewiczi, Tacz. P.Z.S. 1875, p. 266 ; Dresser, vii. p. 219, 
pi. 488 ; (Olgilvie Grant), Cat. B. Br. Mns. xxii. p. 58 ; T. 
acatoptriciis, Eadde, Orn. Cauc. p. 358, pi. xxiii. 

Tetereff tschernyscli, Russ. ; Jdban-tank, Persian ; PaitmoreJc, 
Arm en. ; Kara-touch, Tartar. 

ad. (Georgia). Differs from T. tefrix in lacking the white on the 
upper surface of the wing, in having the under tail-coverts black, and the 
tail with the tip bent downwards and slightly outwards ; the glossy parts 
of the plumage with bottle-green reflections. Culmen 1'05, wing 7*9, tail 
9*0, tarsus 2'25 inch. The female is greyish closely vermiculated with 
blackish brown and rusty brown, the upper parts more rufescent Ithan 
the under parts ; throat white ; secondaries and under tail-coverts tipped 
with white ; tail long, nearly square, blackish brown closely variegated with 
rufous and sandy yellow ; middle of abdomen marked with black. 

Hob. The whole of the Caucasus Mountains. 

Is a mountain bird, inhabiting high altitudes on the borders 
of tree growth and the rhododendron zone at from 6,000 to 
8,000 and even 11,000 feet altitude, and never descends into the 
valleys. In habits it resembles T. tetrix, and like that bird is 
polygamous, and in the pairing season frequents certain spots 
where the males " drum " and fight for the possession of the 
females. The nest is a hollow scratched in the soil, usually 



700 TETRA 0TETRASTES 



under shelter of a rock, and the eggs, 8 to 10 in number, are 
usually deposited in May or early in June, and resemble those 
of T. tctrix both in ground-colour and markings, but are con- 
siderably paler. In size they vary from 178 by 1*26 to 2*7 by 
1-37. 

978. SIBERIAN SPRUCE GROUSE. 
TETRAO FALCIPENNIS. 

Tetrao falcipennis, Hartl. J. f. 0. 1855, p. 39 ; (Ogilvie Grant), Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 72 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 770 ; Tetrao 
canadensis vnr. franklini, Middend. Sib. Keise, ii. part 2, p. 202, 
Taf. xvii. fig. 4 (1851) ; Falcipennis Tiartlaubi, Elliot, Monogr. Tetr. 
pi. xi. 

Dikuskka, Russ. ; Kardka, Tungus. 

$ ad. (E. Siberia). Head and neck black, the feathers tipped with 
pale dull brown ; sides of head, chin, upper throat, and lower neck almost 
uniform black ; upper parts blackish vermiculated with brown, the 
scapulars and wings sparingly marked with white ; lower back, rump, and 
upper tail-coverts with thick white stripes ; tail black, the middle feathers 
terminally vermiculated with brownish, the rest broadly terminated with 
white \ lower throat marked with buffy white ; under parts black with a 
subterminal white band on the feathers ; middle of abdomen black ; 
vent nearly white ; thigh and leg-feathers smoky brownish ; under tail- 
coverts black, broadly tipped with white ; feet and bill dark horn, 
the lower mandible paler ; iris yellowish brown ; outer quills tapered, 
narrow, and sickle-shaped. Wing 7 '2, tail 4'7, tarsus 1*4 inch. The 
female has the head, neck, and upper parts rufous, barred and vermiculated 
with black, and the under parts rufous varied with black and white. 

Hob. Kamchatka, North-eastern Siberia, the lower Amoor, 
and the island of Saghalien. 

In habits it resembles Tetrao canadensis, to which species it is 
nearly allied, and like it frequents conifer woods and is extremely 
tame, so much so that it is often killed by the natives with a 
stick. I find nothing on record respecting its nidification. 

TETRASTES, Keys, and Bias., 1840. 

979. HAZEL HEN. 
TETRASTES BONASIA. 

Tetmstes lonasia (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 275 (1766) ; (Naum.), vi. p. 358, 
Taf. 158 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 390 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. 
Emp. p. 373 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 90 ; Tacz. 
F. O. Sib. 0. p. 772 ; Bonasia europcea, Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 251 ; 
B. letulina (Scop.), Ann. i. p. 119 (1769) ; Dresser, vii. p. 193, pi. 486. 



TETRASTES 701 

G-elinotte, French ; Grebul, Fabot, Span. ; Francolino di monte, 
Ital. ; Hasclhulin, German ; Hjerpe, Hassclhonc, Dan. ; Jerpe , 
Norweg. ; Hjerpe, Swed. ; Bakkus, Puogga, Lapp.; Pyy, Finn.; 
Riabchik, Russ. ; Yezo-Rai-clw, Yamadori, Jap. 

<$ ad. (Sweden). Upper parts grey, in parts tinged with rufous, barred 
with blackish and brown ; head crested ; lores, a spot under, and a line 
behind the eye white ; cheeks and a band down the sides of the neck 
white, slightly marked with black ; lower back, rump, and upper tail- 
coverts clearer grey and less marked with blackish ; tail ashy grey freckled 
with blackish and all but the middle feathers tipped with white, and with 
a sub-apical black band ; moustachial region and throat deep black ; 
under parts white slightly mottled with brown, the breast tinged, and the 
flanks distinctly marked with rusty red ; bill blackish horn ; lower half 
of the tarsus bare, and with the feet reddish brown tinged with grey ; iris 
nut-brown ; eyelid rich red. Culmen 0'8, wing 6'3, tail 4'7, tarsus 1'25 
inch. The female has the throat fulvous white sparingly marked with 
black, and the white band on the neck is more indistinct. 

Hob. Scandinavia to about lat. 67 in Lapland, North Russia, 
Germany, the western Pyrenees, Jura and Alps, North Italy, 
the Carpathians, and Styrian Alps; Northern Asia, east to 
Japan, north to Kamchatka, south to the Altai range, Manchuria 
and North China. 

Is a resident frequenting mixed conifer and deciduous woods, 
and especially aspen and birch groves. It feeds on buds and 
tender shoots, seeds, berries, and insects, and seeks its food to a 
large extent on the ground. When flushed it will perch, and sit 
motionless squatted close to the branch like its American allies. 
The call-note of the male is a somewhat low, prolonged whistle, 
and that of the female a single sustained tih. It is strictly 
monogamous, and nidification commences early in May. The 
nest is carefully concealed, and is a depression scratched in the 
ground, but scantily lined with a little grass, and the eggs, 10 
to 14 in number, are rather elongate in shape, tapering some- 
what towards the smaller end, pale yellowish or orange 
yellowish in ground-colour, sparingly spotted with rufous, and 
measure about 1*65 by 1*16. 

Specimens from different localities vary somewhat, those 
from the high north being greyer, and those from Central and 
Southern Europe more rufous. 



980. MENZBIER'S HAZEL GROUSE. 
TETRASTES GRISEIVENTRIS. 

Tetrastes griseivcnlris, Menzbier, Bull. Mosc. iv. pt. i. p. 105, pi. iv. 
(1880) ; (Dresser), ix. p. 329, pi. 704 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat, B. Br. 
Mus. xxii. p. 93. 



OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 



702 TETBASTES 



ad. (Russia). Differs from T. bonasia in being much darker and 
duskier ; upper parts dark grey, the head and back barred with blackish, 
the former darker ; rump and upper tail-coverts dark grey with indistinct 
darker bars ; tail like that of T. bonasia, but the subterminal band scarcely 
indicated, and the white tip wanting ; chin and a streak from above the 
eye white ; throat black slightly marked with dark rufous ; neck and 
breast grey barred with black and marked with rufous ; rest of under 
parts grey indistinctly barred with black ; flanks tinged with rufous ; bill 
blackish horn ; feet greyish brown ; iris brown. Culmen 0'9, wing 6 '6, 
tail 4'8, tarsus 1*35. The female is browner and less grey in colour, and 
the black feathers on the throat are broadly tipped with buff. 

Hob. The Perm and Olonetz Governments west of Ural, 
Russia. 

I do not find anything on record respecting the habits and 
nidification of this species, which ; probably do not differ from 
those of T. bonasia. 



981. MONGOLIAN HAZEL GROUSE. 
TETRASTES SEVERTZOVI. 

Tetrastes severtzovi, Prjevalsky, Mongol i Strana Tangut, &c. ii. 
p. 130, Taf. xviii. (1876) ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. 
p. 93. 

ad. (Kan-su). Differs from T. bonasia in having the crown, nape, 
neck, and upper parts generally warm reddish brown instead of grey in 
ground-colour, and the whole of the lower back, rump, and upper tail- 
coverts clearly barred with black ; under parts darker than in T. bonasia, 
being black with a bar across the middle and the tips white ; breast washed 
with warm reddish brown. Culmen 07, wing 7'0, tail 5*60, tarsus 1'3 
inch. The female is a trifle smaller and has the chin and throat pale 
yellow marked with black. 

Hob. The mountains of Kan-su,' Koko-nor, and the Hoang-ho 
river. 

In general habits and note it is said to resemble T. bonasia. 
It inhabits the mountains up to about the elevation of 11,000 
feet, frequents the larch and fir forests, and particularly affects 
small ravines through which brooks run, and which have the 
sides thickly covered with bushes. So far as I can ascertain, 
its nest and eggs are not known. 



TURN IX 703 



TURNIX, Bonnat., 1790. 

982. ANDALUCIAN HEMIPODE. 
TURNIX SYLVATICA. 

Turnix sylvatica (Desfont), Mem. cle TAcad. Koy. des Sc. Paris, 
1787, p. 500, pi. xiii. ; Dresser, vii. p. 249, pi. 494 ; Ogilvie 
Grant, Cat. B. Br. Hus. xxii. p. 537 ; Saunders, p. 506 ; T. anda- 
lusica (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 766 (1788) ; T. africana, Bonn. 
Tabl. Encycl. Meth. i. p. 6 (1790) ; Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. iv. 
pi. 16 ; Hewitson, Ibis, 1859, pi. ii. figs. 4, 5 (eggs) ; Hemipodius 
tachydromus, Temm. Pig. and Gall. iii. p. 626 (1815) ; Gould, B. of 
E. iv. p. 264. 

Toirdo do mato, Portug. ; Torillo, Span. ; Quaglia tridattila, 
Ital. ; Semmana, Arab. ; Zerqutt, Moor. 

< ad. (Spain). Head blackish brown marked with reddish brown, and 
with a central brownish buff streak ; cheeks, sides of head, and upper 
throat buffy white, barred with black, upper parts blackish brown trans- 
versely marked with chestnut and black ; wing-coverts ochreous chestnut, 
blotched and spotted with black, and broadly marked with buffy white ; 
quills blackish brown externally edged with buffy white ; sides of 
throat, neck, and flanks buffy white, each feather with a large blackish 
brown crescentic mark ; middle of throat warm pale ferruginous, fading 
to buffy white towards the abdomen ; under tail- coverts warm ochreous ; 
bill dull fleshy becoming blackish at the tip ; legs light brown, the hind 
toe wanting ; iris light '*brown. Culmen 0'5, wing 3'3, tail T7, tarsus 
1*0 inch. The female is larger, has the nape nearly uniform dull light red, 
and the under parts are richer coloured. 

Hal. Portugal, Spain, has once occurred in Italy, but is fairly 
common in Sicily, and is said to be very rare in Southern 
France ; North Africa. Of very doubtful occurrence in Britain. 

Frequents dense bush- covered localities, where it hides and is 
very difficult to flush, being as a rule very shy and wary. Its 
ordinary note is crroou, crroou, crroou, but in the early morning 
and late in the evening both sexes utter a deep mournful note 
like the distant bellowing of a bull. Throughout its range 
it appears to be resident. It feeds on seeds of various kinds, 
and insects. It is monogamous, and makes its nest, which is a 
scantily lined depression in the ground, under shelter of a bush 
in some dense thicket. Its eggs, which are deposited late in 
June or early in July, 4 to 6 in number, are greyish or buffy 
white rather closely marked with pale purplish grey shell spots 
and dark brown or purplish brown surface blotches, and measure 
about I'O by 078. 



704 TURNIXRALLUS 

983. BURMESE HEMIPODE. 
TURNIX BLANFORDI. 

Turnix Uanfordi, Blyth, J. A. Soc. B. xxxii. p. 80 (1863) ; Ogilvie 
Grant, Cat, B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 542 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. 
p. 155 ; T. maculatus, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. xxxv. p. 47 (1819, nee. 
Temm.), David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 398 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 783 ; T. variabilis, Prjev. Voy. Oussouri. Suppl. No. 139. 

Ngon, Burm. 

g ad. (Burma). Crown black varied with chestnut ; mesial line warm 
buff ; sides of head to above the eye pale yellowish buff, finely variegated 
with black ; upper parts greyish varied with chestnut and buff ; wing- 
coverts spotted with black on warm creamy buff ; chin and upper throat 
buffy white, the lower neck pale rusty ; rest of under parts whitish, 
becoming warm creamy buff on the flanks and under tail-coverts ; sides of 
breast and flanks spotted with black ; bill brown, the base of the lower 
mandible, legs, and feet yellow ; iris yellowish white. Culmen 0'65, wing 
3 ! 6, tail 1'3, tarsus 0'95 inch. The female is larger, has the mesial line 
less distinct or absent, is altogether brighter in colour and has a broad 
ferruginous collar round the lower neck. 

Hctb. India (Assam, the Khasi Hills, Tipperah and Chittagong) 
Burma ; China ; Manchuria ; South-east Mongolia, Ordos, 
Kan-su and Koko-nor, 

Inhabits grassy localities, gardens, and in Mongolia marshy 
places such as are frequented by Snipe, and is a silent shy bird. 
Nothing appears to be known respecting its nidification. 



RALLTJS, Linn., 1766. 

984. WATER-RAIL. 
RALLUS AQUATICUS. 

Rallus aquaticus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 262 (1766) ; Naum. ix. p. 472, 
Taf. 235 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 322, pi. xc. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. 
pi. 339 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. Ixxxvi. ; Dresser, vii. p. 257, 
pi. 495 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. p. 20 ; Blanford, F. Brit. 
Ind. iv. p. 160 ; Saunders, p. 515 ; Lilford, iv. p. 139, pi. 60. 

Edle d'eau, French ; Frango d'agua, Portug. ; Eascdn, Span. ; 
Porciglione, Ital. ; Wasserrallc, German ; Watterval, Dutch ; 
Keldusvin, I eel. ; Vandrixe, Dan. and Norweg. ; Vattenralle, 
Swed. ; Rantakana, Finn. ; Vodjanoi-Pastuscho'k, Russ. 



RALLUS 705 



c ad. (England). Crown, nape, and hind neck blackish, marked with 
fulvous brown ; upper parts warm olive-brown blotched with blackish ; 
quills olivaceous brown ; tail darker, the feathers margined with olivaceous 
brown ; lores sooty blackish ; sides of head, throat, neck, breast, and upper 
abdomen deep slaty blue ; lower abdomen and flanks black barred with 
white ; middle of lower abdomen brownish buff ; a white patch on the 
under tail-coverts ; bill dark brown, the base of the lower edge of 
upper mandible red ; legs fleshy brown ; iris red. Culmen 1-62, wing 4'6, 
tail 2-12, tarsus 1'72 inch. Female similar but rather duller. 

Hob. Europe generally, north to Trondhjem Fjord ; Britain ; 
resident in Iceland ; North Africa in winter ; Asia Minor and 
Asia east to Yarkand and Cabul ; N.W. India in winter, but 
rare. 

Frequents low swampy localities in or near woods, overgrown 
ditches, &c., and is shy and secretive in its habits. It seldom 
flies far when flushed, but is able to take extended flights, and 
swims and even dives with ease. It feeds on worms and 
aquatic insects, rarely on vegetable substances. Its call-note 
is a clear creek, usually uttered when on the wing, and its cry is 
loud and peculiar. It breeds in damp, swampy localities, and 
conceals its nest with care ; this is a rather large, loose structure 
of dry leaves of aquatic plants, and is placed on the ground. 
The eggs, 8 to 10 in number, are usually deposited in April, 
and are pale whitish stone-buff, marked with pale purplish 
shell-spots and dark red surface-blotches and spots, and measure 
about 1-39 by 1/4. 

985. SUBSP. RALLUS INDICUS. 

Rallus indicus, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xviii. p. 820 (1849) ; David and 
Oust, Ois. Chine, p. 489 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 359 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. p. 24 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. 
p. 158 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 993 ; R. japonicus, Jerd. B. of Ind. 
ii. p. 727, note (1863) ; Dresser, vii. p. 261. 

Kana-koli, Tarn. ; Yay-gyet, Burm. ; Kuina, Jap. 

ad. (Japan). Differs from R. aquaticits in being rather darker, the lores 
and a broad streak continued behind the eye blackish, and the barring 
on the under parts extends to the end of the tail-coverts. 

Hob. Dauria, Mongolia, Japan, North China ; wintering in 
South China, Burma, India, and Ceylon. 

In habits it does not differ from R. aquaticus. It breeds in 
south-eastern Siberia and Japan, its nest and eggs being also 
similar to those of R. aquaticus. 



706 PORZANA 



PORZANA, Vieill., 1816. 

986. SPOTTED CRAKE. 

PORZANA MARUETTA. 

Porzana maruetta (Leacli), Syst. Cat. etc. p. 34 (1816) ; Gould, B. of Gt. 
Brit. iv. pi. 88 ; Dresser, vii. p. 267, pi. 496 ; Saunders, p. 509 ; 
Lilford, iv. p. 130, pi. 56 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 166 ; 
Rallns porzana, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 262 (1766) ; (Naum.), ix. 
p. 523, Taf. 237 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 318, pi. Ixxxix. figs. 2, 3 ; Gould, 
B. of E. iv. pi. 343 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. p. 93. 

Poule d'eau maroiidte, French ; Frango d'agua, Portug. ; 
Polluella, Span. ; Voltolino. Ital. ; Punktirtes RoJirhuTin, German ; 
Porcehin lioentje, Dutch ; Plettet Sumplione Rorvagtel, Dan. ; 
Smaaplettet Sumplione, Norweg. ; Smdflackig Sumpliona, Swed. ; 
Kaisla-radkka, Finn. ; Kamyschnik, Russ. ; Gurguri-Jchairi, 
Bengal. 

<$ ad. (Holland). Entire head and upper throat blackish slate-grey ? 
the throat and head in front of the eye unspotted, the crown closely 
marked with black and dark reddish brown ; lores blackish ; hind neck 
and upper parts warm olivaceous brown, the neck closely spotted with 
white, the rest of upper parts striped and spotted with white and blotched 
with black ; quills and tail olive-brown, the first quill externally margined 
with white ; under parts deep slate-grey, the breast and flanks spotted, and 
the latter barred with white ; middle of abdomen nearly white ; under tail- 
coverts ochreous buff ; bill orange-yellow, red at the base ; legs yellowish 
green; iris reddish brown. Culinen 0*85, wing 4*8, tail 2'2, tarsus 1 '45, 
middle toe with claw 1'7 inch. Female similar but smaller and duller, 
the head, neck, and flanks tinged with brown, and more white on the 
abdomen. 

Hah Europe generally, north to Trondhjem Fjord in Nor- 
way, to Hudiksvall in Sweden, and Archangel in Russia, 
south to the Mediterranean in winter ; Britain ; Canaries, rare ; 
North Africa, south to Abyssinia ; Asia Minor and Asia, east 
to Central Asia, and Northern India in winter. 

Frequents swampy places where the herbage is thick, and is 
very secretive and shy. Its call-note is a clear Icweet, usually 
heard in the evening or at night, and its food consists of aquatic 
insects, larvae, small worms, snails, tender shoots and seeds. 
Its nest, which is usually well concealed, is a loose structure of 
flags, reeds, and leaves of aquatic plants, lined with finer 
materials, and the eggs, 8 to 14 in number, are deposited late 
in May or early in June, and are rather glossy, ochreous in 



PORZANA 707 

ground-colour, with violet-grey shell-markings and reddish 
brown surface spots and blotches, and measure about T34 
by 0-97. 

987. BAILLON'S CRAKE. 
PORZANA BAILLONI. 

Porzana bailloni (Vieill.), Nouv. Diet, xxviii. p. 548 (1819) ; (Hewitson), 
ii. p. 377, pi. cvi. fig. 1 ; (Gould) , B. of E. iv. pi. 344 ; Dresser, vii. 
p. 275, pi. 497 ; Saunders, p. 513 ; Lilford, iv. p. 135, pL 59 ; 
P. pygmcea (Brehm), Lehrb. ii. p. 641 (1824) ; (Naum.), ix. p. 567, 
Taf. 239 ; (Gould), B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 89 ; ? Rallus intermedius, 
Hermann, Obs. Zool. i. p. 198 (1804) ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxiii. p. 103. 

Poule d'eau Baillon, French ; Polluela chica, Picardd, Span. ; 
Schiribilla-grigiata, Ital. ; Zwerg Sumpfhuhn, German ; Kleinste 
Waterhoen, Dutch. 

$ ad. (S. Spain). Crown, nape, and upper parts reddish brown tinged 
with olivaceous and marked with black ; the mantle and rump clearly 
spotted with white ; wings and tail dark brown, the outer web of the first 
quill white ; sides of head, neck, and under parts deep slate-blue ; the 
lower abdomen and flanks, under wing- and tail-coverts black, barred with 
white ; bill sea-green at the base, becoming blackish green towards the tip ; 
legs dull greyish flesh ; iris carmine-red. Culmen 0'75, wing 3'5, tail 2 '05, 
tarsus ri inch. Female similar but duller in colour. The young bird 
lacks the blue colour, having the sides of the head warm ochreous brown, 
the chin and upper throat white, the lower throat and breast dull brownish 
ochreous, the middle of the abdomen white. 

Hob. Central and Southern Europe up to about 54 N. ; an 
irregular visitor to Britain; the whole of Africa and Mada- 
gascar ; Asia Minor and Asia east to Persia. 

Inhabits marshy and damp localities where the herbage is 
dense, as, like its allies, it is extremely secretive in its habits. 
It swims with ease and grace, and is well able to dive. It 
walks also with readiness and celerity on the floating herbage, 
but when flushed its flight is short. Its note is a low piping 
cry, resembling that of the Little Crake, and its food consists 
of insects, larvae, and small molluscs. It breeds in May, its 
nest being carefully hidden in the herbage in some swampy 
locality, and is cup-shaped, well lined with dry grass and the 
leaves of aquatic plants. The eggs, usually 7 to 8 in number, 
are olivaceous ochreous very closely dotted and marbled with 
olivaceous brown, and measure about 1*7 by 0*81. 

3 A 



708 PORZANA 



988. SUBSP. PORZANA PUSILLA. 

Porzana pusilla (Pall.), Reis. Ross. Reichs. iii. Anh. p. 700 (1776) ; 
(Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 356 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. 
p. 106 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 165 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 997 ; P. pygmcva, David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 487 (nee. 
Brehm). 

Hailli, Nepal. ; Hime-kuina } Jap. 

Ad. (India). Differs from P. baillom in being somewhat paler grey, 
and in having an ochreous brown streak from the lores through the eye 
and ear-coverts to the side of the neck, whereas in the European bird the 
sides of the head are grey without any such stripe. Gape 0*7, wing 3*5, 
tail 1'75, tarsus I'l inch. 

Hob. South-east Siberia, Mongolia, Manchuria, Corea, Japan, 
China, Burma, India, and Ceylon: west to Afghanistan and 
Baluchistan, south to the Philippines in winter. 

In habits and nidification it does not differ from the Euro- 
pean bird. It breeds in South-east Siberia, Japan, and the 
Lower Himalaya in the last locality in June and July, and in 
Japan and South-east Siberia in June. 



989. LITTLE CRAKE. 
PORZANA PARVA. 

Porzana parva (Scop.), Ann. i. Hist. Nat. p. 108 (1769) ; Dresser, vii. 
p. 283, pi. 498 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. p. 89 ; Blanf. F. 
Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 164 ; Saunders, p. 511 ; P. minuta (Mont.), 
Orn. Diet. Suppl. fol. 9 (1813 nec : Pall.) ; Gould, B. of Gt. Brit, 
iv. pi. 90 ; P. pusilla (Bechst.), Orn. Taschenb. ii. p. 340 (1803 nee. 
Pall.) ; (Naum.), ix. p. 547, Taf. 238 ; (Gould), B. of. E. iv. pi. 345 ; 
(Lilford), iv. p. 134, pis. 57, 58. 

Poule d 'eau poussin, French ; Schiribilla, Ital. ; Kleine 
Sumpfhuhn, German ; Dverg Sumphone, Dan. ; Lilla Sumphona, 
Swed. 

< ad. (Hungary). Differs from P. lailloni in being larger, the upper 
parts more olivaceous and less spotted, the wing-coverts unspotted, the 
black markings more blurred ; first primary dark brown on both webs ; 
under parts deep .slate-blue, but the lower abdomen and under tail-coverts 
less distinctly barred ; bill bright red at base, otherwise yellowish green ; 
iris blood-red ; legs green. Culmen 0'75, wing 4'15, tail 2'3, tarsus 1'3 
middle toe with claw 1*75 inch. The female differs from the male in 



PORZANA 709 

having the chin, lower cheeks, and throat white, the sides of the head 
only greyish slate-blue ; lower throat, breast, and abdomen pinkish buff, 
the lower abdomen and under tail-coverts as in the male but paler. 

Hob. Central and Southern Europe, but of irregular oc- 
currence as far north as Great Britain and Southern Scan- 
dinavia ; winters in North Africa ; South-west and Central 
Asia east to North-west India. 

In its habits it is shy and secretive like its ally Baillon's 
Crake, frequenting similar localities. Its call-note is a tolerably 
loud kik, kik, kik. Its nesting habits are similar to those of 
Baillon's Crake, but the nest is larger and of coarser materials ; 
the eggs, which are deposited late in May or in June, are 
rather larger and paler, the ground-colour more ochreous and 
the surface spots more scattered. In size they measure about 
118 by 0-87. 

990. BUTTON CRAKE. 
FORZANA EXQUISITA. 

Porzana exquisite, Swinhoe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) xii. p. 376 
(1873) ; id. Ibis, 1875, p. 135, pi. iii. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxiii. p. 128 ; P. undulata, Tacz. J. f. 0. 1874, p. 333 ; id. F. 0. 
Sib. 0. p. 999 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 358. 

Shima-kuina, Jap. 

$ ad. (Japan). Upper parts, wings, and tail rufescent olivaceous, 
blotched with black and marked with white, the first quill white on the 
outer web, the secondaries white on the apical two-thirds ; throat, breast, 
and abdomen white, the lower neck, fore throat, sides of neck and flanks 
reddish brown with an olivaceous tinge, barred with blackish and margined 
with white ; bill deep brown, but greenish yellow at base of lower mandible 
and on rectus ; legs and feet light flesh-brown, dark on joints and claws ; 
iris brown. Culmen 0'55, wing 3'0, tail 1*05, tarsus 0'8, middle toe and 
claw 0'95. The male is smaller, has less white on the wings, and the 
under parts are less mottled. 

Hob. Darasun in Dauria, the Ussuri country, Japan, and 
North-eastern China. 

Is most nearly allied to P. noveboracensis (Gm.) of North 
America, but is smaller and darker. Like its allies it is shy 
and secretive, hard to flush, and flies awkwardly. It frequents 
damp, swampy localities, and nests on the ground, making a 
nest of leaves of aquatic plants. The eggs are yellowish 

3 A 2 



710 PORZANA 



white, marked with a few greyish shell-spots, and with reddish 
brown surface-markings, which are more numerous on the 
basal portion ; in size they measure about 1*04 by 0*79. 

991. RUDDY CRAKE. 
PORZANA FUSCA. 

Porzana fusca (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 262 (1766) ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxiii. p. 146 ; (Blanf.), F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 170 j (See- 
bohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 357 ; P. erythrothorax\(Temm. and Schleg.), 
Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 121, pi. 78 (1850) ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, 
p. 486. 

Hi-Jcuina, Jap. 

<J ad. (Japan). Upper parts dark brownish olive, browner on the 
rump, upper tail-coverts, and inner secondaries ; quills and tail dark 
brown ; forehead, sides of head, neck, and under parts vinous chestnut ; 
flanks and abdomen olivaceous brown, the abdomen and lower flanks 
streaked with white ; under tail-coverts blackish margined with white ; 
bill greenish brown ; legs red ; iris crimson ; eyelids plumbeous, the edges 
red. Culmen 0'9, wing 4'0, tail 2'0, tarsus 1'3 inch. Sexes alike, but the 
young bird is dusky olivaceous, the chin, throat, and middle of abdomen 
whitish. 

Hob. India, Ceylon, Burma, China, and Japan, south in 
winter to the Malay Peninsula, Java, and the Philippines. 

Frequents damp, rush-covered places and ponds, and feeds 
on insects and seeds. It swims like a Moorhen and has a soft 
call. It breeds in India from July to September, and in Japan 
from early in June to the middle of August, and places its 
nest, which is constructed of rushes and weeds, amongst the 
rushes, grass, or wild rice, very little above the surface of the 
water. The eggs, from 4 to 6 in number, are pinky or creamy 
white, streaked, spotted, and blotched with reddish brown 
surface markings and inky purple shell blotches which are 
more dense at the larger end. In size they measure about 
1-2 by 0-84 

992. SIBERIAN RUDDY CRAKE. 

PORZANA PAYKULLI. 

Porzana payJculli (Ljungh), Kungl. Vet. Akad. Handl. 1813, p. 259, 
tab. v. ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. p. 149 ; P. mandarwa, 
Swinhoe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 4th Series, v. p. 173 (1870) ; 
(David and Oust), Ois. Chine, p. 488, pi. 123 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 995 ; P. erythrothorax (nee. T. and S.) ; (Radde), Sib. Keise, ii. 
p. 309 (1863). 



PORZANACREX 711 



ad. (China). Differs from P. fusca in having the flanks and thighs 
white barred with dusky blackish, the under tail-coverts black barred and 
tipped with white, and the axillaries and under wing-coverts white barred 
with blackish ; bill bluish grey, blackish on the culmen and about the tip, 
pea-green about the base ; inside of mouth flesh-colour ; iris crimson ; 
eyelid red ; legs and toes salmon-colour, brownish on the under surface of 
the tarsi, on the toes, and on the soles. Culmen I'l, wing 4'7, tail 2'15, 
tarsus 1*5 inch. 

Hob. Eastern Siberia, the Amoor, the Bay of Abrek on the 
coast of the Sea of Japan, and Sidemi ; Corea, China, the 
Malay Peninsula, Java, and Borneo. 

I find but little on record respecting the habits of this 
species, which do not appear to differ from those of its con- 
geners. M. Kalinosowski found it breeding at Sidemi on a 
damp plain, and describes its eggs as closely resembling those 
of Crex pratensis in colour and markings, and in size measuring 
about 35'3 by 26'2 mm. (T39 by T02 inch). 

CREX, Bechstein, 1803. 

993. CORN-CRAKE OR LAND-RAIL. 

CREX PRATENSIS. 

Crex pratensis, Bechst. Orn. Taschenb. part 2, p. 337 (1803) ; Naum. ix. 
p. 496, Taf. 236 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 372, pi. cv. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of 
Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 87 ; Dresser, vii. p. 291, pi. 499 ; Saunders, p. 507 ; 
Lilford, iv. p. 126, pi. 55 ; Rallus crex, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 261 
(1766) ; (Gould), B. of. E. iv. pi. 341 ; (Ridgway;, p. 140 ; (Sharpe), 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. p. 82 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 163. 

Rale des prds, French ; Codornizao, Portug. ; Polla de agua, Rey 
de las codornices, Span. ; Re di quaglie, Ital. ; Wiesenralle, 
German; Kyartelkoning, Dutch; Vagtelkonge, Dan.; Agerrixe, 
Norweg. ; Angsknarr, Swed. ; Ruisraakka, Finn. ; Korostell, 
Russ. 

ad. (England). Crown, hind neck, and upper parts blackish brown 
marked with greyish and reddish ochreous ; quills rufous brown ; wing- 
coverts rusty red ; chin white ; sides of head blue-grey with a pale brown 
band passing through the eye to the neck ; sides of neck greyish ochreous 
marked with reddish brown ; abdomen and under tail-coverts white, the 
latter marked with reddish brown ; flanks rufous barred with white ; bill 
dark brown ; legs greyish flesh ; iris clear brown. Culmea 0'8, wing 5*5, 
tail 2'15, tarsus 1*5 inch. Female similar but duller. In the autumn the 
spots on the upper parts are smaller, the under parts paler, and the flanks 
less rufous. 



712 OREX PORPHYRIO 



Hob. Europe generally, including even the outlying Hebrides, 
nearly up to the Arctic Circle ; Africa, south to the Cape Colony 
in winter ; Asia, east to the Yenesei and possibly to the Lena, 
south through Persia to Muscat ; of doubtful occurrence in 
Northern India ; has strayed to Greenland, Bermuda, and the 
east coast of North America. 

Frequents fields, meadows, and lowlands, and though seldom 
seen, its harsh grating note is often heard. It runs with ease 
and celerity, but is averse to take wing. It feeds chiefly on 
insects of various kinds. Its nest is a mere depression in the 
soil, usually in a cornfield or meadow, and is very scantily lined 
with grass-bents, and its eggs, 8 to 12 in number, are usually 
deposited in June, and are like those of R. aquaticus, but paler 
in ground-colour and more profusely marked, and measure 
about 1'48 by 1/04. 

PORPHYRIO, Briss., 1760. 

994. PURPLE GALLINULE. 

PORPHYRIO OffiRULEUS. 

Porphyrio cceruleus (Yandelli), Flor. and Faun. Lusit. etc. i. p. 37 (1797) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mtis. xxiii. p. 194 ; P. hyacinthinus, Temm. 
Man. d'Orn. ii. p. 698 (1820) ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 340 ; 
P. veterum, Dresser, vii. p. 299, pi. 500 (nee. Gmel.) ; Lilford, iv. 
p. 146, pi. 62. 

Camao, Portug. ; Gallo azul, Calamon, Span. ; Polio sultano, 
Ital. ; Kazir, Moor. 

$ ad. (Spain). Upper parts rich deep blue ; quills on the inner webs 
and tail-feathers bluish black ; sides of head, chin, throat, and upper 
breast rich turquoise-blue ; rest of under parts blackish blue, except the 
under tail-coverts, which are white ; frontal plate and bill bright sealing- 
wax red ; legs flesh-red ; iris lake-red. Gape 1'7, wing 9'5, tail 4'1, 
tarsus 3 '5, middle toe with claw 4'8 inch. Sexes alike. The young bird 
has the upper parts bluish slate-grey, the rump slaty blackish, the sides of 
head dull ashy grey with a bluish tinge ; chin and upper throat ashy 
white ; rest of under parts dull bluish slate tipped with ashy grey, the 
middle of abdomen whiter, the under tail-coverts white. 

Hob. South Portugal and Spain, rare in Southern France 
and Italy ; Sardinia and Sicily ; rarer further east, though 
found as far as Mesopotamia ; North-west Africa. 

In habits it somewhat resembles the Coot, and frequents 
similar localities, marshy places and the shores of lakes where 






PORPHYIUO 713 



the vegetation is dense, and is shy and secretive. It breeds late 
in March or in April, placing its nest, which resembles that of 
the Coot, amongst dense aquatic vegetation, and deposits 3 to 5 
eggs, which are warm stone-ochreous in ground-colour, marked 
with violet-grey shell blotches, and deep brownish red surface 
spots, and measure about 2 '8 by 1*43. 

995. GREEN-BACKED GALLINULE. 
PORPHYRIO MADAGASCARIENSIS. 

Porpliyrio madagascarier-sis (Lath.), Ind. Orn. Suppl. p. Ixviii. (1801) ; 
P. chloronotus, Vieill. Nouv. Diet, xxviii. p. 24 (1819) ; Brehm. 
J. f. 0. 1853, Extra- heft, p. 103 ; Fulica porphyrio, Linn. Syst. Nat. 
i. p. 258 (1766) ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mtis. xxiii. p. 195 ; P. smarag- 
notus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. ii. p. 700 (1820) ; Dresser, vii. p. 303, 
pi. 501. 

Dikm, Digmeh, Arabic. 

d ad. (Egypt). Differs from P. cceruleus in having the back rich dark 
bluish green instead of dark blue. Gape T7, wing 10'4, tail 4*35, 
tarsus 3'85, middle toe with claw 4'9 inch. 

Hal. Egypt, and Africa south to the Cape, Madagascar; a 
very rare straggler to Southern France and Italy. 

In habits it does not differ from P. cceruleus. It breeds in 
Africa, and is said to deposit 6 to 10 eggs, which are ruddy 
brown spotted with dark purple brown, and measure 2*2 by 1*6. 

996. INDIAN GALLINULE. 
PORPHYRIO POLIOCEPHALUS. 

Porphyrio poliocephalus (Lath.), Ind. Orn. Suppl. p. Ixviii. (1801) ; 
Dresser, ix. p. 333, pi. 706 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. p. 197 ; 
Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 178 ; P. veterum, S. G. Gmel. Reise 
Russ. iii. pi. xxi. p. 79, footnote, pi. 12 (1774) ; Radde, Orn. Cauc. 
p. 380, pi. xxiv. xxi. figs. 3, 4 (eggs). 

Sultanka, Russ. ; Bojachana, Tartar ; Keim, Kaima, Hindu. 

ad. (India). Upper parts deep blue, the wings slightly washed with 
greenish ; tail black, externally washed with blue ; crown ashy blue ; 
sides of head ashy ; neck tinged with ashy grey ; under parts deep blue, 
the breast tinged with greenish ; flanks bright blue ; under tail-coverts 
white ; bill and frontal shield dark red ; legs and feet red, the joints of the 
knees and toes blackish brown ; iris red. Culmen with frontal shield 2-85, 
wing 11*0, tail 4 % 25, tarsus 4*05 inch. 



714 PORPHYRIO 



Hob. The shores of the Caspian, east to India, Ceylon, 
Burma, and Tenasserim. 

In habits it does not differ from P. cceruleus, and its nest is 
also similar. In India it breeds from July to September, 
depositing 6 to 8, and sometimes as many as 10 eggs, which 
resemble those of P. cceruleus, but are rather smaller, paler, 
have fewer and r smaller markings, and average T93 by T39. 



997. ALLEN'S GALLINULE. 
PORPHYRIO ALLENI. 

Porphyrio alleni, T. R. H. Thompson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. x. 
p. 204 (1842) ; Dresser, vii. p. 307, pi. 502 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxiii. p. 187. 

Canbonja-anganga, in West Africa. 

ad. (Africa). Crown, nape, and sides of head black tinged with 
ihdigo-bliie ; hind neck and upper parts deep olivaceous glossed with 
parrot-green ; quills and tail bluish black ; wing-coverts cobalt-blue tinged 
with green ; under parts deep blue, becoming blackish on the lower 
abdomen and thighs ; under tail-coverts, except the lowest layer, white ; 
bill dark red ; frontal shield dusky ; tarsi and feet crimson ; iris reddish 
brown. Culmen, with frontal shield, 1'85, wing 6'1, tail 2'6, tarsus 2'1 
inch. 

Female similar. The young bird has the head and hind neck rufescent 
sandy brown, the sides of the head paler ; upper parts umber-brown 
margined with clay-ochreous, the rump tinged with greenish blue ; chin, 
upper throat, and middle of breast and abdomen white ; lower throat, 
sides of neck, breast, and flanks warm ochreous clay, the under tail-coverts 
more rufous ; thighs chiefly bluish black ; bill and frontal plate reddish 
horn ; legs pale reddish brown ; iris light brown. 

Hob. Africa generally ; Madagascar, and a straggler to the 
island of Rodriguez ; of rare and accidental occurrence in Italy 
and Spain ; and also, it is said, in Madeira and the Canaries. 

In habits it is said to resemble Gallinula chloropus. It 
inhabits dense reed and papyrus thickets, and is shy and 
secretive. Its call-note is described as harsh, and is generally 
heard in the morning and evening. It feeds on aquatic plants, 
seeds, worms, and insects. So far as I can ascertain, nothing is 
on record as to its nidification, but an egg in the British 
Museum, extracted from the body of a bird shot on the Ruo 
river, British Central Africa, is pinkish cream-colour, marked, 



PORPHYRIOGALLINULA 7 1 5 



more thickly at the larger end, with underlying pale purple 
and reddish brown overlying surface specks, spots, and small 
blotches, and measures 1*4 by 1*05. 



GALLINULA, Briss., 1766. 

998. MOORHEN. 
GALLINULA CHLOROPUS. 

Gallinula chloropus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 258 (1766) ; Naum. ix. 
p. 587, Taf. 240 j Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 342 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. 
pi. 85 ; Dresser, vii. p. 313, pi. 503 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 378, pi. cvii. 
fig. 1 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. p. 169 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 1000 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 175 ; Saunders, p. 517 ; 
Lilford, iv. p. 141, pi. 61. 

Poule d'eau, French ; Gallinha de agua, Portug. ; Polla de 
agua, Span. ; Gallinella d'acqua, Ital. ; Wasserhuhn, German ; 
Waterhoentje, Dutch ; Grmibenet-Rorhdna, Dan. ; Grbnbenet- 
Vandhone, Norweg. ; RorJwna, Swed. ; Liejukana, Finn. ; Balot- 
naja-Kuritza, Russ. ; Jal-Murghi, Hindu. ; Ban, Jap. 

$ ad. (England). Head, neck, and fore back deep greyish slate-blue ; 
under parts paler and greyer ; upper parts deep olivaceous brown ; quills 
and tail dark brown ; edge of wing and margin of first quill white ; flanks 
marked with long white stripes ; lower abdomen greyish white ; under 
tail-coverts white with a median black tuft ; base of bill and frontal plate 
bright red, the front of bill yellow ; legs dull green with a red garter ; iris 
red. Culmen T34, wing 6'5, tail 2 '85, tarsus T85 inch. Sexes alike. 

Hob. Europe generally, north to Central Scandinavia, and 
has been obtained as far north as the North Cape ; the whole 
of Africa ; Asia, east to Japan, south throughout India and 
Ceylon, north to Lake Baikal. 

Frequents ponds, river-banks, and marshes where the aquatic 
vegetation is dense, and where it can find good shelter. It 
swims and dives with ease, and on land runs swiftly. Its call 
note is a loud kirrik crek rek rek, most often to be heard in the 
evening. Its food consists of aquatic insects, worms, tender 
shoots, and seeds of aquatic plants, &c. The nest is placed 
amongst aquatic herbage, sometimes, though rarely, on a tree, 
and is a bulky structure of dried weeds and aquatic plants, lined 
with finer materials. The eggs, 6 to 9 or 10 in number, are 
rusty clay-yellow with violet-grey shell-markings and reddish 
brown surface spots and blotches, and measure about 1'63'by 



7 1 6 GALLINULA FULICA 



1'21. Two or sometimes three broods are reared in the same 
season. In America our Moorhen is replaced by a closely allied 
form, G. galeata (Licht.). 

FULICA, Linn., 1766. 

999. THE COOT. 
FULICA ATRA. 

Fulica atra, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 257 (1766) ; Naum. ix. p. 635, Taf. 
241 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 380, pi. cvii. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. 
pi. 338 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 84 ; Dresser, vii. p. 327, pi. 504, 
fig. 2 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 489 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxiii. p. 210 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1001 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iv. p. 180 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 360 ; Saunders, p. 519 ; 
Lilford, iv. p. 147, pi. 63. 

Foulque'n&vre, French; Galeirao, Portug. ; Mancon, Focha> 
Span. ; Folaga, Ital. ; BldsshuJin, German ; MeerJcoet, Dutch ; 
Blishone, Norweg. and Dan. ; Sothona, Swed. ; NoJciJeana, Finn. ; 
Lisa, Lisucha, Russ. ; KaschJcalda, Tartar ; Ghorra, Arab. ; El 
Ghor, Moor. ; Dasari, Hindu. ; 0-ban, Jap. 

<J ad. (England). Head, neck, crissum, and under tail-coverts black, 
the two first slightly washed with slate ; upper parts dark slaty blackish, 
the edge of the wing and tips of short secondaries white ; under parts slaty 
blue-grey ; bill and frontal plate bluish white ; legs bluish grey, the bare 
part of the tibia orange ; iris deep red. Culmen, with frontal plate, 2'05, 
gape 1'45, wing 8*2, tail 2 '2, tarsus 2 '25, middle toe with claw, 3'55 inch. 
Sexes similar. 

Hob. Europe generally, becoming rarer in Northern Scandi- 
navia ; Azores, Madeira, Canaries ; Egypt and North Africa ; 
Asia Minor, and Asia east to Japan; north to Tarei-nor in 
Siberia; N.E. Kan-su, Mongolia, Manchuria; in winter south 
to the Philippines. 

In the extreme northern portion of its range it is migratory, 
but chiefly resident in Britain and "the south. It frequents 
marshes, ponds, and lakes where the aquatic herbage is dense 
and affords ample shelter. On land it runs with ease, on the 
water swims excellently, and dives well. It is very gregarious, 
but shy and wary. It takes wing heavily, but flies well when 
once aloft. Its food consists of seeds, buds, and tender shoots 
of aquatic plants, insects, small shell-fish, &c., and it feeds both 
in the day and at night. Its call-note is a clear, loud, almost 
trumpet-like cry uttered abruptly. Its nest is a large, close 



FUL1CAGRUS 717 



structure of reeds, flags, &c., lined with finer materials, and is 
generally placed amongst reeds or willows, and often in shallow 
water. The eggs, 7 to 8, sometimes as many as 12, in number, 
are usually deposited in May, and are yellowish grey or stone- 
ochreous, dotted and marked with brownish black, and measure 
about 2*08 by T48. 

In America our Coot is replaced by F. americana, which has 
the lateral under tail-coverts white. 

1000. CRESTED COOT. 
FULICA CRISTATA. 

Fulica cristata, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 704 (1788) ; Layard, B. of S. Afr. 
p. 343 ; Dresser, vii. p. 323, pi. 504, fig. 1 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxiii. p. 215 ; F. mitrata, Licht. Yerz. Vog. Kaffernland, p. 19 

(1842). 

Galeirdo, Portug. ; Mancon, Focha de cuernets, Span. ; Folaga 
africana, Ital. 

<$ ad. (Spain). Differs from F. atra in lacking all white on the 
secondaries, and in having two conspicuous red knobs at the base of the 
frontal shield ; bill and frontal shield bluish white ; legs and feet greenish 
brown ; iris blackish. Gape 1*4, wing 8'4, tail 2 '5, tarsus 2*65 inch. 
Female similar but somewhat smaller, with the frontal knobs less 
developed. 

Hob. The whole of Africa to Cape Colony ; Southern Portugal 
and Spain, and the Balearic Isles, where it breeds ; of rare 
occurrence in the south of France and Italy, but tolerably 
common in Sardinia. 

Is said to resemble G-. cliloropus more than F. atra, both in its 
general habits and choice of locality. It is shy and wary, and 
trusts more to hiding and diving than to its wings for safety. 
Its nest and eggs resemble those of F. atra, but the latter are 
often darker than those of that species. In Southern Europe 
it breeds in May, but in South Africa in December. 

GRTJS, Pall., 1767. 
1001. COMMON CRANE. 

GRUS COMMUNIS. 

Grus communis, Bechst. Nnturg. Deutschl. iii. p. 60 (1793) ; Dresser, vii. 
p. 337, pi. 505 ; Tegetmeier and Blyth, Nat. Hist. Cranes, p. 59 ; 
Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 186 ; Blaauw, Monogr. Cranes, p. 1, 
part i. and xvii. fig. 1 (egg) ; Saunders, p. 521 ; Lilford, iv. p. 151, 
pi. 64 ; G. cinerea, Bechst. Naturg. Deutschl. iv. p. 103, tab. xix. 



718 GRUS 



(1809) ; Naum. ix. p. 345, Taf. 231 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 270 ; 
id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 19 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 308, pi. Ixxxi. ; Tacz. 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 796 ; Ardea grus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 234 (1766) ; 
(Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. p. 250 ; G. lilfordi, Sharpe, torn, 
cit. p. 252. 

La Grue, French ; Grou, Portug. ; Grulla, Span. ; Kranich, 
German ; Kraan, Dutch ; Trane, Dan. and Norweg. ; Trana, 
Swed. ; Kuorga, Lapp. ; Kivrki, Finn. ; Jouravl-sieryi, Russ. ; 
Rhernong, Arab. ; Ktirtinch, Hindu. 

ad. (N. Russia). Crown and lores nearly naked, the skin blackish 
with a broad band of red across the occiput and more or less covered with 
black hair ; upper nape greyish black, below which the hind neck is white 
extending up to the eye, and a narrow white streak from the base of each 
mandible ; throat and upper neck slaty blackish ; lower neck, upper and 
under parts ashy grey; primaries black; secondaries elongated, lax, 
conspicuously tipped or with the outer web black ; tail grey with the 
terminal portion blackish ; bill greenish brown, paler at the base, dull 
flesh-coloured at the base below ; legs blackish grey ; iris reddish. 
Culmen 4*7, wing 24'0, tail 8'1, tarsus 9'6 inch. Sexes alike. 

Hob. Europe, breeding as far north as Lapland and as far 
south as Spain ; formerly an inhabitant of England, but now 
of rare and accidental occurrence ; Asia, east to Japan, north 
to Northern Siberia, and south in winter to India and China. 

Frequents marshes and bogs covered here and there with 
bushes, and is shy and wary in its general habits. Its note 
is a loud clear trumpet-like sound. It feeds on various 
vegetable substances, such as shoots, roots, grain, where ob- 
tainable, berries, &c., and insects, small reptiles, and even 
small mammals. Its nest is usually rather a scanty, simple 
structure, and is placed on the ground, and the eggs, 2 in 
number, are usually deposited from the middle of May to the 
middle of June, and vary from light olive-grey to olive-brown 
more or less streaked and blotched with pale brown shell spots 
and reddish brown surface markings, and measure about 3'61 
by 2-46. 

1002. BLACK-NECKED CRANE. 
GRUS NIGRICOLLIS. 

Grus nigricollis, Prjev. Mongol, i Strana Tangut. ii. p. 135, tab. xix. 
(1876) ; Tegetm. and Blyth, Nat. Hist. Cranes, p. 70, pi. 1 (1881) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. p. 258; Blaauw, Monogr. Cranes, 
p. 8, pi. ii. 



GRUS 719 



$ ad. General colour pale ashy grey, nearly white ; crown naked, 
rough, red in colour, sparsely covered with a few small hairs ; head and 
upper neck smoky black ; a small white spot behind each eye ; primaries 
and secondaries, spurious wing, and tail black ; inner secondaries falcated, 
elongated, slightly decomposed and erectable ; bill greenish horn ; legs 
black ; iris yellow. Culmen 4*8, wing 25*3, tail 9'3, tarsus 10'2 inch. 

Hob. Koko-nor and Tibet. 

I find nothing on record respecting the habits or nidification 
of this species, except that its cry is said to resemble that of 
A. leucogeranus, and that it is supposed to breed in the Koko- 
nor district. 



1003. MANCHURIAN CRANE. 
GRUS JAPONENSIS. 

Grus japonensis (P. L. S. Miiller), Natursystem, Suppl. p. 110 (1776) ; 
Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 351 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. 
p. 258 ; Blaauw, Monogr. Cranes, p. 11, pi. 3 and pi. xvii. fig. 2 
(egg) ; G. viridirostris, Vieill. Encycl. Me"th. iii. p. 1141 (1823) ; 
Tegetm. and Blyth, Nat. Hist. Cranes, p. 53 ; David and Oust. Ois. 
Chine, p. 435 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. 0. p. 806 ; G. montignesia, Bp. 
Compt. Eend. xxxvii. p. 661 (1854) ; Sclater, in Wolfs Zool. 
Sketches, ii. pi. 46. 

TancJio, Jap. 

$ ad. (Japan). General colour pure white ; crown bare, papillose 
crimson ; cheeks, throat, and hind neck slate-grey ; region over and below 
the eye and a band from the occiput down the hind neck pure white ; 
secondaries black ; legs greyish black ; bill greenish horn ; iris dark 
brown. Culmen 6*3, wing 25'0, tail 9'0, tarsus 10'2 inch. 

Hob. South-eastern Siberia, Manchuria, Japan, Corea,*and 
Northern China, but of rare occurrence south of the Great 
Wall. 

Is said to frequent the large open plains, and is a migrant in 
S.E. Siberia, arriving in the Ussuri country early in April and 
leaving in November. It breeds in the large marshy plains 
which are interspersed with small lakes, making a simple nest 
on the ground, and deposits 2 eggs, which are isabelline yellow 
in colour, marked with pale reddish grey shell blotches and 
light olivaceous brown surface markings, and measure about 
4-05 by 2-53. 



720 GRUS 



1004 HOODED CRANE. 
GRUS MONACHUS. 

Grus monachus, Temm. PI. Col. v. pi. 555 (1835) ; id.'and Schleg. Faun. 
Jap. p. 119, pi. 75 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 434 ; Tegetm. 
and Blyth, Nat. Hist. Cranes, p. 71 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. 
p. 257 ; Blaauw, Monogr. Cranes, p. 15, pi. iv. 

Nabe-dzuru, Jap. 

Ad. (Japan). Upper and under parts slaty grey, the former with 
brownish, and the latter with greyish margins to the feathers ; primaries, 
primary coverts, secondaries, tail, and tail -coverts slaty black ; head and 
most of the neck pure white ; forehead covered with black hair-like 
bristles ; fore crown bare, papillose, red ; bill and upper ^eyelids yellowish 
horn; legs blackish horn; iris orange-brown. Culmen 4'5, wing 2TO, 
tail 7'0, tarsus 8 - 5 inch. 

Hob. Eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Manchuria, wintering in 
China, Corea, and occasionally in Japan. 

In general habits it does not differ from its allies. It breeds 
probably north of Dauria, but its nest and eggs are as yet 
unknown. 

1005. CANADIAN CRANE. 
GRITS CANADENSIS. 

Grus canadensis (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 234 (1766) ; Ridgway, p. 135 ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. p. 256 ; Blaauw, Monogr. Cranes, 
p. 20, pi. vi. ; G. fraterculus, Cass. in Baird Cass. and Lawr. B. N. 
Am. p. 656 (1858) ; Tegetm. and Blyth, Nat. Hist. Cranes, p. 78 ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 800 ; G. mexicana (P. L. S. Miiller), Natur- 
syst. Suppl. p. 110 (1776) ; Ridgway, p. 135 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxiii. p. 254. 

ad. (N. America). Crown and lores bare, reddish, more or less 
covered with blackish hairs ; general colour slate-grey or plumbeous grey, 
sometimes tinged with rusty brownish ; primaries darker ; cheeks and 
throat whitish ; bill blackish, paler at tip ; legs and feet blackish ; iris 
crimson. Culmen 4'4, wing 18'5, tail 7'7, tarsus 8'0. Sexes alike. 

Hob. North America, from Alaska and Hudson's Bay, south 
to Mexico, Florida, and Georgia in winter. 

Obtained twice in North-eastern Siberia on the promontory 
of Chukotskoi Noss, one of the specimens being in the Warsaw 
Museum. Grus auslralasiana, Gould, which inhabits Eastern 
Australia has also, according to Taczanowski (F. O. Sib. 0. 801), 
been once obtained near Yakutsk. 



GRUS 721 



1006. SARUS CRANE. 
GRUS COLLARIS. 

Grus collaris, Bodd. Tabl. PL enl. p. 52 (1783) ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxiii. p. 262 ; Blaauw, Monogr. Cranes, p. 25, pis. vii. vii.a ; 
G. antic/one (nee. Linn.), Tegetm. and Blyth, Nat. Hist. Cranes, 
p. 47 ; Kadde, Orn. Cauc. p. 391 ; Dresser, ix. p. 337, pi. 707. 

$ ad. (India). General colour bluish grey ; head and upper neck bare, 
papillose, red ; the throat, sides, and hind neck covered with black hairs, a 
patch of ash-grey feathers covering the ears ; a ring round the neck below 
the bare portion, and the ends of the elongated inner secondaries, white ; 
quills blackish brown ; bill pale greenish horn, darker at the tip ; legs 
reddish flesh; iris orange. Culmen 7*1, wing 26*5, tail 9'6, tarsus 11'4 
inch. Sexes alike. 

Hob. India, straggling west to Astrachan, Gurieff, and the 
Caspian. 

In habits this crane does not differ from its congeners, but 
not being molested is less shy. It frequents similar localities, 
and makes a large nest of reeds, rushes, &c., and breeds in India 
from July to November, depositing 2 eggs, which are dull 
white or creamy buff, more or less marked with purplish grey 
shell-markings and brown surface spots and blotches, and 
measure about 3'96 by 2'56. 

1007. DEMOISELLE CRANE. 
GRUS VIRGO. 

Grus virgo (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 234 (1766; ; Naum. ix. p. 386, Taf. 
232 ; Dresser, vii. p. 353, pi. 506 ; Tegetmeier and Blyth, Nat. 
Hist. Cranes, p. 26 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 436 ; (Sharpe), 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. p. 269 ; (Blanf.), F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. 
p. 190 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 810 ; Lilford, iv. p. 153, pi. 65 ; 
(Blaauw), Monogr. Cranes, p. 35, pis. x. x.a, and xviii. fig. 1 (egg). 

Demoiselle de Numidie, French ; Grulla moruna, Span. ; 
Damigella di Numidia, Ital. ; Jungfernkranich, German ; 
Maloi-Juravl, Stepnoi-Juravl, Russ. ; Karkarra, Hindu. 

< ad. (S.E. Europe). Crown, nape, a line down the hind neck, upper 
parts, lower breast, and under parts ashy blue-grey ; forehead, sides of 
head, throat, and neck deep black ; feathers on the upper breast black, 
elongated, pointed ; from behind the eye on each side a full white tuft of 
feathers 4 to 5 inches long ; quills black, the inner short secondaries 
tinged with grey, the innermost ones blue-grey, long, pointed, tipped 
with blackish ; legs black ; bill olivaceous brown, reddish towards the 



722 GRUS 



point ; iris deep red. Culmen 2*8, wing 19'2, tail 7*0, tarsus 7*5 inch. 
Female similar but rather duller, the white tufts on the sides of the head 
smaller. 

Hob. Southern Europe, chiefly in the east, has strayed once 
to Orkney and Heligoland, and twice to Sweden; Africa in 
winter as far south as Natal ; Asia Minor, Central Asia, 
Mongolia, Dauria, and Northern China, wintering in India. 

Frequents large open plains, generally not far from water, 
which it can visit during the heat of the day. In habits it 
resembles G. communis, but is remarkable from its peculiar 
saltatory exercises in which it indulges in the spring. It feeds 
on grain, insects, worms, and even reptiles, and its note is a 
loud trumpet- like call. In the autumn and winter it often 
collects in large flocks. It breeds in May or June, not making 
any regular nest, but scratches a hole in the soil, round which 
it often collects small stones, and deposits 2 eggs, which 
resemble those of G. communis, but are as a rule darker and 
more clearly marked, and also smaller, measuring about 3 '31 
by 211. 

1008. WHITE-NECKED CRANE. 
GRUS VIPIO. 

Grus vipio, Pall. Zoog. Ross. As. ii. p. Ill ; David and Oust. Ois. 
Chine, p. 435 ; G. leucauchen, Temm. PL Col. v. pi. 449 (1838) ; 
Tegetm. and Blyth, Nat, Hist. Cranes, p. 35 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 804 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 352 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxiii. p. 266 ; (Blaauw), Monogr. Cranes, p. 49, pi. xiii. and 
pi. xviii. fig. 4 (egg) ? 

Tan-cho, Jap. 

ad. (Japan). Upper and under parts slaty grey, the latter darker ; wing- 
coverts paler, the greater ones white at the ends ; secondaries white at the 
base, otherwise black, the inner ones white, falcated and elongated ; tail 
dark grey ; forehead, orbital and aural regions bare, red, and covered with 
black hairs ; entire hind neck, sides of the upper neck and throat pure 
white ; bill greenish ; legs bluish pink ; iris brownish yellow. Culmen 
6'50, wing 24, tail 8'0, tarsus ll'O inch. Sexes alike. 

Hab. Eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Manchuria, Corea, Japan, 
North-eastern China in winter. 

In its general habits it is said to resemble G. virgo, and like 
that species indulges in peculiar saltatory exercises in the 
spring. It frequents open places, both dry and marshy, and is 
as a rule very shy and wary. Its nest is situated on a dry 



GRUSOTIS 723 



patch in the marshes, and its 2 eggs bear a considerable resem- 
blance to those of Cr. communis, but are larger, measuring about 
3-95 by 2-62. 

1009. SIBERIAN CRANE. 

GRUS LEUCOGERANUS. 

Or us leucogeranus, Pall. Eeis. Kuss. Keichs. ii. Anhang, p. 714, tab. 
F. (1773) ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 271 ; Temm. and Schlegel, 
Faun. Jap. p. 118, pi. 73 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 436 ; 
Dresser, vii. p. 359, pi. 507 ; Tegetm. and Blyth, Nat. Hist. 
Cranes, p. 38 ; Kadde, Orn. Cauc. p. 391 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. 
p. 349 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. p. 261 ; (Blaauw), 
Monogr. Cranes, p. 52, pi. xiv. and pi. xviii. fig. 5 (egg) ; Tacz. 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 809 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 187. 

Beloi-Jouravl, Sterkh, Russ. ; Kilgolok, Tartar. ; Kdre-7iar, 
Hindu. ; Shirat-dzuru, Sodeguro, Jap. 

<$ ad. (N.W. India). Entire plumage pure white except the primaries 
which are black ; inner secondaries and scapulars elongated ; fore part of 
head to behind the eye bare, with a few scattered hairs ; bill umber-brown ; 
the nasal membrane and basal part, and the bare part of the head red ; 
legs pale dull reddish pink ; iris bright pale yellow. Culmen 7 '4, wing 23'4, 
tail 8*0, tarsus 10'9 inch. Female similar but rather smaller. Young birds 
have the head feathered, dingy brown, and the plumage tinged with buff. 

Hob. Eastern Europe (rare), Mongolia, Manchuria, Eastern 
Siberia, Dauria, the Amoor and Ussuri country, Japan, Northern 
China ; a winter visitant to N.W. India. 

Frequents large open places and marshes, or localities where 
the water is shallow, and feeds on rush seeds, bulbs, corms, and 
even leaves of aquatic plants, being exclusively a vegetable 
eater. When not alarmed its note is a mere chirrup, and its 
alarm cry is very feeble as compared with that of other cranes, 
being a mere repetition of the syllables Karekhur. I do not 
find any particulars on record respecting its nidification, but it 
is said to breed in Mongolia, and Mr. Blaauw figures its egg. 

OTIS, Linn., 1766. 

1010. THE BUSTARD. 

OTIS TARDA. 

Otis tarda, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 264 (1766) ; Naum. vii. p. 13,Taf. 167, 
168 ; Hewitson, i. p. 285, pi. Ixxiii. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 267 ; 
id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 17 ; Dresser, vii. p. 369, pi. 508 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. p. 284 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 193 ; 
Saunders, p. 523 ; Lilford, v. p. 1, pi. i. 

3 B 



724 OTIS 

Outarde barbue, French ; Batarda, Portug. ; Abutarda, Span. ; 
Otarda, Ital. ; Grosstrappe, German ; Stor- Trappe, Dan. ; Stor- 
Trappe, Swed. : Dropha, Russ. ; Dudak, Tartar ; ffoubara, Arab. 

ad. (Spain). Head pale ashy grey ; hind neck and upper parts 
yellowish red, the latter barred with black ; tail at base and tip greyish 
white otherwise reddish, with a broad subterminal black band, the 
middle feathers with a central black band ; quills greyish black, the 
secondaries chiefly white ; larger median coverts and spurious wing greyish 
white ; at the base of the mandible on each side a bunch of long bristles ; 
throat and fore neck greyish white ; lower neck and breast reddish chestnut, 
marked with black, below which is a pale ashy grey band ; under parts 
white ; bill dull plumbeous grey, blackish towards the tip ; legs dirty 
earth-grey ; iris dark brown. Culmen 2'5, wing 26'0, tail ll'O, tarsus 6*2 
inch. The female is smaller, has the chin white, the head, neck, and 
upper breast pale French-grey, and the rufous pectoral band and whiskers 
are wanting. 

Hob. Central and Southern Europe, now rare in Southern 
Sweden, formerly an inhabitant of England but now an occa- 
sional straggler ; rare in North Africa, Asia Minor, and Central 
Asia, and has once occurred in North-west India. 

Inhabits plains, in preference grass land and cultivated 
localities where the country is open. It is eminently wary and 
shy, flies with ease, and usually when alarmed seeks safety 
in flight. It feeds on vegetable matter of various kinds, and to 
some extent also on insects. The nest is a mere depression in 
the soil, and the eggs, which are usually deposited in May, 
2 to 3 in number, are dull olive-brown or olive-green clouded 
with dark brown, sometimes almost uniform dull bluish, and 
measure about 3'22 by 212. 

1011. SIBERIAN BUSTARD. 
OTIS DYBOWSKII. 

Otis dybowsJcii, Tacz. J. f. 0. 1874, p. 331 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. 
p. 355 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. p. 286 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. O. 
p. 790. 

Toodok, Buriat ; No-gan, Jap. ; Ti-pou, Chinese. 

<J ad. Differs from 0. tarda in being smaller, the black dorsal bands 
are sparser, the wing-coverts white, the bristles at the base of the bill more 
numerous and pure white, the front of the neck covered with a full mane 
of long, narrow, curled white feathers. Culmen 3'0, wing 25'19, tail 
9*63, tarsus 5*52 inch. The young bird has fewer moustachial bristles and 
lacks the mane on the front of the neck. 



OT1STETRAX 725 



Hob. Dauria, the Ussuri country ; wintering in the north 
and middle of China, Manchuria, Corea, and Japan. 

In habits it is said to resemble our European bird, and like 
that it frequents open plains. Its eggs, which also closely 
resemble those of 0. tarda, are usually deposited in May or in 
June, in a depression scratched in the ground lined with dry 
grass, 4 being the usual number. 

TETRAX, Leach, 1816. 

1012. LITTLE BUSTARD. 

TETRAX CAMPESTRIS. 

Tetrax campestris, Leach, Syst. Cat. Mamm. &c. Brit. Mus. p. 28 (1816) ; 
Otis tetrax, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 264 (1766) ; Naum. vii. p. 52, 
Taf. 169 ; Hewitson, i. p. 287, pi. Ixxiii. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. 
pi. 269 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 18 ; Dresser, vii. p. 383, pi. 509 ; 
(Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. p. 287 ; Blanford, F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iv. p. 193 ; Saunders, p. 525 ; Lilford, v. p. 5, pi. 2. 

Canepdti&re, French ; Cizdo, Portug. ; Si-son, Span. ; Gallina- 
pratajola, Ital. ; Zwergtrappe, German ; Dvergtrappe, Dan. ; 
Strepet, Russ. ; Maesgaek, Tartar; Chota-tilur, Punjab. 

< ad. (Spain). Crown sandy brown marked with black ; sides of head; 
and throat plumbeous, marked with black, this colour extending in a V- 
shape down the neck ; below this a white collar, then glossy black all 
round lower neck and on fore breast, and then another white collar ; upper 
parts sandy brown barred and blotched with black ; primaries black, but 
white at base, the inner ones tipped with white ; secondaries white, the inner 
ones like the back ; larger wing-coverts white marked with black, the 
lesser like the back; middle tail-feathers like the back, the outermost 
white barred with black ; under parts white ; bill horn becoming black at 
tip, base of lower mandible yellowish ; legs ochreous ; iris reddish brown.. 
Culmen 0'70, wing 9'50, tail 4'50, tarsus 2'20 inch. In the winter the 
sides of the head, neck and fore neck are streaked and mixed black and 
buff, the breast thin and throat white. The female in spring has the 
upper parts paler, the sides of the head and neck sandy brown striped 
with black, the chin and under parts white, the breast tinged with ochre 
and marked with black. 

Hob. Central and Southern Europe, but as a straggler as far 
north as Sweden and Great Britain ; North Africa ; Asia Minor, 
and Central Asia, east to Afghanistan and N.W. India. 

Like its larger ally this Bustard inhabits open plains, more 
especially where the soil is under cultivation, and is extremely 

3 B 2 



726 TETRAX HOUBARA 

wary and difficult of approach, but it is said to squat down 
to escape observation. It feeds on vegetable substances and 
insects. During the pairing season the male utters a harsh cry, 
tree, tree, which may be heard at a considerable distance. Its 
nest is a mere depression in the soil, and the number of eggs, 
so far as my experience goes, is 3 to 4, but Mr. Aksakoff states 
that as many as 8 to 12 are deposited. These are usually laid in 
May, and vary from light greenish olive with indistinct brown 
blotches, to rich dark uniform olive brown, and are glossy in 
texture of shell ; in size they average about T95 by 1'45. 

Eupodotis arabs (Linn.), which inhabits Northern Africa, is 
said to occasionally occur just within the limits of the Palsearctic 
area but cannot well be included as a true Palsearctic species. 

HOUBARA, Bp., 1831. 

1013. HOUBARA BUSTARD. 

HOUBARA UNDULATA. 

Honiara undulata (Jacq.), Beitr. Gesch. Vb'g. p. 24, pi. 9 (1784) ; 
(Dresser), vii. p. 391, pi. 510 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. p. 320 ; 
Otis houbara, Desf. Mem. Acad. Koy. Sc. p. 496, pi. x. (1787) ; Gould, 
B. of E. iv. p. 268. 

Houbara, Raad, Arabic ; Begunez, Russ. 

$ ad. (N.Africa). Crown reddish ochreous marked with black ; a full 
crest of long white feathers ; chin white ; sides of head and neck, fore neck 
and hind neck white vermiculated with blackish and tinged with pale 
ochreous brown ; elongated ruff black on the sides, white in front of neck ; 
upper parts rufescent ochreous boldly barred with black ; the wing-coverts 
paler ; primaries white at the base, otherwise black ; tail rufescent 
ochreous with five bars of dove-blue, the terminal bars marked with black 
and tipped with white ; under parts white ; bill greyish brown, darker at 
the point, yellowish towards the base ; legs greenish yellowish grey ; iris 
greenish yellow. Culmen 1-8, wing 14'3, tail 8'5, tarsus 3'6 inch. The 
female is similar but with the crest and ruff less developed. 

Hob. North Africa ; Canaries ; a rare straggler to Spain, 
Southern France, Italy, and Greece ; Palestine ; Armenia. 

Inhabits open flat country, both the true desert and culti- 
vated localities, and like its allies is extremely shy and wary. 
It feeds on vegetable matter, insects, caterpillars, &c., and even 
small reptiles. In North Africa it is highly esteemed as a 
quarry by falconers. Its nest is a mere depression in the soil, 
and the eggs, 4 to 5 in number, are deposited in May, and are 
olivaceous brown blurred with dashes of dark brown and here 



HOUBARA(EDICNEMUS 727 

and there spotted with clear dark brown. In size they measure 
about 2*38 by 1*77, and are generally slightly pointed towards 
each end. 

The Fuerteventuran bird has been separated as a subspecific 
form under the name Otisundulatafuertaventurce, but I do not 
consider with sufficient reason. 

1014. MACQUEEN'S BUSTARD. 

HOUBARA MACQUEENI. 

Houbara macqueeni (Gray and Hardw.), 111. Ind. Zool. ii. pi. 47 (1834) ; 
(Naum.), xiii. p. 216, ( Taf. 170 ; (Gould), B. of As. vii. pi. 58 ; 
Newton, P.Z.S. 1861, pi. xxxix. fig. 5 (egg) ; (Dresser), vii. p. 395, 
pi. 511; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. p. 318; Blanf. F. Brit. 
Ind. Birds, iv. p. 196 ; Saunders, p. 527 ; Lilford, v. p. 10, pi. 3. 

Tiltir, Punjabi ; Taltir, Sindhi ; Holdra, Persian. 

g ad. (N.W. India). Differs from H. undulata in having the crest- 
feathers black on the terminal portion, the back finely vermiculated and 
blotched with black on a mfescent ochreous ground, the elongated pectoral 
feathers blue-grey, and not white, and the tail with only three bars ; bill 
blackish above, paler below ; legs and feet dull yellow ; iris yellow. 
Culmen 1*7, wing 15'4, tail 8'6, tarsus 3*9 inch. 

Hob. N.W. India; Afghanistan, Persia, Central Asia; a rare 
straggler to Europe, and has been met with in Germany, Poland, 
Finland, Oland, Belgium, Holland, and four times in Great 
Britain. 

In habits and nidification this species does not differ from 
H. undulata, and its eggs closely resemble those of that species. 

(EDICNEMUS, Temm., 1815. 
1015. STONE CURLEW. 

CEDICNEMUS SCOLOPAX. 

(Edicnemus scolopax (S. G. Grael.), Eeise Bussl. iii. p. 87, pi. 16 (1774) ; 
Dresser, vii. p. 401, pi. 512 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 204 ; 
Saunders, p. 529 ; Lilford, v. p. 11, pi. 4 ; Poynting, i. p. 6, pi. 1 ; 
C. cedicnemus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 255 (1766) ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 4 ; (E. crepitans, Temm. Man. d'Orn. p. 332 
(1815) ; Naum. vii. p. 92, Taf. 172 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 288 ; id. 
B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 35 ; Hewitson, i. p. 288, pi. Ixxiv. 

CEdicnbme criard, French; Alcaravao, Portug. ; Alcaravdn, 
Span. ; Occhione, Ital. ; Triel, Dickfuss, German ; Griel, Dutch ; 



728 (EDICNEMUSGLAREOLA 

Triel, Dan. ; Tjockfot, Swed. ; Avdotka, Ldshin, Kuss. ; El 
Karuana, Moor. ; Keruan, Arab. ; Karwanak, Barsiri, Hindu. 

$ ad. (England). Upper parts pale brown streaked with dark brown, 
the sides of the head paler ; a light streak over the eye and a dark one 
from the base of the mandible to the ear-coverts ; wings, when extended, 
with two distinct white bars ; base of tail and middle feathers mottled 
pale and dark brown, tail then whitish tipped with black ; under parts 
white, the breast, lower throat, and flanks washed with buff and streaked 
with blackish brown ; under tail-coverts rufous buff ; bill greenish yellow 
at base, blackish at point ; legs pale yellow ; iris golden yellow. Culmen 
T60, wing 9*5, tail 5'0, tarsus 3*0 inch. Sexes alike. The young bird 
resembles the adult, but the markings are less clearly denned. 

Hob. Temperate and Southern Europe, a migrant in the 
northern portions of its range, but otherwise chiefly resident ; 
Great Britain ; rare in Ireland ; accidental in Scandinavia ; 
North Africa south to Abyssinia ; Asia Minor and Asia east to 
India, Burma, and Ceylon, north into Central Asia. 

Inhabits open, flat country, chiefly desert sandy places, and 
not, as a rule, cultivated ground ; it is to some extent cre- 
puscular, and feeds late into the night. In its general habits 
it reminds one much of the Bustards. Its cry is a loud and 
shrill Curlew, chiefly uttered at night. It feeds on worms, 
insects, larvae, snails, &c. Its nest is hardly a depression on 
the soil in some dry place, and its eggs, 2 to 3 in number, are 
usually laid from early in April to the end of June, and are 
stone buff, sometimes with a greenish tinge, profusely spotted 
and blotched with blackish brown surface markings, and 
purplish grey or greyish brown shell blotches, and measure 
about 2*10 by 1*47. Sometimes two broods are reared in the 
season. 

GLAREOLA, Briss., 1760. 

1016. PRATINCOLE. 
GLAREOLA PRATIISTCOLA. 

Glareola pratincola (Lino.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 345 (1766); Gould, B. of 
Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 46 ; Dresser, vii. p. 411, pi. 513, fig. 1 ; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 53 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 216 ; 
Saunders, p. 531 ; Lilford, v. p. 15, pi. 5 ; Poynting, p. 7, pi. 2 ; 
G. torquata, Meyer, Taschenb. Deutsch. Vogelk. ii. p. 404 (1816) ; 
Naum. ix. p. 437, Taf. 234 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 290, pi. Ixxv. ; Gould, 
B. of E. iv. pi. 265. 



GLAREOLA 729 



Perdrix de mer, French ; Perdiz do mar, Portug. ; Canaster a, 
Span. ; Pernice di mare, Ital. ; Halsband-Giarol, German ; 
Tirkuschka-lugovaya, Russ. 

ad. (Spain;. Upper parts dull earth-brown ; nape, sides of head, and 
ear-coverts washed with rusty yellow ; primaries blackish with a faint 
greenish gloss j secondaries broadly tipped with white ; outer tail-feathers 
white on the outer web and on the base of inner web, otherwise blackish, 
the rest white on the basal, blackish on the terminal half; upper tail- 
coverts white ; lores and a streak passing under the eye, round the throat, 
forming a shield, black, the innermost part yellowish buff ; breast and 
flanks pale greyish brown ; rest of under parts white ; under wing-coverts 
and axillaries rich fox-red ; bill black, the base of lower, and basal edge of 
upper mandible red ; legs brownish black ; iris dark brown. Culmen 0'7, 
wing 7*5, tail, deeply forked, 4'8, the middle feathers 2*3 shorter than the 
outer ones, tarsus 1*25 inch. Sexes alike. The young bird has the 
feathers on the upper parts with paler and white margins, the throat dirty 
yellowish and the breast striped and marked with blackish. 

Hob. Southern Europe, occasionally straying as far north 
as Shetland ; North Africa, moving in winter as far south as 
Natal ; Asia Minor and Central Asia as far east as North-west 
India. 

Inhabits open flat ground and desert places in the vicinity 
of pools or swamps, and is very Plover-like in its general habits. 
It feeds on insects of various kinds, chiefly coleoptera, which it 
both picks up from the ground, and captures on the wing. Its 
note is a shrill whistle, kia, kia t usually uttered on the wing. 
It makes no nest, but deposits in May its 2 to 4 eggs in a slight 
depression on the ground. These are oval, varying from 
ochreous yellow to pale slate, richly spotted and blotched with 
greyish brown underlying-, and blackish brown surface- 
markings, and measure about 1'22 by 0'96. 

1017. SUBSP. GLAREOLA ORIENTALIS. 

Glareola orientalis, Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 132, pi. xiii. (1820) ; 
Gould, B. of Austral, vi. pi. 23 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, 
p. 431 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 58 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iv. p. 214 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. O. p. 813. 

ad. (India). Differs from G. pratincola in having the tail less 
forked, the secondaries not white at the ends, the lores black, the chin and 
throat pale rufous, and the breast more rufous. Culmen 0'65, wing 7^25, 
tail 3-15, the middle feathers about an inch only shorter than the outer 
ones, tarsus 1*3 inch. 



730 GLAREOLACURSORIUS 

Hob. India, Ceylon, Burma, the Andamans and Nicobars ; 
South-eastern Siberia, Mongolia, and China, south to the 
Malay Archipelago and North Australia. 

In habits and nidification it does not differ from G.pratincola, 
and its eggs are undistinguishable from those of that species. 

1018. NORDMANN'S PRATINCOLE. 
GLAREOLA MELANOPTERA. 

Glareola melanoptera, Nordin. Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. ii. p. 314 
(1842); Gould, B. of As. vii. pi. 63; Dresser, vii. p. 419, pi. 513, 
fig. 2 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 57 ; G. nordmanni, Fischer, 
Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. ii. p. 314, pi. 2 (1842). 

Tirkuschka stepnaya, Russ. 

< ad. (Ked Sea). Differs from G. pratincola in having the upper parts, 
breast, and flanks rather darker, the secondaries not tipped with white, 
and the under wing-coverts and axillaries jet black. Culmen 0*75, 
wing 7*3, tail 4*3, tarsus 1'4 inch. 



Hob. South-east Europe, in Russia north to about 
N. lat. ; Africa south to Natal; Asia Minor and Asia east to 
the Altai Mountains. 

In general habits and nidification it does not differ from 

G. pratincola, and its eggs resemble those of that species, but 

appear, as a rule, to have the ground-colour more ochreous in 
tinge and the markings are bolder. 



CURSOBIUS, Lath., 1790. 

1019. CREAM-COLOURED COURSER. 
CURSORIUS GALLICUS. 

Cursorius gallicus (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 692 (1788) ; Hewitson, Ibis, 
1859, p. 79, pi. ii. fig. 3 (egg) ; Gould, B. of E. pi. 266 ; id. B. of 
Gt. Brit, iv. pi. 44 ; Dresser, vii. p. 425, pi. 514 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 34 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 211 ; 
Saunders, p. 533 ; Lilford, v. p. 19, pi. 6 ; Poynting, p. 11, pi, 3 ; 
C. europceus, Lath. Ind. 0m. ii. p. 751 (1790)) ; Naum. vii. p. 77, 
Taf. 171 ; C. isalellmus, Meyer, Taschenb. Deutsch. Vogelk. ii. 
p. 328 (1810) ; C. isabellinus var. bogolubovi, Zarudn. Bull. Soc. Imp. 
Nat. Mosc. (7), Ixi. p. 327 (1885). 



CURSORIUSCHARADRIUS 731 

Courvite isabelle, French ; Corrione Hondo, Ital. ; Europdische- 
Eennwgel, German ; Keruan djebeli, Arab. ; Ungano-muchacho, 
in the Canaries. 

ad. (N. Africa). Forehead rufous isabelline, becoming grey towards 
the hind crown, which, with the nape is ashy blue-grey ; a broad white 
stripe above each eye, joining on the nape, and bordered below the eye 
underneath, and on the nape above with black ; upper parts rufescent 
isabelline ; primaries and primary coverts blackish ; middle tail-feathers 
like the back, the rest isabelline becoming whitish at the top, and with a 
subterminal blackish patch ; under parts isabelline, the lower abdomen 
nearly white, the breast tinged with grey, and the lower flanks tinged with 
blackish ; axillaries and under wing-surface black j beak dark horn but 
greyish at the base below ; legs greyish white ; iris dark brown. Culmen 
1-2, wing 6*05, tail 2'62, tarsus 2*15 inch. Sexes alike. The young bird 
is duller, has the plumage marked with crescentic dark lines and lacks the 
black, white, and blue on the head. 

Hob. North Africa, occasionally straying into continental 
Europe, and not seldom as far north as Great Britain ; occurred 
once in Denmark and once in Finland ; Canaries and Cape Verde 
Islands ; Asia, east to North-west India, and south to Arabia. 

Is essentially a desert bird, frequenting dry, arid, sandy 
plains. It is as a rule shy, and usually runs away, which it 
does with great swiftness, on the approach of an intruder, or 
squats on the sand, when it is difficult to distinguish it from 
the surroundings. Its alarm-note resembles that of a Plover, 
and in the pairing season it utters a note like rererer. It feeds 
on insects of various kinds. It makes no nest, but in March 
deposits its eggs, 2, occasionally 3, in number, in a depression 
in the sandy soil. These are stone-buff or stone-ochre, closely 
spotted and marbled with purplish grey underlying-, and 
reddish brown or dull brown surface-markings; occasionally 
there is a ring of darker spots round one end. In size they 
measure about 1'48 by T8. 

CHARADBIUS, Linn., 1766. 

1020. GOLDEN PLOVER. 
CHARADRIUS PLUVIALIS. 

Charadrius pluvialis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 254 (1766); Hewitson, ii. 
p. 291, pi. Ixxvi. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 294 ; Dresser, vii. 
p. 435, pis. 515 fig. 1, 518 figs. ], 2, 519 fig. 2 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 191 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 235 ; 
Saunders, p. 547 ; Lilford, v. p. 39, pi. 14 ; Poynting, p. 39, pi. 10 ; 
C. africarius, Linn, tit supra ; C. auratus, Suckow, Naturg. Th. ii. 
p. 1592 (1801) ; Naum. vii. p. 138, Taf. 173. 



732 CHARADRIUS 

Pluvier dord, French ; Tarambola, Portug. ; Chorlito, Span. ; 
Piviere, Ital. ; Gold-Regenpfeifer, German ; Goud Plevier, Dutch ; 
Brokfiigl, Norweg. and Dan. ; Ljung-pipare, Swed. ; Hutti, 
Lapp. ; Tunturikurmitsa, Finn. ; Rsharika, Sivka y Kuss. 

o ad. (Sweden). Crown, nape, and upper parts generally black or 
brownisli black, spotted and marked with golden yellow, and to a small 
extent with white ; forehead and super ciliary stripe whitish ; tail blackish, 
transversely marked with whitish and a little golden yellow ; sides of face, 
neck, breast, and under parts black ; flanks mottled with dusky ; sides of 
tail-coverts white ; under wing-coverts and axillaries white ; bill black ; 
legs bluish grey ; iris dark brown. Culmen TO, wing 7'1, tail 3'4, 
tarsus 1*6 inch. Sexes alike, except that the female has the breast some- 
what tinged with brown. In the winter the black on the throat, neck, 
and under parts is wanting, these parts being white ; chest and flanks 
mottled with greyish brown and washed with golden yellow. 

Hob. Europe generally, to the North Cape, breeding in 
Iceland, straying to Greenland, and breeding as far south as 
North Central Europe ; Africa in winter, south to Cape 
Colony ; Madeira ; Asia, east to the Yenesei river, south, 
occasionally, to India. 

Frequents open ground, moors, swampy localities, cultivated 
ground, and the sea-shore, and is as a rule shy and wary. It 
feeds on worms, insects, larvae, and to some extent on berries 
and seeds, and feeds chiefly at night, being semi-nocturnal. 
Its call-note resembles the syllable thd y and its nuptial call 
is a long shrill note, taludl-taludl-taludl-tahidl. Its nest is 
a mere depression in the ground, very scantily lined with 
a few grass-bents, and the eggs, usually 4 in number, are 
deposited late in April or early in May, and are pale clay- 
brown or yellowish grey in ground-colour, and sometimes 
reddish buff, spotted and blotched with purplish brown under- 
lying-, and rich dark brown overlying surface-markings, and 
in size measure about 2*0 by 1*28. 

1021. EASTERN GOLDEN PLOVER. 
CHARADRIUS DOMINICUS. 

Charadrius dominicus, P. L. S. Miiller, Natursyst. Suppl. p. 116 (1776) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 195 ; Kidgway, p. 174 ; Saunders, 
p. 549 ; Poynting, p. 49, pi. 12 ; C. fulous, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. 
p. 6"87 (1788) ; Dresser, vii. p. 443, pis. 516, 517, figs. 2, 3 ; Tacz. 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 815 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 234 ; 
Poynting, p. 45, pi. 11 ; C. virguncus, Licht. Verz. Doubt p. 70 
(1823). 



CHARADRIUSSQUATAROLA 733 



Chata-battan, Hindu. ; Muneguro-shigi, Jap. 

ad. (E. Asia). Differs from C. plumalis in being smaller, with the 
tarsus longer and more slender, and in having the axillaries smoky brown, 
and the under wing-coverts smoky brown with a dash of white here and 
there. Culmen 0-95, wing 6'25, tail 2'5, tarsus T55 inch. 

Hal. Asia east of the Yenesei, north to Kamchatka, east 
to Japan, south in winter through China, India, and the 
Philippines to Australia ; East Africa ; Greenland ; North and 
South America from the extreme north to Patagonia ; has 
occurred as a straggler in Great Britain, Heligoland, Poland, 
Spain, and Italy. 

In general habits it does not differ from C. pluvialis, but its 
note is said to differ, and to more resemble that of the Grey 
Plover. Its nest and eggs are also similar except that the 
latter are as a rule paler in ground-colour. In size they 
measure about 1*95 by T32. 

I agree with Dr. Sharpe in uniting the Asiatic and American 
species, though the Asiatic form is generally smaller, but it 
does not otherwise differ. 



SdUATAROLA, Leach, 1816. 

1022. GREY PLOVER. 
SQUATAROLA HELVETICA. 

Squatarola helvetica (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 250 (1766) ; Audub. B. Am. 
pi. 334 ; Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pis. 36, 37 ; Dresser, vii. p. 455, 
pis. 515 fig. 2, 517 fig. 1, 518 fig. 3, 519 fig. 1 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxiv. p. 182 ; Newton, P.Z.S. 1861, p. 398, pi. 39, fig. 2 (egg) ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 835 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 236 ; 
Saunders, p. 551 ; Lilford, v. p. 41, pi. 15 ; Poynting, p. 55, pis. 13, 
14 ; Ch. squatarola (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 252 (1766) ; Naum. 
vii. p. 249, Taf. 178 ; Bidgway, p. 173. 

Vanneau-Pluvier, French ; Tarambola, Portug. ; Avefria, 
Span,; Pivieressa, Ital. ; Kibitz-Regenpfeiffer, German; Goud- 
kievit, Dutch ; Strand-brokfugl, Dan. ; Kust-brcikfugl, Norweg. : 
Kust-pipare, Swed. ; Rantakurmitsa, Finn. ; Rshanka-tules, 
Russ. ; Barra-batan, Hindu. 

$ ad. (Spain). Forehead, sides of crown and of neck, flanks, abdomen, 
thighs, and under tail-coverts white ; crown, hind neck, and upper part 
black spotted and banded with white ; tail white barred with black ; 
sides of face, throat, and breast black ; under wing-coverts white or 



734 SQUAT AROLA^EGIALITIS 

whitish ; axillaries black ; bill black ; legs greyish black ; iris dark 
brown. Culmen 1*2, wing 7'5, tail 2'8, tarsus 1'65, hind toe 0'15 inch. 
Sexes alike. In winter the upper parts are greyish brown marked with 
darker brown and white, the under parts white, the throat striped with 
ashy brown, the breast and flanks indistinctly mottled with greyish brown. 
In all plumages this species is recognizable by its black axillaries and 
small hind toe. 

Hob. The extreme northern parts of Europe, Asia, and 
America ; in winter migrating south throughout Europe, Africa, 
Asia, Australia, North and South America. 

In general habits it resembles C. plumcdis, but it is more 
of a shore bird than that species. Its call-note is a sharp 
whistle readily distinguishable from that of C. plumalis. Its 
food consists of insects, worms, small shell-fish, &c. It breeds 
in the high north of Eastern Europe, Asia, and America, and 
like the Golden Plover it makes its nest, which is a mere 
depression scantily lined with grass-bents, moss, or leaves, on 
the ground, and deposits in June, or early in July, 4 eggs, 
which are intermediate in coloration and marking between 
those of the Lapwing and Golden Plover, but are subject 
to considerable variation ; in size they average 2*0 by 1*35. 



JEGIALITIS, Boie, 1822. 

1023. GREATER SAND PLOVER. 
JEGIALITIS MONGOLA. 

jEgialitis mongola (Pal!.), Eeis. Euss. Keichs. iii. App. p. 700 (1776) ; 
Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 308 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, 
p. 427 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 223 ; Blanf. F. Brit. 
Ind. Birds, iv. p. 238 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 822 ; Eidgway, 
p. 179 ; ^E. inornata (Gould), B. of Austr. vi. pi. 19. 

( ad. (China). Differs from sE. geoffroyi in being smaller, with a 
smaller bill and shorter tarsus, the patch on the side of the face (in 
breeding plumage) broader, and the rufous chest band separated from the 
white throat by a narrow black line. Culmen 0'75, wing 5*25, tail 2'2, 
tarsus 1 -2 inch. 

Hob. Eastern Asia, north to Kamchatka ; Dauria, Japan, 
Mongolia, Corea, China ; wintering in the Philippines, Moluccas, 
and Australia ; has occurred in Alaska. 

In habits it does not differ from JE. geoffroyi, with which 
it is very closely allied. It breeds on the sea-shore, the* nest 



^EGIALITIS 735 



being a depression in the ground sparingly lined with bents 
and leaves, and the eggs, 4 in number, are deposited in June, 
and are said to resemble those of dE. semipalmata, but are 
larger and have a somewhat deeper ground-colour, in some 
more olive, in others more buff. 

1024. SUBSP. ^EGIALITIS GEOFFROYI. 

^Egialitis geoffroyi (Wagl.), Syst. Av. Charadrius, No. 19 (1827) ; David 
and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 426 ; Dresser, vii. p. 475, pis. 520 fig. 2, 
521 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 217 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iv. p. 237 ; Charadrius leschenaulti, Less. Man. d'Orn. ii. 
p. 322 (1828) ; Layard, B. S. Afr. p. 299. 

ad. (Syria). Forehead white ; crown and nape pale reddish brown, 
the fore crown crossed by a black band ; upper parts dull sandy brown ; 
quills blackish, some of the inner secondaries white on the outer web ; 
from the base of the bill through the eye with the ear-coverts a black 
streak ; a broad rusty red band across the breast ; rest of under parts, 
axillaries, and under wing-coverts white ; upper flanks tinged with rusty 
red ; bill blackish ; legs plumbeous grey ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1*0, 
wing 5'7, tail 2'4, tarsus 1/5 inch. The female has the fore crown and 
stripe through the eye brownish grey. In the winter both sexes have the 
sides of the head pale ashy brown, the forehead, lores, chin, throat, and 
under parts white, the breast tinged with pale rusty buff. 

Hal. South-eastern Europe ; Central Asia ; Japan and 
China; wintering in Africa as far south as the Cape Colony 
and Madagascar ; India, the Philippines, and Malay Archipelago 
to Australia. 

Frequents the sea-coasts and the mouths of rivers, sand- 
banks, coral reefs, &c., and is a shy and wary bird. It feeds 
on worms, spawn, small insects, &c., and its note is a clear, 
flute-like whistle. With regard to its breeding habits I find 
nothing on record. An egg in the British Museum, said to 
belong to this species, is figured (Cat. Birds' Eggs, Brit. Mus. ii. 
pi. i. fig. 9), but I have great doubts as to its authenticity. 

1025. SUBSP. ^EGIALITIS PYRRHOTHORAX. 

^Egialitis pyrrhothorax, Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 299 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 226 ; ^E. mongolica, Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, 
p. 238 (nee. Pall.). 

ad. (Yarkand). Differs from dS. mongola in having the upper parts 
paler, the forehead entirely black with only a whitish spot in front of the 
eye, and the pectoral band paler. Culmen 07, wing 4'95, tail 1-9, 
tarsus 1-2 inch. 



736 ^GIALITIS 



Hob. Kirghis Steppes, Central Asia east to Tibet ; wintering 
in East Africa, India, and the Malay Peninsula and Islands. 

In habits it does not differ from ^E. geoffroyi. 

1026. CASPIAN PLOVER. 
^GIALITIS ASIATICA. 

jEgialitis asiatica (Pall.), Reis. Russ. Reichs. ii. p. 715 (1773) ; Naum. 
xiii. p. 225, Taf. 386, figs. 1, 2 ; Dresser, vii. p. 479, pis. 520 fig. 1, 
522 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 230 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iv. p. 239 ; Saunders, p. 537 ; Lilford, v. p. 27, pi. 9 ; 
Poynting, p. 23, pi. 5 ; ^E. caspia (Pall.), Zoogr. Ross. As. ii. 
p. 136, tab. Iviii. (1811). 

ad. (Kirghis Steppes). Forehead, a broad line over the eye, sides of 
head, chin, and throat white ; upper parts hair-brown, the scapulars 
margined with ochreous ; quills blackish brown ; tail dark hair-brown, 
most of the feathers tipped with white ; a broad pectoral band rich rust- 
red bordered above and below with black ; rest of under parts and 
axillaries pure white ; bill blackish ; legs ochreous yellow ; iris hazel. 
Culmen 1*0, wing 5*62, tail 2*1, tarsus 1*6. The female is rather paler 
and duller in colour, and the pectoral band is greyish brown tinged with 
rufous. In winter both sexes are like the female in summer, but have the 
pectoral band paler, greyer, and less distinct. Young birds have the 
feathers on the upper parts margined with ochreous buff or bufFy white, 
and almost lack the pectoral band. 

Hob. Transcaspia and Central Asia ; Africa as far south as 
the Cape Colony in winter ; has once been obtained in India ; 
a straggler to Europe west of the Volga, having been twice 
obtained in Heligoland, once in England, and once in Italy. 

Frequents sandy localities, chiefly inland, and the desert 
steppes, and in general habits does not appreciably differ from 
its allies. It breeds in the Kirghis steppes, on the eastern 
shores of the Caspian and in Turkestan, and deposits in May, 
in a mere depression on the ground, 3 eggs, which are ochreous 
in ground-colour, boldly blotched with blackish brown, and 
measure about 1'45 by 1*02. 

1027. EASTERN DOTTEREL. 
JEGIALITIS VEREDA. 

jEgialitis vereda (Gould), P.Z.S. 1848, p. 38 ; id. B. of Austr. vi. pi. 14 ; 
(David and Oust.), Ois. Chine, p. 425, pi. 120 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxiv. p. 232 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 240. 



sEGIALITIS 737 



ad. (Saigon). Differs from jE. asiatica in being larger, with the 
supercilium less distinct, the hind neck paler than the crown or back, and 
in having the under wing-lining and axillaries smoky brown and not 
white ; bill deep olive-brown, blacker on the terminal portion ; feet light 
brownish flesh-colour, the toes washed with grey, the joints blackish ; 
eyelids greyish black. Culmen I'l, wing 6'5, tail 2'5, tarsus T8 inch. In 
all plumages this species is distinguishable by its smoke-brown axillaries 
and under wing-coverts. 

Hob. Mongolia and Northern China ; the Malay Peninsula 
and Australia ; has been once obtained on the Andamans. 

In general habits it resembles its allies, and is said to be 
very shy and wary. Like d3. asiatica it frequents sandy 
plains, and is said to breed on the salt plains in S.E. Mongolia, 
sometimes at great distances from water, but I do not find any 
description of its eggs. 

1028. KENTISH PLOVER. 
JEGIALITIS CANTIANA. 

jEgialitls cantiana (Lath.), Ind. Orn. Suppl. p. 66 (1801); (Naum.), viL 
p. 210, Taf. 176 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 298, pi. Ixxvii. fig. 3 ; (Gould), 
B. of E. iv. pi. 298 ; (id.), B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 40 ; Dresser, vii. 
p. 483, pi. 523 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 430 ; (Seebohm), B. 
Jap. Emp. p. 309 ; Saunders, p. 543 ; Lilford, v. p. 35, pi. 12 ; Tacz. 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 833 ; Poynting, p. 33, pi. 8 ; ? ^E. alexandrina 
(Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 253 (1766) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mas. xxiv. 
p. 275 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 240. 

Pluvier a collier interrompu, French ; Lavandeira, Portug. ; 
Charran, Pillara, Span. ; Fratino, Ital. ; See-Begenpfeifer, 
German ; Strandplevier, Dutch ; Hvidbrystet Strandpiber, Dan. ; 
Sortbenet-Sandi*yle, Norweg. ; Svartbenta Strandpipare, Swed. ; 
Monkoi-suek, Russ. 

ad. (Kent). Forehead, a broad streak over the eye, sides of head 
and neck, under parts, axillaries, and under wing-coverts pure white ; above 
the white on the forehead a black patch ; crown and occiput reddish 
brown ; upper parts light brown ; primaries blackish brown, the shafts 
chiefly white ; middle tail-feathers blackish brown, the rest white ; lores, 
a streak through the eye, ear-coverts, and a patch on each side of the 
breast black ; bill and legs black ; iris dark brown. Culmen 0'8, wing 
3*95, tail 1*7, tarsus 1'05. The female has the black markings narrower, 
and the crown and occiput like the back, but paler. In the winter the 
feathers on the crown and occiput have brown margins and the black 
feathers on the head are blurred by white margins. 



738 ^GIALITIS 



Hob. Central and Southern Europe, north to the south coast 
of England and Southern Scandinavia ; Africa in winter, as far 
south as the Cape Colony ; Asia Minor and Asia east to Japan, 
north to Dauria, south in winter through India and China to 
Australia. 

Frequents the sea coasts, chiefly in sandy and shingly 
localities, and in general habits resembles ^. hiaticola. It breeds 
both on the coast and near inland waters, the nest being a 
mere depression in the soil, sand, or shingle, and the eggs, 3 in 
number, are usually deposited in May, and are deep ochreous 
in ground-colour, irregularly marked and blotched with greyish 
black underlying, and black surface spots and lines; in size 
they measure about 1*26 by 0'87. 

1029. RINGED PLOVER. 
JEGIALITIS HIATICOLA. 

zEgialitis hiaticula (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 253 (1766) ; (Naum.), vii. 
p. 191, Taf. 175 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 296, pi. Ixxvii. figs. 1, 2 ; 
(Gould), B. of E. iv. p. 296 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 41 ; Dresser, 
vii. p. 497, pi. 525 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 429 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 256 j Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 243 ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 827 ; Saunders, p. 539 ; Lilford, v. p. 29, 
pi. 10 ; Kidgway, p. 177 ; Poynting, p. 25, pi. 6. 

Pluvier d collier, French ; Lavadeira, Borrelho, Portug. ; 
Frailecillo, Andarios, Span. ; Corriere grosso, Ital. ; Sand-Lda, 
Icel. ; Halsband-Regenpfeifer, German ; Bontbekkige Plevier, 
Dutch ; Star Strandpiber, Dan. ; Storre Strandryle, Norweg. ; 
Storre-Strandpipare, Swed. ; TylliM, Finn. ; Puvidak, Lapp. ; 
Suek-Galstutschik, Russ. 

ad. (Sussex). Fore crown, a narrow line at the base of upper 
mandible, lores, a patch through the eye, and ear-coverts, a broad band 
crossing the lower throat, narrower behind, deep black ; forehead, a broad 
band passing above and behind the eye, throat, a collar passing round the 
neck above the black one, under parts of body, and wings and axillaries 
pure white ; hind crown, nape, and upper parts dull hair-brown ; quills 
blackish brown, some of the inner primaries with a white mark on the 
outer web, the secondaries largely white ; larger wing-coverts tipped with 
white ; middle tail-feathers brown, becoming black towards the tip ; the 
rest broadly tipped with white, the outermost white ; beak orange-yellow 
at base, black at the point ; legs orange ; iris brown. Culmen 0'65, wing 
5'0, tail 2'45, tarsus 0'92 inch. The female is somewhat duller in colour 
than the male, and in the winter both sexes have the black colour slightly 
sullied with dull grey. Young birds lack the black frontal and pectoral 
bands, and some of the feathers on the upper parts have pale margins. 



sEGIALITIS 739 



Hob. Europe generally, north to Spitsbergen; Africa in 
winter south to Cape Colony ; Asia east to Dauria, north to 
about 74 N. lat., and has occurred once or twice in India; 
Greenland, and eastern North America. 

Frequents the sea coast, except that some resort to inland 
warrens or heaths during the nesting season, and may generally 
be seen on places left bare by the receding tide, or following 
the receding waves in search of food, which consists of small 
crustaceans, marine worms, aquatic insects, &c. Its cry, which 
is often uttered as the bird runs along, is clear, loud, and 
plaintive. Its flight is swift and even, and in winter it collects 
in small flocks and often consorts with other waders. It breeds 
in April, and again in June, two broods being reared in the 
season, and deposits 4 eggs on the ground amongst pebbles, or 
on sand, sometimes far from the sea, in which case the nest is 
lined with pebbles or small stones, sometimes constructing, and 
at others not making, a regular nest. The eggs are clay-yellow 
or ochreous buff, boldly marked with blackish grey and lilac 
underlying, and black surface spots and blotches, and measure 
about 1-27 by TO. 

1030. LONG-BILLED ' RINGED PLOVER. 
^EGIALITIS PLACIDA. 

jEgialitis placida (Gray), Cat. Mamm. &c. Coll. Hodgs. 2nd ed. p. 70 
(1863) ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 428 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. 
Emp. p. 307 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 262 ; Blanf. F. Brit. 
Ind. Birds, iv. p. 244 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 825 ; ^Eg. hartingi, 
Swinhoe, P.Z.S. 1870, p. 136, pi. xii. 

Ikaru-chidori, Ojun, Jap. 

$ ad. (Japan). Differs from jE. hiaticola in being larger, in having 
the bill black and larger, no black at the base of the upper mandible, only 
a dusky line from the base of the bill to the eye, no white inner 
secondaries, and less white on the outer tail-feathers, the outermost on 
each side with a broad subterminal black band ; bill blackish brown, the 
base of the lower mandible orange-yellow ; legs and feet pale ochreous, 
claws black ; iris dark brown. Culmen 0'85, wing 5'7, tail 3'0, tarsus 1'35 
inch. 

Hob. South-eastern Siberia, Japan, Corea, Manchuria, and 
China ; west to North-eastern India, where it occurs in winter. 

In habits it does not differ from M. hiaticola, of which it is 
the eastern representative. It breeds in Japan late in May, 
nesting in stony places near rivers, and, according to Pere David, 

3 c 



740 ^EGIALITIS 



also near the Tche-kiang and Kiang-si rivers in China. Its 4 
eggs are pale stone-buff, finely dotted with blackish brown, and 
measure about 1*38 by 1 03. 

1031. SEMIPALMATED PLOVER. 
43GIALITIS SEMIPALMATA. 

jEgialitis semipalmata (Bp.), Obs. Wils. 1825, No. 219 ; (Audub.), B. 
Am. pi. 330 ; Nelson, Hep. Nat. Hist. Coll. in Alaska, p. 126 ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 250 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 829 ; Eidgway, p. 176. 

( ad. (Massachusetts). Differs from JE. hiaticola in having a distinct 
web between the inner and middle toes, and in having the black collar 
much narrower ; bill black, the basal half orange ; legs pale flesh-colour, 
the claws black ; iris deep hazel. Culmen 0*6, wing 4*68, tail 2'5, tarsus 
1-0 inch. 

Hob. North America generally, wintering in the West 
Indies, Central America, and South America to Brazil, Peru, 
and the Galapagos ; Plover Bay and Koliuchin Bay on the 
coast of Eastern Asia. 

In general habits it resembles ^. hiaticola, and, like that 
species, nests on the ground, usually near the sea. Its eggs are 
pale dull buff or olive-buff, speckled or irregularly spotted, 
chiefly on or round the larger end, with dark brown or black, 
and measure T26 by 0*94. 

1032. LITTLE RINGED PLOVER. 
^GIALITIS CURONICA. 

jEgialitis curonica (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 692 (1788) ; Dresser, vii. 

p. 491, pi. 524 ; Saunders, p. 541 ; Lilford, v. p. 33, pi. 11 ; 

Poynting, p. 31, pi. 7 ; 1 JE. dulia (Scop.), Del. Faun, et Flor. 

Insubr. ii. p. 93 (1786) ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 429 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 263 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, 

iv. p. 241 ; Bidgway, p. 177 ; ^E. minor (Wolf and Meyer), Vog. 

Deutschl. i. Heft 15, Taf. 5 (1805) ; (Naum.), vii. p. 225, Taf. 177 ; 

(Hewitson), ii. p. 299, pi. Ixxvii. fig. 4 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. 

p. 306 ; (Gould), B. of E. iv. pi. 297 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 42 ; 

Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 830. 

Petit Pluvier a collier, French ; Lavandeira, Portug. ; Andarios 
pequeno, Corriolet, Span. ; Corriere piccolo, Ital. ; Fluss-Regen- 
pfeifer, German ; Kleine Plemer, Dutch ; Lille Strandpiber, 
Dan. ; Mindre Strandryle, Norweg. ; Mindre Strandpipare, Swed. ; 
Pieni-rantaraukuja, Finn. ; Retschnoi-suek, Russ. ; Zirrea, Hindu. 



.EG I A LIT IS 741 



$ ad. (Southern Europe). Differs from &. hiaticola in being much 
smaller, and in having the shaft of the first primary alone white, those of 
the rest of the quills brown ; bill black with a small yellow patch at the 
base of the lower mandible ; legs deep fleshy yellow ; iris brown, the edge 
of the eyelid yellow. Culmen 0'62, wing 4'33, tail 2'3, tarsus 0'95 inch. 

Hob. Europe generally, north to Southern Scandinavia; of 
very accidental occurrence in the south of England ; Northern 
Africa in winter ; Asia east to Japan ; north to Dauria, south 
in summer in Mongolia, Manchuria, China, and Northern India, 
wintering in Southern India, the Moluccas, and as far south as 
New Guinea ; of doubtful occurrence in N.W. America. 

In general habits this bird resembles .&. hiaticola, but 
affects the vicinity of inland water, such as the banks of rivers 
and the shores of inland lakes and ponds, especially where the 
ground is sandy or pebbly. Its note is slightly different and 
more shrill than that of its larger ally. It nests on sandy or 
pebbly ground, or, as I noticed in Spain, it frequently makes 
use of a dry patch of cow-dung ; and it makes no nest. Its 
eggs, 4 in number, are usually deposited in May, and are 
stone-buff or stone-ochreous, rather finely spotted with purplish 
grey underlying shell-, and blackish brown surface-markings, 
measuring about 1*21 by 0'85. 

1033. KILLDEER PLOVER. 
7EGIALITIS VOCIFERA. 

^Efjlalitis vocifera (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 253 (1766) ; (Audubon), B. of 
Am. pi. 215 ; Dresser, ix. p. 345, pi. 708 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxiv. p. 242 ; Ridgway, p. 174 ; Saunders, p. 545 ; Lilford, v. 
p. 37, pi. 13 ; Poynting, p. 37, pi. 9. 

Tildeo, Mexican ; Pijije, in Costa Rica. 

ad. (New Jersey). Forehead, stripe above and behind the eye, chin, 
throat, collar round the hind neck, and under parts generally, white ; fore 
crown, stripe from the lores through the eye, collar round the lower neck, 
and a band across the breast black ; upper parts warm brown ; larger 
wing-coverts tipped with white ; middle tail-feathers brown, the next 
orange at the base, then black tipped with white, the outer ones white 
tinged with rufous, and barred with black ; upper tail-coverts rufous ; bill 
black ; legs dull greenish ; iris brown ; eyelids orange-red. Culmen 0'92, 
wing 6'35, tail 3*8, tarsus 1'45 inch. Sexes alike. The young have the 
feathers on the upper parts margined with pale rufous. 

Hob. The whole of temperate North America, wintering in 
the West Indies, Central America, and the northern portions of 

3 c 2 



742 .EGIALITIS 



South America; has occurred once in Hants and once on 
Tresco, one of the Scilly Islands. 

Frequents not only the coast, but is also found far inland, 
and is a noisy, restless bird, though not particularly shy. It 
runs with great swiftness, and is equally active on the wing. 
Its food consists of insects, worms, and Crustacea. It breeds 
from April to June, the nest being a mere depression in the 
ground, sparingly lined with a few grass-bents, and it is usually 
found nesting inland. The eggs, 4 in number, are pale clay buff 
or ochreous, blotched and spotted with black, with a few paler 
shell-markings, and occasionally with a few black streaks and 
lines ; in size they average T55 by 112. 



1034. KITTLITZ'S PLOVER. 
^BGIALITIS PECUARIA. 

itis pecuaria (Temm.), PI. Col. v. pi. 183 (1823) ; Halting, P.Z.S. 
1874, p. 457, pi. Ix. fig. 4 (egg) ; Dresser, ix. p. 341, pi. 709 ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 297 ; Charadrius Jcittlitzi, Reichenb. 
Syn. Av. ii. Tab. cv. fig. 1063 (1851) ; Layard, B. S. Af. p. 297 ; 
jE. varia, Harting, Ibis, 1873, p. 262, pi. viii. (nee. Linn.). 

Kanliiapraia, in Benguela ; Vikiviky, Kiboranto, Malagasy. 

(J ad. (Nile). Forehead, a broad line passing through the eye to the 
nape, chin, and throat white ; a narrow line on the fore crown, lores, and 
a band below the eye down the sides of the neck black ; upper parts 
dusky brown ; secondaries margined with white at the tips ; middle tail- 
feathers dusky brown, the outermost pure white, the rest greyish white ; 
lower throat and breast ochraceous rufous ; rest of under parts, under 
wing-coverts, and axillaries white ; bill and legs blackish ; iris dark brown. 
Culmen 0'74, wing4'0, tail 1'85, tarsus 1'2, bare part of tibia 0'65 inch. 
Female similar. Young birds lack the black on the forehead, and have the 
white on the head tinged with rusty red. 

Hob. North-east Africa from the Nile Delta, and the whole 
of Africa, except the extreme north-western portions, down to 
the Cape and Madagascar. 

In general habits it most nearly resembles the Little Ringed 
Plover. It breeds inland, though at no great distance from 
water, in South Africa in September, depositing its 4 eggs on 
the ground without making any regular nest. The eggs are 
olive-brown, irregularly and profusely marked with fine lines 
and spots of black, and measure about 1*21 by 0'82. 



EUDROMIAS 743 



EUDROMIAS, Brehm, 1831. 

1035. DOTTEREL. 
EUDROMIAS MORINELLUS. 

Eudromias morinellus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 254-(1766) ; (Naum.), vii. 
p. 163, Taf. 174 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 293, pi. Ixxvi. fig. 1 ; (Gould), 
B. of E. iv. pi. 295 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 43 ; Dresser, vii. 
p. 507, pi. 526 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 234 ; Tacz. 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 819 ; Saunders, p. 535 ; Lilford, v. p. 26, pi. 8 ; 
Poynting, p. 15, pi. 4. 

Pluvier guignard, French ; Medio chorlito, Span. ; Piviere 
tortolino, Ital. ; Morncll-Regenpfcifer, German ; Morinel-Plevier, 
Dutch ; Pomerantsfugl, Dan. and Norweg. ; Fjdllpipare, Swed. ; 
Kerjaralintu, Finn. ; Lahula, Lapp. ; Glupoi-suek, Russ. 

$ ad. (Sweden). Crown black, the forehead margined with white ; 
lores and a broad streak over the eye meeting round the occiput white ; 
upper parts greyish brown, feathers on the lower back and scapulars 
margined with fulvous yellow, the latter and inner secondaries faintly 
glossed with green ; short secondaries margined with white ; outer tail- 
feathers tipped with white ; chin and upper throat white ; ear-coverts and 
lower neck pale greyish brown ; on the lower neck a white band, narrowly 
edged above with black ; fore breast and flanks yellowish red ; lower 
breast and upper abdomen black; lower abdomen and under tail-coverts 
yellowish white ; under wing-coverts dull greyish ; bill blackish ; legs 
brownish green, the toes blackish grey ; the heel orange ; iris brown. 
Culmen 0*85, wing 6'0, tail 2*8, tarsus T5 inch. Female similar, but 
generally rather brighter coloured. In the winter both sexes have the 
crown and nape yellowish white, streaked with blackish, the white streak is 
narrower, the under parts dull isabelline, the breast streaked with brown, 
and the white band ill-defined. The young resemble the adult in winter 
dress, but have the upper parts margined with whitish. 

Hob. Northern Europe to within the Arctic Circle and 
Novaya Zemlya ; Great Britain ; Central and Southern Europe 
and North Africa on migration and in winter ; Northern Asia 
as far as the shores of the Arctic Ocean ; south in winter to 
Turkestan and Persia. 

Is essentially an inhabitant of the moorland and fell, and 
unless subjected to persecution is fearless and confiding. Its 
food consists of insects of various kinds and larvae. It breeds 
in the northern portions of its range, and at considerable 



7 4 4 EUDROM1ASPL U VIA NUS 

altitudes in the central portion, making no nest, but depositing 
late in May or early in June its 3 eggs, in a depression in the 
moss or herbage on the ground. The eggs are light stone-buff 
or dull buff sometimes with a green tinge, boldly blotched with 
black, some having a few dark purplish underlying shell- 
markings; in size they measure about 1*55 by 1*8. 



PLUVIANUS, Vieill., 1816. 

1036. BLACK-HEADED PLOVER. 

PLUVIANUS ^IGYPTIUS. 

Pluvianus cegyptius (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 254 (1766) ; Gould, B. of As. 
vii. pi. 62 ; Dresser, vii. p. 521, pi. 527 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxiv. p. 32 ; PL melanocephalus (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 692 

(1788). 

Ter-el-temsack, Arab. 

ad. (Egypt). Crown, sides of head, hind neck, back, and a band 
passing round and meeting on the breast purplish black ; a band all round 
the crown, rump, and under parts white ; lesser and median wing-coverts, 
scapulars, upper tail-coverts, and tail dark blue-grey, the tail tipped with 
white ; all but the middle feathers with a subterminal black band ; abdo- 
men, throat, and under tail-coverts washed with creamy rufescent ; bill 
blackish ; legs blue-grey ; iris dark brown. Cnlmen 0'9, wing 5'5, 
tail 2'65, tarsus T38. Sexes alike. 

Hob. Africa north to the Mediterranean, south to Angola 
on the west coast, and Nubia, the Blue and White Nile on the 
east side ; Algeria ; of rare or doubtful occurrence north of the 
Mediterranean, except in Palestine, where it has been obtained 
in the Jordan valley ; is said to have once occurred in Sweden. 

The present species, which is said to be the Trochilos of 
Herodotus, frequents sand-banks and the banks of rivers, and is 
extremely tame and confiding. During the breeding season it 
is noisy, its cry resembling the syllables ting-ting-ting-ting and 
tschi-tschi-tschi-tscki. Its food consists of worms, insects, and 
larvae. It does not make any regular nest, but deposits its 2 
eggs in a depression in the sand. These are not unlike those 
of the Cream-coloured Courser, are without gloss, somewhat 
coarse in grain, brownish ochreous in ground-colour, closely 
marked with ashy grey, yellowish brown, and reddish brown 
blotches and dots, and measure about 1'25 by 0*95. 



HOPLOPTERUSCHETTUSIA 745 



HOPLOPTERTJS, Bp., 1831. 

1037. SPUR-WINGED PLOVER. 

HOPLOPTERUS SPINOSUS. 

Hoplopterus spinosus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 256 (1766) ; (Gould), B. of 

E. iv. pi. 293 ; Dresser, vii. p. 539, pi. 530 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxiv. p. 157. 

Zic-zac, Arab. ; Pavoncella armata, Ital. 

ad. (Egypt). Crown, nape, chin, middle of throat and neck, and 
breast to lower abdomen glossy black : sides of head, neck, and of throat, 
hind neck, sides of rump, upper tail-coverts, base of tail, under surface of 
wings, crissum, and under tail-coverts white ; back, scapulars and inner 
secondaries pale buffy brown ; quills and tail, except at base, black, the 
latter narrowly tipped with white ; and outer part of wing-coverts white ; 
a sharp spur on the carpus ; bill and legs black ; iris lake-red. Culmen 1/2, 
wing 8*15, tail 4'2, tarsus 2*85 inch. Sexes alike. 

Hah. Africa south to Kordofan and the Niger district ; 
Palestine, Asia Minor, Southern Russia, Turkey, and has also 
occurred in Greece, Malta, and Italy ; in Asia it is said to have 
occurred as far east as Persia, but this is doubtful. 

In general habits it has much in common with Vanellus 
vulgaris, and like that bird is wary, restless, and noisy, and 
whenever an intruder is noticed it flies overhead uttering its 
warning cry, zac, zac, zac. It breeds in Egypt in March and 
April, its nest being a mere depression in the sand, and deposits 
3 or 4 eggs, which are greyish olive or warm dark ochreous, 
closely spotted and blotched with olive-brown and blackish, the 
markings being usually more numerous at the larger end ; in 
size they measure about 1*64 by 1'23. 

CHETTTJSIA, Bp., 1839. 

1038. SOCIABLE PLOVER. 

CHETTU8IA GREG ARIA. 

Chettusia yregaria (Pall.), Reise Russ. Eeichs. i. p. 456 (1771) ; Dresser, 
vii. p. 527, pi. 528 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 174 ; Blanf. 

F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 231 ; (Saunders), p. 553 ; Lilford, v. 
p. 24, pi. 7 ; Poynting, p. 59, pi. 15 ; C. keptuschka (Lepechin), 
Tageb. Reise Russ. Reichs. i. p. 229, footnote b (1774) j (Gould), B. 
of E. iv. pi. 292. 

Pavoncella gregaria, Ital. ; Keptuschka, Russ. 



746 CHETTUSIA 



ad. (S. Russia). Forehead, a broad streak above the eye passing 
round the nape, chin, upper throat, lower flanks, under wing surface, 
upper and under tail-coverts, thighs, secondaries, larger wing-coverts, sides 
of rump, and outer rectrices white ; crown, lores, a narrow streak behind 
the eye, primaries, and outer primary coverts jet black ; upper parts 
brownish ashy grey, the hind neck paler ; tail white with a broad sub- 
terminal" black band ; neck and breast ashy grey, the latter darker ; 
abdomen black but posteriorly rich chestnut-red ; legs and beak black ; 
iris brown. Culmen 1'5, wing 8'1, tail 3'6, tarsus 2*4, bare part of tibia 
1 ! inch. Sexes alike, and the winter dress similar. Young birds have 
the crown brown marked with black, the white on the head tinged with 
buff, the upper parts darker and with pale margins, and the black and 
chestnut on the abdomen wanting. 

Hal. South-eastern Europe; of rare occurrence in South 
Spain, Italy, once at Nice, once in Hungary, and once as far 
north as Lancashire ; Africa in winter as far south as Kordofan 
and Senaar ; Asia Minor and Central Asia, north and east to the 
Yenesei, south in winter to North-western India, Ceylon, and 
Arabia, 

In habits it much resembles the Lapwing, and frequents the 
uplands, the steppes, grassy and sandy plains, and cultivated 
ground, is somewhat shy, and not noisy, only occasionally 
uttering its peculiar cry, kretsch, kretsch, kretsch. Its food con- 
sists of insects of various kinds, especially coleoptera and grass- 
hoppers. It nests on hilly steppes, the nest being a hollow 
scratched in the ground, and lined with dry grass. The eggs, 
4 in number, are deposited late in May, and resemble those of 
V. vulgaris, but as a rule the ground-colour is paler and the 
markings less bold. 

1039. WHITE-TAILED PLOVER. 
CHETTUSIA LEUCURA. 

Chettusia leucura (Licht.), in Eversm. Reise nach Buchara, p. 137, 
(1823) ; Dresser, vii. p. 531, pi. 529 ; id. Ibis, 1902, p. 177, pi. vi. 
figs. 1, 2 (eggs) ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 171 ; Blanf. 
F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 233 ; C. villotcei, Audouin, Expl. somm. 
Descr. de 1'Egypte, p. 388, pi. vi. fig. 2 (1825) ; Shelley, B. of 
Egypt, p. 233 ; V.flavipes, Lesson, Traite d'Orn. p. 542 (1831). 

Chizi, in Cabul ; Chiric, in Afghanistan. 

<$ ad. (Turkestan). Upper parts brown with a lilac tinge on the back 
and wings ; upper tail-coverts, tail, most of the secondaries, flanks, under 
wing-coverts and upper throat white ; primaries black ; forehead and sides 



CHETTUSIALOBIVANELLUS 747 

of head pale brown ; fore neck brown ; breast ashy grey ; abdomen rosy 
buff or salmon-colour ; bill black ; legs yellow ; iris reddish brown, the 
edge of the eyelids red. Culmen T25, wing 6'7, tail 2'75, tarsus 2'55 inch. 
Sexes alike. The young birds lack the pink tinge on the upper parts 
and the feathers have pale margins. 

Hob. Southern Russia, Transcaspia: a rare straggler to 
Southern Europe, but has occurred in Southern France and 
Malta ; North Africa in winter ; in Asia it is found in Turke- 
stan, Persia, Afghanistan, and Northern India in winter. 

Is essentially a marsh bird, and is rarely found away from 
damp, marshy places. It is shy and wary, and is said never to 
consort with other waders in winter, but in the breeding season 
other species seek its society more especially on account of its 
wariness, for it immediately announces the advent of an intruder 
by its loud cry. It breeds in May, its nesfc being a heap of dry 
herbage, with a depression in the middle, and is placed in a 
damp locality, usually on the edge of a swamp, and the eggs, 2 
to 4 in number, are small editions of those of C. gregaria, being 
clay-yellow in ground-colour, marked all over, but generally 
more profusely at the larger end, with black, the shell-markings 
being duller and paler, and the surface spots and blotches 
deeper black. In size they measure about 1'55 by l'I3. 

LOBIVANELLUS, Strickl., 1841. 

1040. RED- WATTLED LAPWING. 

LOBIVANELLUS INDICUS. 

LoUvanellus indicus (Bodd.), Tabl. Pi. Enl. p. 50 (1783) ; Dresser, ix. 
p. 353, pi. 723 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 149 ; 
(Blanf.), F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 224 ; L. goensls (Gmel.), Syst. 
Nat. i. p. 706 (1788) ; Strickl. P.Z.S. 1841, p. 33. 

Titai, Titi, Hindu. ; Kiralla, Kibulla, Cing. 

<J ad. (Transcaspia). Head, neck, and breast deep black ; a broad 
streak from behind the eye down the neck, under parts below* the breast, 
and upper tail-coverts white ; fore back greyish white ; rest of upper 
parts brownish grey glossed with green, the median wing-coverts with 
reddish purple ; quills white at base, otherwise black, the inner secondaries 
nearly all white ; larger wing-coverts tipped with white ; tail black 
across the middle, otherwise white ; terminal half of bill black, the basal 
half, wattles in front of the eye, and eyelids lake-red ; legs and feet yellow ; 
iris crimson. Culmen 1*45, wing 8'22, tail 4'78, tarsus 3'2 inch. Sexes 
alike. The young bird has the crown brownish, the throat and sides of 
face white, and the feathers on the upper parts with sandy buff margins. 



748 LOBIVANELLUS 



Hcib. Transcaspia, rare in Persia, Eastern Asia to Assam ; 
Arabia, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, India, and Ceylon. 

Frequents the steppes near water, the borders of marshes, 
meadow-land, and river-banks, and though not shy is wary, 
especially when molested. It feeds on insects of various kinds, 
seldom on anything else. Its flight is Lapwing-like, but strong 
and tolerably rapid, and it is a noisy bird, and utters its loud 
cry both when on the wing and when on the ground. It breeds 
from March to August, usually in April, and deposits in a 
depression on the ground its 4 eggs, which are in character like 
those of a Lapwing, and vary in ground-colour from pale olive- 
green to ochreous and reddish buff, and are profusely marked 
with blackish brown or black ; in size they average about 1*64 
by T2. 

1041. GREY-HEADED LAPWING. 
LOBIVANELLUS CINEREUS. 

Lobivanellus cinereus (Blyth), J. As. Soc. Beng. xi. p. 587 (1842) ; 
Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 311 ; (David and Oust.), Ois. Chine, 
p. 422 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 133 ; (Blanf.), F. Brit. 
Ind. Birds, iv. p. 228 ; Berez. and Bianchi, Ptitz. Gansu, p. 3 ; 
L. inornatus, Temm. and Schleg. Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 106, pi. 63. 

Kire, Jap. 

$ ad. (Japan). Head, neck, and breast ashy grey, the hind neck and 
crown tinged with brown ; upper parts brown with a bronzy tinge ; 
primaries black ; short secondaries and the larger secondary coverts, 
sides of rump, and upper tail-coverts white ; tail white with a broad black 
subterminal band, bordered with brown ; the outermost feathers white ; 
upper breast crossed by a narrow black band ; rest of under parts and 
under wing-coverts white ; terminal half of bill black, the basal half, 
lappets, and edge of eyelids, legs and feet yellow ; claws black ; iris red. 
Calmen 1'5, wing 9*3, tail 4'3, tarsus 2 '92 inch. Sexes alike. In the 
winter the pectoral band is obscured, and the head and neck are tinged 
with brown. The young birds have the head and neck brown, the chin 
white, and lack the pectoral band. 

Hab. Japan, Corea, North China and Mongolia, wintering in 
Burma and Eastern India, and has occurred as far south as the 
Andamans. 

In habits it resembles the Lapwing, and like that bird is shy 
and wary, and when disturbed flies high above the intruder, 
uttering loud cries. It frequents damp, marshy localities, and 
feeds on insects. It breeds in April, depositing its 4 eggs in 
the grass, on the ridges which intersect the paddy fields. The 
eggs resemble those of V. vulgaris, but are not so pointed. 



VANELLUS 749 

VANELLUS, Briss., 1760. 

1042. THE LAPWING. 
VANELLUS VULGARIS. 

Vanellus vulgaris, Bechst. Orn. Taschenb. ii. p. 313 (1803) ; Dresser, vii. 
p. 545, pi. 531 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 230 ; Saunders, 
p. 555 ; Lilford, v. p. 43, pi. 16 ; Pointing, p. 63, pi. 16 ; 1 V. 
capella, Schaeff. Mus. Orn. p. 49 (1789) ; Tringa vanellus, Linn. 
Syst. Nat. i. p. 248 (1766) ; (Naum.), vii. p. 269, Taf. 179 ; (Sharpe), 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 166 ; (Ridgway), p. 172 ; V. cristatus, 
Wolf and Meyer, Hist. Nat. Ois. de 1'Allem. p. 110 (1805) ; Gould, 
B. of E. iv. p. 291 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 33 ; Hewitson, ii. 
p. 301, pi. Ixviii. ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 312 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 
0. p. 838. 

Vanneau dixhuit, French ; Abibe, Abecuinha, Portug. ; Ave 
fria, Span. ; Pavoncella comune, Ital. ; Kiebitz, German ; Kiemt y 
Dutch ; Vibe, Dan. and Norweg. .; Tofsvipa, Swed. ; Hyyppci, 
Finn. ; Pigolitza, Chilis, Russ. ; Tagere, Jap. 

cJ ad. (England). Forehead, crown, fore throat and upper breast 
velvety black ; nape, sides of neck and face and under parts white ; on 
the hind crown a long curved crest ; upper parts metallic green tinged 
with purple ; quills -purplish black ; wing-coverts violet- purple ; upper 
and under tail-coverts rust-red ; tail white on the basal, and black on the 
terminal half, the outer feathers nearly all white ; bill black ; legs 
brownish red ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1 '15, wing 8'8, tail 1*45, tarsus 
1-8 inch. Female duller with a shorter crest. In winter both sexes have 
the throat white, the breast-feathers tipped with white and those on the 
upper parts slightly buff-tipped. The young bird resembles the above 
winter dress, but has the sides of head and nape washed with buff, the 
pectoral band small, and the feathers on the upper parts edged with buff. 

Hob. The whole of Europe, north to the Arctic Circle; 
wintering in Southern Europe and North Africa ; Canaries ; 
Madeira, rare in the Azores; Asia Minor and Asia east to 
Japan, north to Dauria ; South China and N.W. India in 
winter. 

Inhabits the lowlands, plains, and moors except when breed- 
ing, in preference damp localities, and is shy and wary ; when 
disturbed, especially when breeding, it flies overhead, swooping 
and casting itself about uttering its wailing cry, pee-wit, pee-wit. 
It feeds on worms and insects of various kinds. It begins to 
breed late in March or early in April, its nest being a mere 
depression in the soil, scantily lined with grass. The eggs, 4 in 



750 VANELLUS STREPSILAS 



number, are brownish olive with a few purplish brown shell- 
blotches, and with many blackish brown surface spots and 
blotches, and measure about 1*73 by T35. 

STREPSILAS, Illiger, 1811. 

1043. TURNSTONE. 
STREPSILAS INTERPRES. 

Strepsilas interpres (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 248 (1766) ; Naum. vii. 
pi. 303, Taf. 180 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 303, pi. Ixxix. ; Dresser, vii. 
p. 555, pi. 532 ; Gould, B. of Austral, vii. pi. 39 ; id. B. of Gt. 
Brit, iv. pi. 60 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 92 ; Tacz. 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 845 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 223 ; 
Seebohm, B. Jap. Em p. p. 331 ; Saunders, p. 557 ; Lilford, v. p. 46, 
pi. 17 ; Poynting, p. 69, pi. 17 ; (Bidgway), p. 180 ; S. collaris. 
(Meyer and Wolf), Taschenb. ii. p. 383, footnote (1810) ; Gould, B. 
of E. iv. pi. 318. 

Tournepierre, French ; Ma^arico, Portug. ; Revuelve-piedras, 
Span. ; Voltapietre, Ital. ; Steinwaltzer, German ; Steenlooper, 
Dutch ; Tildra, Icel. ; Stenvender, Dan. ; Stenvcelter, Norweg. : 
HosJcarl, Swed. ; Groategollds, Lapp. ; Luotolainen, Finn. ; Kam- 
nescharka, Russ. ; Kio-jo-shigi, Jap. 

$ ad. (Norway). Head, throat, rump, tail-coverts, and under parts 
below the breast white ; crown and nape with black stripes ; a narrow 
band over the forehead, a stripe from the mandible to the breast, breast, 
and upper flanks black ; upper parts varied black, chestnut, and white ; 
tail white with a subterminal black band ; bill blackish ; legs orange-red ; 
iris dark brown. Culmen 1*0, wing 6'0, tail 2'5, tarsus I'O inch. Female 
rather duller, the head and nape darker. In winter both sexes have less 
chestnut in the plumage and the black feathers have white tips. The 
young bird has the head and nape dull brown marked with black ; upper 
parts blackish brown marked with buff and brown, the breast dull dark 
brown. 

Hob. Europe, north to Greenland, Iceland, and Novaya 
Zemlya ; Africa to the Cape, Madagascar, and the Mascarene 
Isles ; the Canaries, Madeira, and Azores ; Asia, north to the 
Arctic Ocean and Kamchatka, east to Japan, south through 
China, India, and the Philippines to Australia and New 
Zealand ; North and South America, the West Indies, and the 
Pacific Islands; is perhaps the most cosmopolitan species of 
bird. 

Frequents the sea shore, especially in rocky localities, and is 
comparatively seldom met with on the mud-flats. It feeds on 
marine worms, insects and their larvae, small crustaceans, &c. 



STREPSlLASHsEMA TO PUS 7 5 1 



It runs with ease, and its flight is strong and swift. Its note 
is a clear, loud whistle, kee, kee, kee, uttered first slow, then 
quicker. It breeds early in June on or near the sea coast, the 
nest being usually under a large stone or a bush, sparingly lined 
with grass-bents. The eggs, 4 in number, are dull greenish grey, 
with dull purplish underlying shell-markings and dark brown 
surface blotches and spots, and measure about 1 '62 by 1/21. 

HJEMATOPUS, Linn., 1766. 

1044. OYSTER-CATCHER. 
ELffiMATOPUS OSTRALEGOJS. 

Hcematopus ostralegus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 257 (1766) ; Naiim. vii. 
p. 325. Taf. 181 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 305, pi. Ixxx ; Gould, B. of E. 
iv. pi. 300 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit pi. 45 ; Dresser, vii. p. 567, pi. 533 ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 107 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, 
iv. p. 245 ; Saunders, p. 559 ; Lilford, v. p. 47, pi. 18 ; Poynting, 
p. 75, pi. 18; H. osculans, Swinhoe, P.Z.S. 1871, p. 405 ; Sharpe, 
op. cit. p. Ill ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 843. 

Huitrier pie, French ; Ostraceiro, Portug. ; Ostrero, Span. ; 
Beccaccia di mare, Ital. ; Austernfischer, German ; ScTwlekster, 
Dutch ; Tjaldr, Icel. ; Strandskade, Dan. ; Kjeld i Norweg. ; 
Strandskata, Swed. ; Cagan, Lapp. ; Rantaharakka, Piiski, Finn. ; 
Morskaya-soroka, Sorotschai, Russ. ; Darya-gajpaon, Hindu. 

$ ad. (Sweden). Head, neck, and back deep black ; a small spot 
under the eye, rump, upper tail-coverts, base of tail, under parts, and 
under surface of wings white ; quills black, the inner webs margined with 
white ; larger wing-coverts and some of the inner secondaries white ; tail 
black on the terminal portion ; bill orange-red, becoming yellow at the 
tip ; legs purplish flesh-red ; iris reddish ; edge of eyelid orange-red. 
Culmen 2 '85, wing 9*6, tail 4*4, tarsus 1'9 inch. Sexes alike. In winter 
the white spot under the eye is larger, and a white patch is on the throat. 

Hob. The whole of Europe, north to the Arctic Circle; 
Iceland ; Greenland ; Africa, in winter south to Mozambique and 
Senegambia ; Asia, east to Japan, north to Kamchatka, south in 
winter to South China, India, and Ceylon. 

Frequents the sea shores, especially rocky parts, and is 
comparatively seldom seen inland. Extremely shy and wary, it 
starts off at the slightest sign of danger, uttering its clear, loud 
whistle. It feeds on worms, limpets and other shell-fish, young 
crabs, &c., and notwithstanding its name I know of no evidence 
of its ever taking oysters. It breeds from the middle of April 
to the latter part of May, and deposits its 3, occasionally 4, eggs 



752 HCEMATOPUS RECUR VIROSTRA 



amongst the gravel, or stones, slightly above high-water mark. 
These are stone-buff with purplish grey underlying, and blackish 
of blackish brown surface spots and blotches, and measure about 
2-24 by 1-52. 

Dr. Sharpe grants specific rank to the East Asiatic bird 
(IT. osculans), but I cannot consider it even worthy of subspecific 
rank, as it only has, as a rule, less white on the outer primaries, 
and a somewhat longer bill, but even these slight differences do 
not appear to be constant. 

1045. AFRICAN BLACK OYSTER-CATCHER. 
H^MATOPUS MOQUINI. 

Hcematopus moquini, Bp. Comp. rend, xliii. p. 1020 (1856) ; Dresser, ix. 
p. 359, pi. 711 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 119 ; H. capensis 
(Licht.), Verz. Doubl. p. 73 (1823 nom. mid.) ; Meade Waldo, Ibis, 
1889, p. 13. 

Corveno, in Graciosa ; Grajo do Mar, on Lanzarote ; Cuervo 
marino, on Fuerteventura. 

<J ad. (Fuerteventura). Entire plumage dark sooty black ; bill and 
bare part round the eye coral-red ; legs deep crimson ; iris bright red. 
Culmen 3'45, wing 9'8, tail 4*3, tarsus 2'0 inch. Sexes alike. 

Hob. South Africa, north to the Red Sea and Gaboon : 
Canaries; Madeira. 

In habits it does not appear to differ from H. ostralegus. It 
breeds in the Canaries and in South Africa, depositing its eggs, 
usually 2, but sometimes 4, in number, on the sand or shingle 
just above high-water mark. The eggs are greyish cream- 
coloured, somewhat sparsely covered with coarse, irregular wavy, 
black and dark brown broken lines, and measure about 2*6 
by 1-9. 

According to Pallas (Zoogr. Ross. As. ii. p. 131), the West 
American Oyster-catcher, Hcematopus niger, occurs on the Kuril e 
Islands, but so far as I can ascertain no specimen has been 
obtained there. 

BECURVIROSTRA, Linn., 1766. 

1046. AVOCET. 
RECURVIROSTRA AVOCETTA. 

Recurvirostra avocetta, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 256 (1766) ; Naum. viii. 
p. 213, Taf. 204 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 339, pi. xcii. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of 
E. iv. pi. 308 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 53 ; Dresser, vii. p. 577, 



RECUR VIROSTRA HIMANTOPUS 753 



pi. 534; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 461 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxiv. p. 326 : Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 248 ; Tacz. 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 853 ; Saunders, p. 561 ; Lilford, v. p. 49, pi. 19 ; 
Poynting, p. 79, pi. 19. 

Avocette a nuque noire, French ; Alfayate, Frade, Portug. ; 
Boceta, Span. ; Avocetta, Ital. ; Avosett-sdbler, German ; Kluit, 
Dutch ; Klyde, Dan. and Norweg. ; Skarftdcka, Swed. ; Schilok- 
liovlca, Russ. ; Bou-mehet, Moor. ; Halebi, Arab. ; Kusya-chaha, 
Hindu. 

<J ad. (Spain). Crown, sides of head to below the eye, nape, hind 
neck, primaries, and wing-coverts, except those at the base of the wing, 
black ; rest of plumage white ; beak slender, curved upwards, black ; legs 
light blue ; iris reddish brown. Culmen 4'0, wing 8*5, tail 3'45, tarsus 
3'65 inch. Sexes alike. In the winter the black on the upper parts is 
sullied with grey, and the middle tail-feathers are tinged with brownish 
grey. 

Hob. Europe, north to Southern Sweden; formerly an in- 
habitant of, but now only an accidental visitant to Britain; 
Africa in winter as far south as the Cape Colony ; Asia, east to 
Mongolia and China, north to Dauria, south to India and Ceylon. 

Frequents damp marshy localities, and is exceedingly shy and 
wary. Its note is a clear, loud kluit, uttered several times in 
succession, and its food consists of small aquatic insects which 
it obtains from the surface by swaying sideways with the bill, 
the action reminding one forcibly of a mower cutting grass. It 
wades far in the water, and will when necessary swim, which it 
does with ease. It breeds in May, the nest being a depression 
in the soil, or the dry mud near the water, scantily lined with a 
few grass-bents, and the eggs, 3 to 4 in number, are clay-buff 
or stone-ochre with a faint greyish tinge, with blackish grey 
underlying shell-markings and bold black surface spots and 
blotches, and measure about 2'1 by 1*5. 

HIMANTOPUS, Briss., 1760. 

1047. BLACK-WINGED STILT. 

HIMANTOPUS CANDIDUS. 

Himantopus candidus, Bonnat. Tabl. Encycl. Meth. i. p. 24 (1791) ; 
Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 34 ; Dresser, vii. p. 587, pis. 535, 536 ; 
David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 462 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. 
p. 247 ; Saunders, p. 563 ; Poynting, p. 85, pi. 20 ; Charadrius himan- 
topus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 255 ; (Naum.), viii. p. 191, Taf. 203 ; 
(Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 310 ; H. melanopterus, Meyer, 
Ann. Wetter. Gesellsch. iii. p. 177 (1814) ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 289 ; 
Hewitson, ii. p. 342, pi. xcii. fig. 1 ; Lilford, v. p. 51, pi. 20. 



754 HIMANTOPUS PHALAROPUS 



EcJiasse blanche, French ; Fuzellos, Portug. ; Ciguenuela, Span. ; 
Cavalier cV Italia, Ital. ; Grauschivanziger Stelzenlaufer, German ; 
Steltkluit, Dutch ; Eodbenet-Styltelober, Dan. ; Chodulotschnik, 
Soldatka, Russ. ; Bou-k&aiha, Moor. ; Bidji, Sugdah, Arab. ; Gaj- 
paun, Tinghur, Hindu. 

<$ ad. (Sarepta). Hind crown, nape, and hind neck black intermixed 
with white ; upper portion of back and wings deep black glossed with 
bottle-green or purplish green ; outer tail-feathers white, the rest grey ; 
rest of plumage pure white ; bill blackish ; legs rose-pink ; iris deep 
carmine-red. Culmen 2'75, wing 9'5, tail 3'2, tarsus 4'6 inch. The 
female has the hind crown and nape with the hind neck dull blackish 
grey, and the back, scapulars, and inner secondaries dull blackish brown ; 
otherwise like the male. The male sometimes has the whole head and 
neck white. Young birds have the hind neck grey and the feathers on 
the upper parts with brownish white margins. 

Hob. Southern Europe, visiting Britain, Holland, Denmark, 
France, Switzerland, and Hungary ; the whole of Africa ; Central 
and Southern Asia, east to China, south to India and Ceylon. 

In habits it is as a rule tame and confiding. It steps daintily 
about or wades in the shallow water in search of food, which 
consists of gnats, aquatic insects of various kinds picked off 
the surface, and Iarva3. Its note is a clear, loud whistle, 
but it is not a noisy bird. It breeds in May, often in large 
communities, placing its nest on the dense floating herbage, in 
which case it is strongly built of rushes and reed-bents, or else 
on the dry mud, in which case the nest is a very slight 
structure. The eggs, 4 in number, are paler or darker warm 
stone-buff, boldly spotted and blotched with black or blackish 
brown, and measure about 171 by 1*23. 

PHALAROPUS, Briss., 1760. 

1048. RED-NECKED PHALAROPE. 

PHALAROPUS HYPERBOREUS. 

Phalaropus hyperboreus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 249 (1766) ; Hewitson, 
ii. p. 370, pi. civ. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. p. 336 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit, 
iv. pi. 83 ; Dresser, vii. p. 597, pis. 537, 539, fig. 2 ; (David and 
Oust.), Ois. Chine, p. 482 ; (Audubon), B. Am. v. p. 295, pi. 340 ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 698 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. 
p. 318 ; Bianf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 281 ; Saunders, p. 567 ; 
Lilford, v. p. 56, pi. 22 ; Poynting, p. 95, pi. 22 ; P. lobatus(Lum.), 
Syst. Nat. i. p. 149 (1766) ; Ridgway,p. 145; P. angustirostris, Naum. 
viii p. 240, Taf. 205 ; P. cinereus, Meyer, Taschenb. ii: p. 417, 
(1810) ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 848. 



PHALAROPUS 755 



Phalarope cendrtf, French ; Sekmalscknabliger- Wassertreter, Ger- 
man ; Sundhani, Odinshani, Icel. ; Odinshcme, Dan. ; Smalnwbet- 
Svomsneppe, Norweg. ; Smalnablad-Simsnappa, Swed. ; Kaitan- 
okka- Vesipddskynen, Finn. ; Pavgui, Lapp. ; Plavuntschik, Russ. 

( ad. (Lapland). Crown, nape, and upper parts sooty blackish, the 
back and scapulars margined with ochreous ; wings blackish, the coverts 
tipped with white ; tail blackish brown ; sides of face, a band across the 
breast, and flanks blackish, the first slightly marked with ochreous ; a 
bright fox-red patch on each side of the neck ; rest of under parts white ; 
bill blackish, the base of the lower mandible yellowish ; legs greyish 
plumbeous ; toes lobed, the webs paler ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1'05, 
wing 4'0, tail 1'95, tarsus 0'8 inch. The female is larger and brighter 
coloured. In winter the fore crown, lores, sides of head, and under parts 
are white ; hind crown, nape, and hind neck dusky brown ; mantle blackish 
brown with bufty white margins. 

Hal. Northern Europe, up to the North Cape ; Iceland ; 
Southern Europe and North Africa (rarely) in winter; Asia, 
north to Kamchatka, east to Japan, south in winter to China, 
India, and the Malay Archipelago; North America from the 
Arctic regions, south in winter to Guatemala. 

Frequents the sea coasts in winter and inland pools and lochs 
during the breeding season, and is extremely tame and confiding. 
It swims with ease, and even dives half under the surface of 
the water in search of its food, which consists of worms, small 
shrimps, Crustacea, and marine insects. Its flight closely re- 
sembles that of a Sandpiper, and its note is a clear tirrr. It 
breeds from early in June to July, its cup-shaped nest of grass 
and aquatic plants being placed on the wrack on the margins of, 
or more often in small islets in, lakes. The eggs, 4 in number, 
are clay-yellow, ochreous, or brown, spotted or blotched with 
dark umber-brown or blackish, and measure about 1/17 by 0'85. 

1049. GREY PHALAROPE. 
PHALAROPUS FULICARIUS. 

Phalaropus fulicarius (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 249 (1766) ; Aud. B. of 
Am. pi. 255; Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pis. 81, 82; Newton, 
P.Z.S. 1867, pi. xv. fig. 1 (egg) ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 481 ; 
Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 318 ; Dresser, vii. p. 605, pis. 538, 539, 
fig. 1 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 693 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 851 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 282 ; (Kidgway), p. 144 ; 
Saunders, p. 565 ; Lilford, v. p. 53, pi. 21 ; Poynting, p. 91, pi. 21 ; 
P. platyrhynchus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. p. 459 (1815) ; Naum. viii. 
p. 255, Taf. 206 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 337; P. lobatus (nee. Linn.) ; 
Hewitson, ii. p. 368, pi. civ. fig. 2. 

3 D 



756 PHALAROPUS SCOLOPAX 

Phalarope gris, French ; Falaropo rosso, ItaL. ; Plattsclmabliger 
Wassertreter, German ; Eosse Frangepoot. Dutch ; Thorsham, 
Icel. ; Bredncebet- Vandtrceder, Dan. ; Bredncebet-Svomsneppe, 
Norweg. ; Brednabbad-Simsnappa, Swed. ; Leveanokka- Vesipaas- 
kynen, Finn. ; Plosconosey-plavuntchik, Russ. 

9 ad. (Labrador). Crown, nape, chin, and base of bill black ; upper 
parts black margined with rusty yellow ; short secondaries margined, and 
wing-coverts tipped, with white ; upper tail-coverts rusty red marked with 
blackish brown ; middle tail-feathers blackish, the rest slate-grey ; a white 
patch on the sides of the head ; neck and under parts rich dark rusty 
red ; bill flat, yellowish, tipped with black ; legs dull olivaceous ; iris 
dark brown. Culmen 1*1, wing 5'35, tail 2*8, tarsus 0*85 inch. The 
male is smaller, duller in colour, and the white patch on the face is almost 
obsolete. In winter the upper parts are dark French-grey, the head, neck, 
and under parts white, with a broad blackish streak through and behind 
the eye. The young bird has the crown, hind neck, back, and scapulars 
blackish with ochreous margins ; wing-coverts, rump, and upper tail- 
coverts plumbeous bordered with buff and ochreous ; rest of head, neck, 
and under parts white, the throat and breast tinged with brownish buff. 

Hal. Breeds in Greenland, Iceland, Spitsbergen, not in 
Norway, and the extreme northern portions of the Old and 
New Worlds, ranging south in winter to the Mediterranean 
in Europe, to China, has once occurred in India, and is recorded 
from New Zealand ; on the American continent it occurs as far 
south as Chili in winter. 

In habits and nidification it closely resembles P. hyperloreus, 
but its note is said to be more Finch-like, and it usually nests 
on the small islands off the coast, and not on the main land. 
Its eggs, 4 in number, also resemble those of P. hyperboreus, but 
are as a rule somewhat stouter and larger, and some have a 
paler ground-colour. 

SCOLOPAX, Linn., 1766. 

1050. WOODCOCK. 
SCOLOPAX RUSTICULA. 

Scolopax rusticida (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 243 (1766) ; Naum, viii. 
p. 361, Taf, 211 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 348, pi. xcvi. ; Gould, B. of E. iv. 
pi. 3L9 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 77 ; Dresser, vii. p. 615, pi, 540 ; 
Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 347 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, 
:., p. 475 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 671 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. 0. 
p. 949 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 283 ; Eidgway, p. 149 ; 
Saunders, p. 569 ; Lilford, v. p. 58, pis. 23, 24 ; Poynting, p. 103, 
pi. 23. 



SCOLOPAXROSTRATULA 757 

Btcasse ordinaire, French ; Gallinkola, Portug. ; Becada, 
Chocha, Span. ; Beccaccia, Ital. ; Waldschnepfe, German ; 
Woudsnep, Dutch ; Skovsneppe, Dan. ; Eugde, Norweg. ; Morkulla, 
Swed. ; Lehtokurppa, Finn. ; Waldschnep, Shabashka, Russ. ; 
Simtitar, Hindu. ; Himar el hedjel, Moor. ; Hodo-shigi, Jap. 

ad. (Smyrna). Forehead dull light grey marked with dark brown ; 
hind head black crossed by three irregular yellowish buff and rusty brown 
bands ; upper parts reddish brown, barred and marked with black and 
warm ochreous ; tail black and marked with rusty red and tipped with 
buffy grey ; chin white ; sides of head greyish, marked with brown and 
rufous ; under parts dull rufous white with narrow undulating transverse 
dusky brown bars ; bill dull flesh-colour becoming dark brown at the end ; 
legs greyish flesh-brown ; iris blackish brown. Culmen 3*2, wing 7*7, 
tail 3 '35, tarsus 1*4 inch. Sexes alike. The young bird has the outer 
webs of the primaries with distinct fulvous notches, the upper parts rather 
darker, and the under parts paler. 

Hob. Northern Europe and Asia, north to about 66-67", 
breeding however as far south as the Azores, Canaries, Madeira, 
and the Himalayas ; wintering in South Europe, rarely in North 
Africa, in Japan, China, and India ; accidental in Eastern North 
America. 

Is chiefly nocturnal in its habits, remaining during the day- 
time till evening in dense covers, especially where the soil is 
damp, and feeding at night, its food consisting of worms and 
insects of various kinds. In the breeding season the male flies 
along certain regular routes, uttering its peculiar call orrt, orrt, 
pisp. Its nest is a hollow in the ground thickly lined with dry 
leaves, usually in the borders of a grove or a sparse thicket, and 
the eggs, 4 in number, are deposited late in April or early in 
May. These are creamy buff or dark stone-buff with pale dull 
purplish shell-markings and dark brown surface spots, these last 
being more numerous at the larger end. In size they measure 
about 175 by 1*32. The young are conveyed from the nest to their 
feeding grounds by being carried between the parents' thighs. 

KOSTRATULA, VieilL, 1816. 

1051. PAINTED SNIPE. 
ROSTRATULA CAPENSIS. 

Rostratula capensis (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 246 (1766) ; (Layard), B. of 
S. Afr. p. 334 ; (David and Oust), Ois. Chine, p. 480 ; (Milne-Edw. 
and Grandid.), Hist. Nat. Madag. pi. 261 and pi. 306, fig. 9 (eggs) ; 
(Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 340 ; Sharpe, Cat B. Br. Mus. xxiv. 
p. 683 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. pp. 293 ; R. bengalensit, 
(Linn.), torn. cit. i. p. 263. 

3 D 2 



758 ROSTRA TULAGALLINA GO 

Ohari, Nepal. ; Tibud, Panlawa, Mahr. ; Tama-shigi, Jap. 

ad. (India). Crown and nape olivaceous brown ; a broad median 
stripe, a narrow ring round, and a stripe behind the eye buff ; hind neck 
and fore back ashy brown narrowly dark barred ; upper parts black varied 
with rufous grey and yellow and washed with olivaceous ; a broad 
buff stripe on each side of the back ; wing- coverts and quills with ovate 
yellowish and rusty spots ; upper tail-coverts and tail blue-grey with 
yellowish ovate spots and bars ; chin nearly white ; throat and upper 
breast ashy brown with dull white stripes, bordered below with blackish ; 
sides of breast olive-brown and black ; rest of under parts white ; bill, legs, 
and iris olive-brown. Culmen 2*1, wing 5'0, tail 1*7, tarsus 1*7 inch. 
Female larger, much richer coloured ; sides of head rufous becoming 
chestnut-red on the throat down to the black band across the breast ; 
mantle dark lead-grey with narrow black bars ; a tuft of white lanceolate 
feathers under the scapulars in all ages. Young birds resemble the male 
adult. 

Hob. Africa south of the Sahara, but ranging in the east to 
the Nile Delta ; Madagascar ; Asia Minor (?) ; Afghanistan, 
Kashmir, and the Indian Peninsulas, east to Japan and China, 
south in winter to Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and the Philippines. 

Frequents moist or grassy localities often where there are 
bushes, is Rail-like in its general habits and flight, and hard 
to flush, affording poor sport. It feeds on insects and mollusca, 
and also to some extent on grain and grass seeds. The note 
of the female is a guttural croak, that of the male shriller. 
It is said to breed twice in the year, and in India its nest has 
been found at all seasons. The nest is a mere hollow in the 
ground, often with a pad of grass or rushes, and the eggs, 4 
in number, which are very small for the size of the bird, only 
measuring about 1'40 by 0*99, are clear yellowish buff, boldly 
blotched with rich brownish black, here and there becoming 
rich raw sienna-brown. 

GALLINAGO, Leach, 1816. 

1052. DOUBLE SNIPE. 
GALLINAGO MAJOR. 

Gallinago major (GmeL), Syst. Nat. i. p. 661 (1788) ; (Naum.), viii. 
p. 291, Taf. 208 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 351, pi. xcvii. ; (Gould), B. of E 
iv. pi. 320 ; id. B. of Gt Brit. iv. pi. 78 ; Dresser, vii. p. 631 
pi. 541 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 626 ; Saunders, p. 571 
Lilford, v. p. 59, pi. 25 ; Poynting, p. 109, pi. 24. 

Grande Bdcassine, French ; Narseja grande, Portug. ; Aga- 
chadiza-real, Span. ; Croccolone, Ital. ; Grosse Sumpfschnepfe, 






GALLINAGO 759 

Dop2Jelschnepfe, German ; Poelsnip, Dutch ; Tredcekker, Dan. ; 
Dobbelt-Bekhasin, Norweg. ; Dubbel Beclcasin, Swed. ; Heind- 
kurppa, Finn. ; Dupel, Leshenok, Russ. 

ad. (Denmark). Forehead and sides of head buffy white dotted 
with blackish brown ; centre of crown and nape black with a central pale 
buff streak ; upper parts blackish brown variegated with creamy buff 
and rufous ; a broad stripe on each side of the back creamy buff ; 
quills blackish brown ; wing-coverts tipped with dirty white ; middle 
tail-feathers blackish at base, then rufous variegated with black, the rest 
broadly tipped with white, the three outermost half white ; chin, neck, 
and throat buff, the two last marked with blackish brown ; under parts 
white closely barred with blackish brown, the breast and flanks tinged 
with buff ; bill dull flesh-coloured at the base darkening to black towards 
the end ; legs dull flesh-colour, the joints plumbeous ; iris dark brown. 
Culmen 2'4, wing 5'5, tail 2'5, tarsus T4 inch. Sexes alike. The young 
have the upper parts more rufous, the wings less marked with white, and 
the under parts more obscurely marked. 

Hal}. Northern Europe up j;o about 69 N. lat. in Norway, 
65 in Sweden and Russia, but not above 62 in Finland ; 
wintering in Southern Europe, and Africa as far south as the 
Cape Colony; Asia east to the Yenesei valley and Persia; a 
frequent visitor to Great Britain. 

Like the Woodcock the present species is chiefly nocturnal 
in its habits, and frequents swampy damp localities. It is 
always seen singly, never in wisps like the Common Snipe, 
and its flight is heavier and more direct. It may always be 
distinguished from that species by its shorter bill and legs, 
and by the large amount of white on the tail. In the spring 
they frequent regular " drumming " places, like some of the 
Grouse, and fight for the possession of the females. Its note 
bipbip, bipbiperere, biperere, may then be heard at some distance 
if the night is still. Its food consists of worms, small slugs, 
insects, and larvae, and it feeds chiefly at night. Its nest is a 
mere depression in the ground, sparingly lined with a few 
grass straws, and the eggs are usually deposited in June. 
These are pale olive-grey or olivaceous stone-buff with purplish 
grey underlying shell- markings, and bold blackish brown 
surface spots and blotches, and measure about 1*75 by T24. 

1053. SINGLE SNIPE. 
GALLINAGO CJELESTIS. 

Gallinago calestls (Frenzel), Beschr. Vog. und Eier Wittenb. p. 58, 
(1801) ; Dresser, vii. p. 641, pis. 542, 543 ; Saunders, p. 673 ; 



760 GALLINAGO 



Poynting, p. 115, -pi. 25; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 286 ; 
Scolopax gallinago, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 244 ; Naum. viii. p. 310, 
Taf. 209 j Hewitson, ii. p. 353, pi. xcviii. ; Gould, B. of E. iv. 
pi. 321, fig. 2 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 346 ; (Sharpe), Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 633 ; Lilford, v. p. 63, pi. 26 ; (Ridgway), 
p. 150 ; G. scolopacina, Bp. Comp. List. p. 52 (1838) ; Tacz. 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 960 ; Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 79 ; David 
and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 478 ; G. sabinii (Vigors), Trans. Linn. 
Soc. xiv. p. 557 (1825) ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 321, fig. 1 ; 
Lilford, v. p. 64, pi. 27 ; Poynting, p. 115, pi. 25. 

Ch&vre volante, French ; Narseja ordinaria, Portug. ; Aga- 
chadiza, Span. ; Beccacino reale, Ital. ; Moorschnepfe, German ; 
Watermip, Dutch ; Myrispita, Icel. ; Dobbelt Bekkasin, Dan. ; 
Enkelt Bekkasin, Norweg. ; Enkelbeckasin, Swed. ; Makastak, 
Lapp. ; Taivan-vuohi, Taivan-jaari, Finn. ; Bekass, BaracMk, 
Russ. ; Choseh, Arab. ; Boumonkar, Moor. ; Chaha, Bharak, 
Hindu. ; Ji-shigi, Jap. 

<J ad. (England). Crown blackish brown with a central and two 
lateral buff stripes ; upper parts black ^zaried with rufous and 
warm buff, the last forming long lines on each side of the back ; quills 
blackish, the first margined and the wing-coverts tipped and slightly 
barred with dull white ; middle tail-feathers black tipped with rufous 
marbled and barred with black, the rest rufous buff barred with blackish ; 
lores blackish ; neck, throat, and upper breast buffy white varied with 
blackish ; flanks and axillaries white barred with blackish ; bill pale 
reddish brown at the base, otherwise dark brown ; legs pale greenish ; iris 
dark brown. Culmen 2*8, wing 5*1, tail 2*4, tarsus 1*35. Female similar 
but a trifle larger. The young bird is duller in colour, and is more rufous, 
especially on the breast and neck. 

Sabine's Snipe (G. sabinii) is merely a melanite form. 

Hob. Europe generally, north to about 69 N. lat. ; Iceland, 
Greenland ; Madeira, Canaries, and Azores ; North Africa and 
Southern Europe in winter; Asia north to Kamchatka, east 
to Japan, south in winter to India, China, and as far south as 
Batchian ; of accidental occurrence in Bermuda. 

Inhabits marshes and damp localities, and is as a rule shy 
and wary. Though not strictly nocturnal it is crepuscular, 
feeding in the early morning and late evening, its food con- 
sisting chiefly of worms, in search of which it probes with its 
bill, the terminal portion of which is soft and sensitive. Its 
note is a double cluck, tjick-tjuck, tjick-tjuck, and in the spring 
it produces, when on the wing, a peculiar drumming or bleating 
sound, caused by the stiff tail feathers as the bird drops 
swiftly through the air with extended tail. The nest is a 



GALLINAGO 761 



mere depression in the ground, scantily lined with a few grass- 
bents, and the eggs, 4 in number, which are usually deposited 
in the latter part of April, vary in ground-colour from stone- 
greenish to greenish buff, with pale purplish grey underlying 
shell-markings, and umber-brown surface spots and blotches, 
and measure about 1'61 by 1*7. As a rule they are more 
heavily blotched at the larger end. 

In North America, the present species is replaced by a 
closely allied form, Gallinago delicata (Ord), differing in having 
16 tail-feathers instead of 14 as in G. ccelestis, the under wing- 
coverts and axillaries much more broadly barred with dull slate, 
the bill shorter, usually below 2*75, and the tarsus shorter. 
This form is said, on somewhat doubtful evidence, to have 
occurred in Britain. 

1054. PIN-TAILED SNIPE. 
GALLINAGO STENURA. 

Gallinago stenura (Kuhl), Me Bp. Ann. Stor. Nat. Bologna, iv. fasc. 
xiv. p. 335 (1830) ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 478 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 619 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 345 ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 959 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 289 ; 
Dresser, Ibis, 1802, p. 179, pi. vi. figs. 3, 6 



ad. (N. Siberia). Differs from G. ccelestis in having normally 
26 tail-feathers, the 10 middle ones broad, and the rest shorter, very 
narrow and stiff, the wing lining and axillaries more broadly barred, the 
bill not so broad at the point, and the white margins to the secondaries 
narrower or obsolete. Culmen 2 '35, wing 4'8, tail T8, tarsus 1'25 inch. 
Sexes alike. 

Hob. Siberia, west to the Yenesei valley, and has been 
recorded from Japan ; in winter is found in China, Corea, 
India, Ceylon, and the Malay archipelago. 

In habits it much resembles G. ccdestis, but owing to its 
beak being less sensitive it probes less and feeds more on 
insects, grubs, Crustacea, &c., than worms, is more often found 
on dry grass and stubbles, and its cry is somewhat dissimilar, 
and sharper. Its flight is heavier and more like that of 
G. major, and its drumming sounds like bubbling water, and is 
continued longer than that of G. ccelestis. It breeds on the 
Yenesei in about 65 40' N. lat., its nest being similar to that 
of G. ccelestis, but its 4 eggs are larger, more profusely marked, 
especially at the larger end, and have the ground-colour as 
in those of G. major. In size they average T65 by 1*18. 



762 GALLINAGO 



1055. SWINHOE'S SNIPE. 
GALLINAGO MEGALA. 

Gallinago megala, Swinhoe, Ibis, 1861, p. 343 ; David and Oust. Ois- 
Chine, p. 479 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 343 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxiv. p. 624 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. 0. p. 956. 

Rharaldzin, Buriat. ; Toutagaldzin, Tungus. 

<$ ad. (Lake Baikal). Differs from G. sienura in having 20 tail- 
feathers, the 5 lateral ones on each side attenuated, the under wing surface, 
axillaries, and flanks bolder and closely barred with black. Culmen 2*25, 
wing 5 '5, tail 2 '15, tarsus 1'33 inch. 

Hob. Eastern Siberia (the Southern Baikal, Dauria, the 
Amoor, and the Ussuri rivers) ; Japan ; Corea ; S.E. Mongolia ; 
China ; in winter south to the Philippines, Borneo, and the 
Moluccas. 

In habits it does not appear to differ from G. stenura, but 
its eggs seem to differ greatly from those of that species, 
being, according to Taczanowski, in form like those of Scolopax 
rust'icula, in colour pale cream or ochreous, the shell-markings 
reddish grey and the surface spots and markings reddish 
brown or brown, and measure about 1*63 by T22. 

1056. NEW HOLLAND SNIPE. 
GALLINAGO AUSTRALIS. 

Gallinago australis (Lath.), Ind. Orn. Suppl. p. Ixv. (1801) ; (Gould), 
B. of Austr. vi. pi. 40 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 342 ; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 652. 

Yama-sliigi, Jap. 

< ad. (Japan). Larger and stouter than G. cwlestis, the light markings 
on the upper parts paler, more buffy isabelline ; throat, neck, breast, and 
under tail-coverts washed with warm ochreous buff; the two outer tail- 
feathers somewhat attenuated ; bill yellowish olive at the base, otherwise 
brown ; legs olive yellowish ; iris dark brown. Culrnen 3*0, wing 6*4, 
tail 2 '2 5, tarsus 1 '35 inch. 

Hob. Japan, migrating south for the winter to Australia 
and Tasmania. 

In general habits it does not differ from G..ccelestis, but it 
flies heavier and sits closer, but on being flushed its note is 
similar, and it also frequents similar damp localities. It 



GAL LIN AGO 763 



breeds in Japan on Fuji-yama at 2,000 to 3,000 feet altitude 
in May and June, its nest being a hollow in the ground 
amongst grass, and its 4 eggs are stone-buff, blotched chiefly 
at the larger end with deep umber-brown, and measure about 
1-75 by 119. 

1057. SOLITARY SNIPE. 
GALLINAGO SOLITARIA. 

Gallinago solitaria, Hodgson, Glean, in Science, iii. p. 238 (1831) ; 
David and Oust, Ois. Chine, p. 476, pi. 122 ; (Temm. and Schlegel), 
Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 112, tab. Ixviii. ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. 
p. 342 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mas. xxiv. p. 654 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iv. p. 290 ; G. hy emails (Eversm.), Bull. Soc. Mosc. 1845, 
p. 257 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 953. 

(J ad. (Japan). Upper parts generally dark brown irregularly marked 
with rufous and white, not buff ; crown with an irregular median white 
stripe ; a line from the base of the bill to behind the eye and chin white ; 
quills brown very narrowly margined externally with whitish, the first 
mottled ; tail-feathers black at base, white towards the end, irregularly 
dark barred ; throat and breast brown, slightly marked with white ; rest 
of under parts white, all but middle of abdomen barred with blackish ; 
bill plumbeous, black at tip ; base of lower mandible yellowish brown ; 
feet dull olive green ; iris dark brown. Culmen 2 '9, wing 6 '4, tail 2 '85, 
tarsus 1*3 inch. Sexes alike. 

Hob. The Himalayas west to Afghanistan and the Altai ; 
Eastern Central Asia and Siberia ; north to Kamchatka ; Tibet ; 
Mongolia ; Japan ; in winter south to Northern India and 
China. 

Inhabits marshes as well as the vicinity of forests, and feeds 
chiefly on insects and grubs. In general habits and flight 
resembles G. stenura. Its nest and eggs are unknown. 

1058. JACK SNIPE. 
GALLINAGO GALLINULA. 

Gallinago yalUnula (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 244 (1766) ; (Naum.), viii. 
p. 344, Taf. 210; (Hewitson), p. 355, pi. xcix. ; (Gould), B. of E. 
iv. pi. 322 ; (id.), B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 80 ; Dresser, vii, p. 653, 
pi. 544 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 479 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. 
Enip. p. 344; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 665 ; (Tacz.), 
F. 0. ~Sib. 0. p. 964; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 292; 
, Saunders, p. 575; Lilford, v p. 67, pi. 28; Poynting, p. 119, 
pi. 26. 



764 GALLINAGOLIMICOLA 



Bdcassine sourde, French ; Narseja peqtiena, Portug. ; Aga- 
chadiza pequena, Span. ; Frullino, Ital. ; Ifalbschnepfe, German ; 
Bolcje, Dutch ; JErikelt-Beklcasin, Dan. ; Smaabekkasin, Norweg. ; 
Hcdfenkel-Beckasin, Swed. ; fJcca-mdkastak, Lapp. ; Pieni Taivan- 
jaara, Finn. ; Bekass-stooshik, Garschnep, Russ. 

<3 ad. (Lapland). A broad central and two superciliary stripes on the 
crown black, the crown marked with deep rufous ; rest of head yellowish 
buff; hind neck and fore back brown variegated with dark brown and 
white ; back and scapulars black glossed with green and purple and 
marked with chestnut ; a lateral ochreous stripe on each side ; wing-coverts 
margined with dull grey ; rump black glossed with purple ; tail black 
margined and mottled with rufous, the middle feathers elongated ; chin 
and upper throat white ; lower throat, breast, and flanks greyish buff 
clouded with reddish brown, and marked with dark brown ; rest of under 
parts white, the under tail-coverts striped with brown ; bill yellowish 
fleshy at base, otherwise blackish ; legs greyish, tinged with green at the 
joints ; iris dark brown. Culmen T7, wing 4'25, tail I'D, tarsus 0'95 inch. 
Female rather duller. In winter the upper parts are less glossed with 
green and purple. 

Hal. Northern Europe and Asia, north to above the Arctic 
Circle, breeding in the high north ; in winter south to Britain, 
the Mediterranean, North Africa, India, Ceylon, and China; 
rare in Japan in winter. 

Is less shy and lies closer than G. ccelestis, which it otherwise 
much resembles, and like that bird remains hidden during the 
day, and feeds in the evening and early morning, obtaining its 
food chiefly by probing in the soft soil of the damp places it 
frequents. It produces also a loud sound in the breeding season. 
Its nest is a hollow in the ground scantily lined with a few 
grass straws. The eggs, 4 in number, are very large for the 
size of the bird, and are usually deposited in June ; they 
resemble those of G-. ccelestis, but are more varied, often richer 
in colour, and measure about 1/55 by 1-05. 

LIMICOLA, Koch, 1816. 

1059. BROAD-BILLED SANDPIPER. 

LIMICOLA PLATYRHYNCHA. 

Limicola platyrhyncha (Temm.), Man. d'Orn. p. 398 (1815) ; (Hewitson), 
ii. p. 359, pi. c. ; (Gould), B. of E. iv. p. 331 ; Dresser, viii. 
p. 3, pi. 545 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 612 ; Blanf. F. 
Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 279 ; Saunders, p. 577 ; Lilford, v. p. 74, 
pi. 30 ; Poynting, p. 127j pi. 28 ; L. pygmcea, Koch (nee. Lath.)> 
Baier. Zool. p. 316 (1816) ; Naum. viii. p. 271, Taf. 207 ; Gould, 
B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 75. 



LI MIC OLA 765 



Gamlecchio frullino, Ital. ; Kleiner-SumpJtiiufer, German; 
Bredncebet-Strandlober, Dan. ; Brcdncebet Strandvibe, Norweg. ; 
Myrsndppa, Swed. ; Ucca-jaggiloddi, Lapp. ; Jankasirriainen, 
Finn. 

( c?. (Finland). Upper parts generally black with, narrow greyish 
yellow or rufous yellowish margins to the feathers, the crown and nape 
darker ; a whitish line over the eye to the nape ; rump, upper tail-coverts 3 
and middle elongated tail-feathers nearly all .black, the lateral tail-feathers 
grey edged with white ; secondaries and wing-coverts narrowly edged with 
dull white ; under parts white, the neck, throat, and flanks spotted with 
blackish brown ; bill blackish and green ; legs yellowish grey, the toes 
and joints plumbeous grey ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1'3, beak very 
broad, wing 4'1, tail T6, tarsus 0'88. Sexes alike. The adult in winter 
has the upper parts brownish ashy, the centre of the feathers darker ; 
rump feathers black with paler margins; wings and tail paler than in 
summer ; under parts white, the throat marked with small blackish grey 
striations. 

Hcib. Northern Europe, chiefly in the eastern portions, 
breeding within the Arctic Circle, and migrating south in 
winter to Southern Europe and even North Africa; a rare 
straggler to Britain; Asia east to Western Siberia. 

Differs from the Sandpipers chiefly in affecting at all seasons 
of the year fresh water and marshes and not the sea coast, and 
on passage it is not met with in large flocks. On the wing it 
behaves much like a Snipe, but when on the ground it skulks, 
unlike the Sandpipers. It is a rather silent bird, and I have 
never heard its note, which is described as too-who, rapidly 
repeated. Its food consists of insects of various kinds and 
larvaB. It breeds in June in the large marshes of Dovrefjeld and 
in Lapland, but not west of the Luled Valley nor in Finmark, 
in open soft places, the nest being a neatly rounded hollow, 
lined with a few grass- bents. The eggs, 4 in number, vary 
considerably; the ground-colour is lighter or darker stone- 
buff, the shell-markings sparse and faint purplish grey, and 
the surface-markings dark umber-brown or umber-red, some 
eggs having these so profuse as to appear uniform coffee-red 
or dark coffee-brown; in size they vary from T22 by 0*85 to 
1-25 by 0-93. 

1060. SUBSP. LlMICOLA SIB1RICA. 

Limicola sibirica, Dresser, P.Z.S. 1876, p. 674 ; Bogd. Consp. Av. Imp. 
Boss. p. 101 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. O. p. 924 ; L. platyrhyncJia (nee. 
Temm.), David and Oust. Oie. Chine, p. 470; Seebohm, B. Jap. 
Emp. p. 337 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 612, partim. 



7 6C LIMICOLATRINGA 



$ ad. (E. Siberia). Differs from L. platyrliyncha in having the upper 
parts more rufous, not so black, the feathers with tolerably broad pale 
margins. In winter dress similar to L. platyrhyncha. 

Hal. The Southern Baikal, the shores of the Sea of Ochotsk ; 
Japan and China in winter. 

This is merely an eastern race of our common Broad-billed 
Sandpiper, and does not differ from it in habits. Its nest and 
eggs are as yet unknown. 

TBINGA, Linn., 1766. 

1061. PECTORAL SANDPIPER. 

TRINGA MACULATA. 

Tringa maculata, Yieill. Nouv. Diet, xxxiv. p. 465 (1819) ; Dresser, viii. 
p. 11, pi. 546 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 562 ; Kidgway, 
p. 156 ; Saunders, p. 579 ; Lilford, v. pp. 76, 78, pis. 31, 32 ; 
Poynting, p. 135, pi. 29 ; T. pectoralis (Say), in Longs. Exp. i. 
p. 171 (1823) ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 327 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit, iv- 
pi. 67 ; Audub. B. Am. 8vo ed., v. p. 259, pi. 329. 

ad. (N. America). Crown and upper parts blackish brown with 
greyish and ochreous buff margins, the rump blackish ; middle tail- 
feathers blackish, narrowly margined with ochreous brown, the rest dusky 
cinereous tipped with white ; primaries blackish, the shaft of the first one 
white ; wing-coverts blackish grey with pale grey margins ; chin white ; 
sides of head, neck, upper breast, and flanks greyish, clearly striped with 
blackish brown, the last washed with pale buff ; bill greenish black, light 
olive-green at base ; legs clay-yellow ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1*2, 
wing 5'0, tail 2'3, tarsus 1*1 inch. Sexes alike. In autumn the feathers 
on the upper parts are more uniform, the lighter markings less buffy, and 
the black less distinct, the throat and breast whiter and less distinctly 
striped. 

Hob. Arctic and subarctic North America in summer, migrat- 
ing south to the West Indies and South America for the winter ; 
Greenland ; of accidental occurrence in Great Britain. 

Frequents damp localities, meadow-land and marshes, and on 
migration is not found in flocks but singly or in pairs, and when 
flushed rises like a Snipe, uttering a sharp cry. Like its allies 
it feeds on coleoptera larvae, small aquatic insects, and also on 
some species of seaweed. In the spring the male inflates its 
throat to more than double the natural size, and utters a deep, 
hollow, resonant, but musical note, too-ii, too-d, many times 
repeated, this note or song being uttered both when on the 



T RING A 767 



wing and on the ground. It breeds in Arctic America on the 
ground, usually in a tuft of grass, and in June deposits 4 eggs, 
which are drab, sometimes with a greenish tinge, spotted 
and blotched with umber-brown, and measure about T49 by 
1-07. 

1062. SHARP-TAILED SANDPIPER. 

TRINGA ACUMINATA. 

Tringa acuminata (Horst), Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 192 (1821) ; David 
and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 470 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 339 ; 
Dresser, ix. p. 363, pi. 712 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mns. xxiv. p. 566 ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 908 ; Saunders, p. 580 ; Ridgway, p. 155 ; 
Nelson, Nat. Hist. Alaska, p. 106, pi. vii. ; T. australis (nee. Gmel.), 
Gould, B. of Austral, vi. pi. 30. 

ad. (China). Crown rusty red striped with black ; upper parts 
more rufous than T. maculata ; shafts of quills all white for a portion of 
their length ; tail-feathers blackish margined with white, the middle ones 
elongated and rufous margined, all the feathers pointed ; a streak over the 
eye white spotted with black ; under parts white, the throat and breast 
spotted with black ; the breast and flanks washed with rufous ; the 
rest of the under parts with squamate black markings ; bill olivaceous 
at the base, otherwise blackish brown ; legs yellowish olive ; iris hazel - 
brown. Culmen 1*25, wing 5*3, tail 2-15, tarsus T2 inch. Sexes alike. In 
winter the crown is rusty, the rest of upper parts greyish brown streaked 
with dusky ; superciliary stripe and under parts white ; breast greyish 
buff with indistinct dusky streaks. The young bird resembles the adult in 
winter but is darker above. 

Hob. Kamchatka and Alaska; Eastern Siberia; Japan in 
winter and south to the Pelew, Sunda, and Molucca Islands, 
New Guinea, New Ireland, the Friendly Islands, Australia and 
New Zealand ; has occurred twice in England. 

In habits it resembles T. maculata, with which species it 
often associates. Its note, when taking wing, is said to be a 
soft metallic pleep, pleep. It doubtless breeds in North-eastern 
Siberia, but its nest and eggs are unknown. 

1063. BAIRD'S SANDPIPER. 
TRINGA BAIRDI. 

Tringa bairdi (Coues), Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1861, p. 194 ; 
(Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 570 ; Kidgway, p. 157 ; Tacz. 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 922. 

< ad. (N. America). Upper parts generally blackish margined with 
sandy and rufous buff ; the crown greyish buff streaked with brownish 



768 T RING A 



black ; the rump and upper tail-coverts black, marked with warm sandy 
buff, the lateral coverts white, banded with dusky brown ; tail greyish 
brown, the middle feathers rather darker and longer ; under parts white, 
the throat, breast, and flanks washed with buff and finely striped with 
brown ; bill black ; legs and feet slaty black ; iris brown. Culmen I'O, 
wing 4'7, tail 2 '2, tarsus 0'95 inch. In winter the upper parts are greyish 
brown with dusky mesial streaks. The young bird has the dorsal feathers 
narrowly margined with dull white, and the streaks on the throat are less 
clearly defined. 

Hob. America generally, breeding in the high north and 
migrating for the winter down to Chili and Argentina; the 
Chukche Peninsula, N. Siberia ; has occurred in Damaraland, 
and once in England. 

In general habits it does not differ from its allies, but is said 
to be generally seen solitary or in pairs. It breeds late in June, 
the nest being a depression in the ground, scantily lined, and 
well hidden in the grass. The 4 eggs are light creamy buff, 
sometimes tinged with rusty, thickly speckled and spotted with 
deep reddish brown or chestnut, and measure about 1*30 by 
0-93. 

1064. BONAPARTE'S SANDPIPER. 

TRINGA FUSCICOLLIS. 

Tringa fuscicollis, Vieill. Now. Diet, xxxiv. p. 461 (1819) ; Dresser, 
viii. p. 15, pi. 547 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 574 ; Ridgway, 
p. 157 ; Saunders, p. 581 ; Poynting, p. 141, pi. 30; Lilford, v. 
p. 80, pi. 33 ; T. bonapartii, Schlegel, Rev. Grit. p. Ixxxix. (1844) ; 
Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 71. 

ad. (Wisconsin). Differs from its near allies in having the upper 
tail-coverts white ; upper parts brownish grey marked with ochraceous 
and rusty reddish, and striped with black ; under parts white ; lower 
throat, breast, and flanks clearly spotted with blackish brown ; bill 
blackish, at base dull green ; legs dusky greenish ; iris blackish brown. 
Culmen I'l, wing 4'7, tail 1 '8, tarsus I'O inch. Sexes alike. In winter 
the upper parts are dull greyish brown, with darker streaks, and the 
markings on the breast are less distinct. The young bird has the upper 
parts with whitish margins, and the neck and breast washed with greyish 
buff, the markings ill-defined. 

Hob. Eastern North America, breeding far north, and in 
winter passing through the West Indies and Eastern South 
America to the Falkland Islands ; of accidental occurrence in 
Britain. 

In habits it does not differ from its allies, and is generally to 
be found in marshy places near the coast. It breeds in Arctic 



T RING A 761> 



America near Franklin Bay, its nest being a shallow cavity in 
the ground lined with a few decayed leaves, and late in June 
or early in July it deposits 4 eggs, which are rufous drab, 
boldly marked with dark sepia-brown or blackish brown, those 
at the larger end being almost confluent ; in size they measure 
1-35 by 0-95. 

1065. DUNLIN. 
TRINGA ALPINA. 

Tringa alpina, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 249 (1766) ; Naum. vii. p. 426, 
Taf. 186 ; Dresser, viii. p. 21, pi. 548 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxiv. p. 602 ; Saunders, p. 583 ; Lilford, v. p. 81, pi. 34; Blanf. 
F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 279 ; T. variabilis, Meyer, Ann. Wetteran. 
Gesellsch. i. p. 275 (1809) ; Hewitson, ii. p. 364, pi. cii. ; T. cinclus, 
Linn. torn. cit. p. 251 ; T. schinzii (Brehm), Vog. Deutschl. p. 663 
(1831) ; Naum. vii. p. 453, Taf. 187. 

Btcasseau variable, French ; Churrilla, Span. ; Piovanella 
panda nera, Ital. ; Alpen-Strandlaufer, German; Strandbockje 
Dutch ; Louthrcell, Icel. ; Almindelig-Ryle, Dan. ; Foranderlig- 
Strandvibe, Norweg. ; Karrsnappa, Swed. ; Suo-sirriciinen, Finn. - r 
Pestrosdboy-pessotchnik, Russ. 

$ ad. (England). Crown and upper parts generally black, varied with 
rusty red or yellowish red ; nape, sides and back of neck white, streaked 
with blackish grey ; rump and upper tail-coverts black with greyish 
margins ; middle tail-feathers blackish grey, elongated, the rest dull ashy 
grey ; a whitish stripe over the eye ; chin white ; throat and upper breast 
white, broadly striped with black; a broad black patch on the lower 
breast ; rest of under parts white ; bill and legs black ; iris dark brown. 
Culmen T3, wing 4'4, tail 2'0, tarsus 1*0 inch. Female similar, but as a 
rule larger. In winter the head and upper parts are dull ashy grey, the 
feathers with darker centres ; rump and upper tail-coverts black, margined 
with grey ; under parts white, the lower throat and sides of neck striated 
with brownish. 

Hal}. Europe north to Novaya Zemlya and the Arctic coasts, 
but not Spitsbergen, breeding as far south as Britain and Den- 
mark ; in winter migrating to Southern Europe, and Africa as 
far south as Zanzibar ; the Canaries ; Asia east to India ; acci- 
dental in W. North America. 

Frequents the coasts, estuaries, and flats left bare by the tide, 
and less often the shores of inland lakes and morasses ; in winter 
and when on passage in flocks consorting with other waders, 
and feeding on marine worms, crustaceans, and insects of various 
kinds. Its flight is swift and strong, and its call-note is a clear 
whistle. It breeds from the latter part of April to the middle 



770 TRINGA 



of June, the 4 eggs being deposited in a depression in the 
ground sparingly lined with grass-bents, usually near the sea 
in some grass-covered swampy place. The eggs vary in ground- 
colour from pale greenish grey to pale stone-colour or dark 
stone-buff, and are usually marked with purplish grey shell 
blotches and dark brown surface spots and blotches; in size 
they measure about l'29.by O94. 

1066. SUBSP. TRINGA AMERICANA. 

Tringa amerlcana (C. L. Brehm), Vogelfang, p. 317 (1855) ; Cassin, B. N. 
Am. p. 719 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 608 ; T. alpma 
(nee. Linn.), Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 334 ; T. pacifica (Coues), 
P. Acad. N. S. Phil. 1861, p. 89 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 897 ; Ridgway, 
p. 160. 

ad. Differs from T. alpina in being larger and more brightly 
coloured, the chin and upper throat pure white, contrasting conspicuously 
with the black on the lower breast. Culmen T7, wing 4'75, tail 2'25, 
tarsus 1*1 inch. 

Hob. North America generally; the West Indies in winter; 
Eastern Siberia north to Kamchatka, south to Japan, Corea, and 
China, west to the Boganida. 

Is merely a climatic form of .'our European Dunlin, and does 
not differ from it in habits, food, or nidification. 

1067. LITTLE STINT. 
TRINGA MINUTA. 

Tringa minuta, Leisl. Nachtrag zu Bechst. Naturg. Deutschl. i. p. 74(1811) ; 
Naum. vii. p. 391, Taf. 184 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. p. 332 ; (id.), B. of 
Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 72 ; Dresser, viii. p. 29, pis. 549, 550 fig. 1, 552 
fig. 1 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 538 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 918 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 273 ; Saunders, p. 585 ; 
Lilford, v. p. 86, pi. 35 ; Poynting, p. 149, pis. 32, 33. 

Be"casseau minute, French ; Chiwrilla minuta, Span. ; Cram- 
lectio, Ital. ; Kleiner Strandldufer, German ; Kleine Strand- 
looper, Dutch ; Dvcergryle, Dan. ; Liden Strandvile, Norweg. ; 
Smdsnappa, Swed. ; Pikkii-sirridinen, Finn. ; Chota-pau-lopa, 
Hindu. 

$ ad. (Spain). Forehead and cheeks white ; feathers in front of the 
eye, ear-coverts, and sides of neck rufous mottled with black, and slightly 
with grey ; upper parts generally black, broadly margined with rufous, 
and to some extent with whitish ; quills dark greyish brown, primary 



T RING A 771 



shafts chiefly white ; wing-coverts tipped with white ; upper tail-coverts and 
middle tail-feathera black, the former slightly marked, the latter margined 
with rufous, rest of tail pale ashy with narrow white margins ; under parts 
white, the fore neck and breast tinged with rufous, and with specks of dark 
brown; bill and feet black ; iris brown. Culmen 0*7, wing 3'7, tail 1'7, 
tarsus 0'75, middle toe 0'75. Sexes alike. In winter the upper parts are 
greyish brown with blackish centres to the feathers, the rufous tinge lacking 
in the plumage ; under parts white ; the sides of the upper breast brownish. 
The young bird has the upper parts blackish, with rufous and whitish 
margins, the under parts white, the breast tinged with buff and unspotted. 

Hob. Northern Europe, breeding in the eastern and high 
northern portion, migrating for the winter as far as South 
Africa; Northern Asia, east to Lake Baikal, south in winter 
to India and Ceylon. 

Frequents on passage and in winter the sea coasts, river 
banks, marshes and mud-flats, and is then usually seen in small 
flocks and consorting with other waders. Its flight is swift but 
irregular, and its note, drrr, drrrt, drrrt, is often uttered when 
on the wing. Its food consists of aquatic insects, worms, small 
Crustacea, and occasionally seeds of shore-plants. It breeds from 
Northern Russia to the Taimyr Peninsula, the nest being a 
mere depression or cup in the ground near the tide-mark, 
scantily lined with dried leaves or grass, and the 4 eggs, which 
are deposited in June or July, are miniatures of Dunlins' eggs, 
and measure about 1*12 by 0*80. 

1068. EASTERN LITTLE STINT. 
TRINGA RUFIGOLLIS. 

Tringa ruficollis, Pallas, Reis. Russ. Reichs. iii. p. 700 (1776) ; David 

and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 472 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. 

p. 545 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 274 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. 

p. 920 ; T. damacensis, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 192 (1821) ; T. 

albescens, Temm. PI. Col. v. pi. 41 (1823) ; Gould, B. of Austr. vi. 

pi. 31. 

ad. (E. Siberia). Differs from T. minuta in being somewhat larger, 
and in having the sides of the face and neck, the throat and chest bright 
rufous, the chin alone whitish ; bill and legs black ; iris nearly black. 
Culmen 0'7, wing 4'0, tail 1'85, tarsus 0'7, middle toe 07 inch. Female 
similar but with less rufous in the plumage. In winter plumage this 
species is undistinguishable from T. minuta. 

Hdb. North-eastern Siberia from the Taimyr to Kamchatka, 
migrating south for the winter through Dauria and Mongolia, 
to Japan, China, Burma, India, the Malay Archipelago, and 
Australia. 

3 



772 TRINGA 



In general habits it does not differ from T. minuta. It 
doubtless breeds on the shores of the Arctic Ocean in North- 
east Siberia, but its nest and eggs are as yet unknown. 

1069. LONG-TOED STINT. 
TRINGA SUBMINUTA. 

Tringa subminuta, Middendorf, Sib. Eeise, ii. pt. 2, p. 222, Tab. xix. 
fig. 6 (1851) ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 338 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. O. 
p. 914 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 275 ; T. damacensis (nee. 
Horsf.), (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 553 ; Kidgway, p. 158. 

ad. (E. Siberia). Resembles T. minuta in plumage, but differs in 
having a much longer middle toe, in only the first primary having a white 
shaft, and in the colour of the soft parts ; beak olive-brown, becoming 
black towards the end ; legs olivaceous yellow, darker on the joints ; iris 
dark brown. Culmen 0'75, wing 3*7, tail 1'55, tarsus 0'82, middle 
toe 0'9 inch. Sexes alike. 

Hob. Eastern and North-eastern Siberia, west to the Altai ; 
Kamchatka ; accidental in Alaska ; on migration and in winter 
in Japan, the Kurile Islands, Corea, China, and the Indo- 
Malayan Islands to Australia. 

In habits it does not differ from its allies. It is said to 
breed on Bering Island and Saghalien, but its eggs are as yet 
unknown. 

1070. AMERICAN STINT. 
TRINGA MINUTILLA. 

Tringa minutiUa, Vieill. Nouv. Diet, xxxiv. p. 466 (1819) ; Dresser, viii. 
p. 51, pi. 552, figs. 2, 3 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 548 ; 
Ridgw.'iy, p. 158 ; Saunders, p. 587 ; Lilford, v. p. 90, pi. 37 ; 
Poynting, p. 155, pi. 34. 

$ ad. (N. America). Differs from T. minuta in being smaller, in 
having the upper parts blacker, less marked with rufous, the hind neck 
more ashy ; rump and upper tail-coverts brownish black, the outermost 
feathers of the latter partly while ; the first quill only with the shaft 
white ; greater wing-coverts margined with whitish ; throat white ; fore 
neck aud chest ashy, streaked with brown ; rest of under parts white ; 
bill blackish brown ; legs yellowish brown ; iris dark brown. Cul- 
men 0'75, wing 3'35, tail 1'5, tarsus 0'72, middle toe and claw 0'75 inch. 
Sexes alike. In winter the upper parts are dull ashy grey, streaked with 
brownish, the breast greyish, with indistinct darker streaks, the rest of the 
under parts white. 



T RING A 773 



Hob. Arctic and subarctic America in summer, migrating 
south for the winter to South America ; of accidental occurrence 
in the south-west of England, where it has been thrice obtained. 

In habits and food it does not differ from its European con- 
geners, and frequents also similar localities. It breeds in 
Arctic America and as far south as Labrador, the nest being 
a mere depression in the ground, lined with a few dried leaves 
and grass-bents, and the 4 eggs, which are laid late in June 
or early in July, vary in ground-colour from light drab to 
pale brownish, and the markings are sepia-brown or chestnut- 
brown, and are, as a rule, more numerous at the larger end. 
In size they measure about I'lO by 0*81. 

1071. TEMMINCK'S STINT. 
TRINGA TEMMINCKI. 

Tringa temmincki, Leisl. Naclitrag zu Bechst. Naturg. Deutschl. i. p. 64 
(1811) ; Naum. vii. p. 483, Taf. 189 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 362, pi. ci. ; 
Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 333 ; (id.), B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 73 ; Dresser, 
viii. p. 45, pis. 550 fig. 2, 551 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. 
p. 555 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 473 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iv. p. 275 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 916 ; Saunders, p. 589 ; 
Lilford, v. p. 87, pi. 36 ; Poynting, p. 159, pi. 35. 

Btcasscau Temminck, French ; Terretita, Span. ; G-ambecchio 
nano, Ital. ; Temmincks Strandlaufer, German ; Kleinste Strand- 
looper, Dutch ; Temmincks Ryle, Dan. ; Temmincks Strandvibe 
Norweg. ; Mosndppa, Swed. ; Girhi, Lapp. ; Kanyas-sirriainen, 
Pieni-Sippi, Finn. 

< ad. (Finland). Upper parts greyish brown, the feathers with blackish 
centres and edged with greyish rufous or greyish brown ; quills blackish 
brown, only the first with the shaft white ; large wing-coverts tipped with 
white ; middle tail-feathers dark brown, slightly elongated, the rest chiefly 
white, the outermost entirely so ; sides of head greyish ; a whitish stripe 
over the eye ; fore breast ashy grey, with a warm ochreous tinge, slightly 
dark mottled ; rest of under parts white ; bill blackish ; legs light brown ; 
iris dark brown. Culmen 07, wing 3 '75, tail T9, tarsus 0'65 inch. Sexes 
alike. In winter the upper parts are greyish brown with narrow darker 
shaft stripes, the under parts white, the breast pale brownish grey. 

Hob. Northern Europe; passing south for the winter to 
North Africa ; Northern Asia in summer, passing through 
Mongolia to China and India for the winter. 

Frequents the sea coast and marshes near the sea, but 
during the breeding season it is often found on inland marshes 

3 E 2 



774 TRINGA 



and the shores of inland lakes. In general habits it resembles 
T. minuta, and its food consists of small worms, insects, &c. 
Its call-note is a shrill Tirrii, and in the breeding season it 
indulges in a peculiar butterfly-like flight, at the same time 
uttering a peculiar churring sound, which may also be heard 
when the bird is sitting on some elevated perch. The nest, 
which is frequently placed near water, is a deep cup-shaped 
depression in the soil, usually amongst grass, scantily lined 
with grass-bents. The eggs, 4 in number, are usually deposited 
in June, and are pale stone-colour or greenish grey, with 
purplish brown shell-markings, and dark reddish brown surface 
spots and blotches, which are often collected round the larger 
end ; in size they average 1*10 by 0*79. 



1072. PIGMY CURLEW. 
TRINGA SUBARQUATA. 

Tringa subarquata (Gtild), Nov. Comm. Petrop. xix. p. 471, Tab. xviii. 
(1775) ; Naum. vii. p. 408, Taf. 185 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 328 ; 
(id.), B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 68 ; Audub. B. Am. pi. 263 ; Dresser, 
viii. p. 59, pi. 558 ; David and Oust, Ois. Chine, p. 472 : (Sharpe), 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 587 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 925 ; Blanf, 
F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 278 ; Saunders, p. 591 ; Lilford, v. p. 91, 
pi. 38 ; Newton, P.Z.S. 1897, p. 890, pi. li. (eggs) ; Tr. ferruginea, 
Brunn." Kidgway, p. 160. 

Bdcasseau cocorli, French ; Churra, Siseta-rocha, Span. ; Pio- 
vanello, Ital. ; Bogenschnabliger-Strandlaufer, German ; Krombek- 
Strandlooper, Dutch ; Krumncebet-Eyle, Dan. ; Rrumncebet 
Strandvibe, Norweg. ; Spofsnappa, Swed. ; Pitkanokka-sirriainen, 
Finn. 

<$ ad. (Spain). General colour of plumage rich rusty or fox-red, the 
feathers on the upper parts marked with black, and some margined with 
greyish white ; quills brownish black ; wing-coverts dull ashy with pale 
margins ; rump dark grey ; upper and under tail-coverts white, slightly 
barred with blackish ; tail grey with paler margins ; bill and legs greenish 
black ; iris dark brown. Culmen T5, wing 4'88, tail 2'35, tarsus T5 inch. 
Sexes alike. In winter the rust-red is absent, the upper parts being dull 
grey with indistinct darker stripes, the under parts white, the sides of the 
head and throat pencilled with dark grey. 

Hob. The extreme northern parts of Asia in summer, at 
other seasons most parts of Europe, the whole of Africa and 
Madagascar, Asia south through India and China to Australia ; 
of occasional occurrence in Western N. America and Alaska. 



TRINGA 775 



Frequents the sea shore, sandy places, mud-flats, &c., 
together with other Sandpipers, often in large flocks, and in 
general habits is very similar to the Dunlin, but its call-note 
differs. It is only recently that its nest and eggs have been 
known, Mr. H. L. Popham having found it breeding at the 
mouth of the Yenesei River in Northern Siberia. The nest 
was a rather deep hollow in the reindeer moss on a low ridge 
of ground, somewhat drier than the surrounding swampy 
tundra, and contained 4 eggs, which resemble those of Gallinago 
ccelestis except in size, as they measure only T47 to 1*40 by 
1-02 to 1. 

'1073. KNOT. 
TRINGA CANUTUS. 

Tringa canutus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 251 (1766) ; Gould, B. of E. iv. 
pi. 324 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 65 ; Dresser, viii. p. 77, pis. 555, 
556 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 469 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. 
p. 333 j Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 593 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. O. 
p. 894 ; Ridgway, p. 153 ; Saunders, p. 595 ; Lilford, v. p. 95, 
pis. 40, 41 ; T. islandica, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. pt. ii. add. (1767) ; 
Naum. vii. p. 372, Taf. 183. 

Jjdcasseau maub&che, French ; Churra, Span. ; Piovanello mag- 
giore, Ital. ; Rostrother Strandlaufer, German ; Kanoet-Strand- 
looper, Dutch ; Randbrystingr, Icel. ; Islandsk-Ryle, Dan. ; Stor- 
Strandmbe, Norweg.; lustsnappa,Swed.'j Ranta-sirridinen.Yum. 

$ ad. (Spain). Crown, nape, and hind neck light rust-red and white 
striped with black ; upper parts black, strongly marked with rufous and 
with white edges ; rump and upper tail-coverts white, barred with black 
and tinged with rufous ; primaries blackish, secondaries and wing-coverts 
dark grey, most tipped with white ; tail grey, narrowly margined with 
white ; throat, neck, and under parts rust-red, middle of abdomen and 
tail-coverts white, the latter with narrow black stripes ; bill and legs 
blackish ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1*5, wing 6 '7, tail 2 '6, tarsus 1*25 inch. 
Sexes alike. In winter there is no red in the plumage, the upper parts 
being greyish ash, with faint dark stripes ; under parts white, the throat, 
sides of neck, breast, and flanks slightly striped and marked with dull 
ashy grey. 

Hal. The extreme north of the Old World in summer, passing 
through Europe to South Africa, Asia to Australia, and North 
America to Brazil for the winter; Japan, but not found in 
India in winter. 

Is usually met with in small flocks on our coasts, where it 
frequents the sea shore, mud-flats, and sand-banks, feeding 



776 T RING A 



on small crustaceans, mollusca, worms, aquatic insects, &c. It 
is known to breed in Grinnell Land, the Melville Peninsula, 
and the Parry Islands, and the young in down have been ob- 
tained, but the only authentic egg known is said to.be a 
specimen in the Smithsonian Museum at Washington. 

1074. EASTERN KNOT. 
T RING A CRASSIROSTRIS. 

Tringa crassirostris, Temm. and Schlegel, Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 107, 
pi. 64 (1847) ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 468 ; Seebohm, B. 
Jap. Emp. p. 332 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 600 ; Tacz, 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 894; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 277; 
Schceniclus magnus, Gould, B. Austr. vi. pi. 33. 

<$ ad. (Kurile Isl.) Head and neck white closely striped with black ; 
back black very narrowly margined here and there with grey ; scapulars 
black with broad subterminal chestnut bands ; rump greyish,; tail-coverts 
white, the upper closely, the under tail-coverts sparingly spotted with 
black; tail brownish grey ; quills blackish, the inner secondaries and 
wing-coverts dull ashy with white margins ; breast almost black ; rest of 
under parts white, the lower breast and upper flanks spotted with black ; 
bill brown ; legs grey ; iris dark brown. Culmen T9, wing 7'0, tail 2'6, 
tarsus 1*35 inch. In winter the upper parts are pale brownish grey with 
whitish margins ; no red in the plumage, tail-coverts sparingly spotted 
with black; under parts white, the neck striped, the breast and flanks 
faintly spotted with greyish brown. 

Hob. Eastern Siberia, migrating south through Mongolia, 
Japan, and China to Burma, India, the Malay Archipelago, and 
Australia for the winter. 

In general habits this species does not appear to differ from 
the Knot. Its nest and eggs are unknown. 



1075. PURPLE SANDPIPER. 

TRINGA STRIATA. 

Tringa striata, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 248 (1766), id. Add. ; Dresser, 
viii. p. 69, pi. 554 ; Saunders, p. 593 ; Lilford, v. p. 93, pi. 39 ; 
Poynting, p. 167, pi. 36; T. maritima, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 678 
(1788) ; Naum. vii. p. 467, Taf. Ifr 8 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 334 ; 
(id.), B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 74 ; Hewitf on, ii. p. 366, pi. ciii ; (Sharpe), 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 278 ; Kidgvay, p. 153 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 902. 



THING A 777 



Btccisseau violet, French ; C/iurrilla, Siseta, Span. ; Piovanello 
violetto, Ital. ; See-Strandlciufer, German ; Paarse-Strandlooper, 
Dutch ; Selningr, Icel. ; Fjcercpist, Norweg. ; Vintersneppe, Dan. ; 
Skarsnappa t Swed. ; Gadde-lirus, Lapp. ; Meri-sirriaimn, Finn. ; 
Pesosclmik-morskoi, Russ. 

$ ad. (Greenland). Crown and nape b'ack striped with white and 
ochreous ; sides of head dull white striped with blackish ; upper parts 
black glossed with purple ; the mantle-feathers margined with white and 
reddish ochreous ; the rump and middle tail-feathers uniform purplish 
black, rest of the tail-feathers blackish grey ; quills blackish, the shafts 
white, the outer secondaries tipped with, and the inner ones chiefly, 
white ; throat white striped with blackish grey ; under parts white, the 
flanks marked, and under tail-coverts striped with blackish grey; bill 
ochreous at base, otherwise dark brown ; legs ochreous, iris brown. 
Culmen 1'15, wing 4'7, tail 2'4, tarsus 0'9 inch. Sexes alike. In winter 
the head and neck are sooty blackish faintly tinged with purple, the upper 
parts purplish black, the mantle-feathers with narrow greyish margins ; 
chin and under parts below the breast white, the flanks spotted with 
blackish grey. 

Hal. Northern Europe, north to the North Cape, Iceland, 
Greenland, and Spitsbergen, migrating south to the Mediter- 
ranean in winter ; North America, breeding far north, and in 
winter found south to the Middle United States ; has been met 
with in North Asia as far east as the shores of the Taimyr 
Peninsula. 

Is essentially a maritime bird, frequenting rocky places on 
the sea coast, and is seldom met away from the sea except 
during the breeding season, and even then it nests not far 
away. Its food consists of marine insects, mollusca, and some- 
times seeds of shore-plants. It swims with ease, and I have 
known a bird to dive when wounded and pursued. The nest is 
a mere depression in the ground, and the 4 eggs, which are 
deposited from the middle of May to the early part of June, vary 
in ground-colour from sea-green and greenish grey to stone-buff, 
and are marked with purplish grey underlying, and dark reddish 
brown surface spots and blotches, which are usually more 
numerous at the larger end. In size they measure about T40 
by 1-0. 

1076. SUBSP. TRINGA COUESI. 

Tr'mga couesi (Ridgway), Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v. p. 160 (1880) ; 
Nelson, Rep. Nat. Hist. Alaska, p. 103, pi. vi. ; Ridgway, p. 154 ; 
(Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 583 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 905. 



778 TRINGA 



$ ad. Differs from T. maritima in having the bill shorter, the upper 
parts more richly marked with rusty red, the breast more marked with 
blackish, with more or less of a black patch on each side. Culmen 1*0, 
wing 5'1, tail 1*9, tarsus 0'91 inch. In winter the plumage is like that 
of T. maritima. 

Hob. N.E. Siberia, the Chukchi Peninsula, the Kuriles and 
Aleutian Isles ; Kamchatka ; Alaska. 

Is an eastern representative of T. maritima, and does not 
differ from that species in its general habits. Its eggs are 
described as being pale olive-buff, varying to light brownish 
buff, spotted longitudinally and somewhat spirally with vandyke- 
brown or deep umber, and measure about 1*46 by TOO, 



1077. WESTERN SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER. 
TRINGA OCCIDENTALIS. 

Tringa occidentalis (Lawr.), Proc. Acad. N. S. Philad. 1864, p. 107 ; 
(Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 890 ; (Turner), Nat. Hist. Alaska, p. 148 ; 
(Nelson), Kep. Nat. Hist. Alaska, p. 113 ; (Ridgway), p. 162 ; 
Ereunetes pusillus, Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 514, parti m ; 
E. petrificatus, Illiger, Prodr. p. 262 (1811 partim) ; T. semipalmata, 
Wilson, Am. Orn. viii. p. 131 (1813 partim). 

ad. (Alaska). Crown and upper parts black varied with rusty red 
and cinnamon-buff; the rump and upper tail-coverts nearly uniform 
blackish except on the sides, which are white ; quills blackish, the first 
with a white shaft ; wing-coverts tipped with white ; under parts white, 
the sides of head and throat, and the breast and flanks tolerably boldly 
streaked and spotted with blackish ; bill greenish olive at the base, 
otherwise black ; legs and feet greenish olive ; iris dark brown. Culmen 
TO, wing 3'9, tail T8, tarsus 0*95 inch. In winter the upper parts are 
brownish grey, the crown paler, streaked narrowly with black ; under 
parts white, the breast, sides of neck, and flanks narrowly streaked with 
dusky grey. 

Hob. Western North America, breeding north to the shores 
of Norton Sound, Alaska, where it is very common ; the Aleutian 
Islands. On the Asiatic coasts it has been met with on the 
Chukchi Peninsula in N.E. Siberia ; on passage and in winter 
it is common on the Pacific coasts to South America, and is said 
also to occur on the Atlantic coasts. 

This, the western representative of the semipal mated Sand- 
piper (T. pusilla, Linn.), does not differ from that species in 
habits. Its call-note is described as being a peeping trill. It 



TRINGA CALIDRIS 779 

arrives at its breeding place in May, and nests in June, the nest 
being a mere depression in the moss or grass, scantily lined with 
a few feathers. Its eggs, usually 4, but sometimes 5, in number, 
are described as being deep cinnamon-buff, sprinkled, speckled, 
or thickly spotted with bright rusty brown or chestnut, and 
measure about 1'24 by 0'87. 



CALIDRIS, Cuvier, 1800. 

1078. SANDERLING. 
CALIDRIS ARENARIA. 

Calidris arenaria (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 251 (1766) ; Audubon, B. of 
Am. p. 230 ; Naum. vii. p. 353, Taf. 182 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. 
pi. 335 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 66 ; Newton, P.Z.S. 1871, pi. iv. 
fig. 2 (egg) ; Dresser, viii. p. 101, pis. 559, 560 ; Layard, B. of S. Afr. 
p. 362 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 467 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap, 
Emp. 336 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 526 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. 0. 
p. 841 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 270; Kidgway, p. 162; 
Satmders, p. 597 ; Lilford, v. p. 97, pi. 42 ; Poynting, p. 175, pi. 37. 

Sanderling variable, French ; Churrilla de tres dedos, Pitillos, 
Span. ; Piovancllo tredatillo, Ital. ; Ufcr- Sander ling. German ; 
Drieteenige-Strandlooper, Dutch ; Sandlobcr, Norweg. and Dan. ; 
Sandlopare, Swed. ; Hieta-sirriaincn, Finn.; Morskoi-SujoJs, 
Russ. ; Medrouan, Moor. 

(J ad. (England). Crown, nape, and upper parts richly varied black 
and rusty red ; rump dull ashy grey marked with blackish grey ; quills 
blackish ; wing-coverts dark ashy grey margined with dull white, and 
slightly marked with rufous ; middle tail-feathers blackish grey, the 
rest grey, the outermost nearly white ; sides of head, throat, and upper 
breast light rufous marked with black ; rest of under parts white ; bill 
and legs blackish ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1*15, wing 4*85, tail 2*05, 
tarsus 1 '0 inch ; hind-toe wanting. Female similar but less rufous. In 
winter both sexes have the upper parts light grey with darker stripes and 
the under parts white, with no rufous in the plumage. 

Hob. The high northern portions of the Old and New Worlds ; 
in winter migrating south to South Africa, Burma, India, Ceylon, 
the Laccadives, China, Japan, Australia, and Chile. 

Frequents the sea coast, associating with other Sandpipers, and 
is by no means shy. It feeds on small marine insects, worms, 
and crustaceans, and in the summer to some extent on the buds 
of Arctic plants. Its note is a shrill but not unpleasant iviek. 



780 CALIDRIS EURYNORHYNCHUS MACHETES 

It breeds in Iceland (sometimes), Greenland, and (perhaps) 
Northern Siberia, the nest being a mere depression on the 
ground, and in June deposits 4 eggs, which resemble miniature 
eggs of the Curlew, and measure about 1'44 by 0*95. 

ETJRYNORHYNCHUS, ' Nilss., 1821. 

1079. SPOON-BILLED SANDPIPER. 

EURYNORHYNCHUS PYGJVLffiUS. 

Eurynorlrynclms pygmczns (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 231 (1766) ; Harting, 
Ibis, 1869, p. 427, pi. xii. ; Gould, B. of As. vii. pi. 66 ; David and 
Oust, Ois. Chine, p. 474 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. 0. p. 928 ; (Seebohm), 
B. Jap. Emp. p. 338 ; Blanf. F. Brir. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 271 ; 
Kidgway, p. 160 ; E. griseui-; Nilss. Orn. Suec. ii. p. 29 (1821), 

<$ ad. (E. Siberia). Crown and back black margined with rufous and 
ochreous; wing-coverts and neck paler and greyer; middle of rump and 
upper tail-coverts, and middle tail-feathers blackish ; sides of rump 
white ; tail otherwise grey ; quills blackish brown, the shafts white ; sides 
of head, throat, and breast rusty red; rest of under parts and under 
surface of wings white, the lower breast spotted with black ; bill and legs 
black ; iris dark brown. Culmen 0'95, wing 3'9, tail 1'45, tarsus 0*85 
inch ; bill spatulate. Sexes alike. In winter the plumage is entirely 
without red ; upper parts dusty grey, with white or paler margins ; wing- 
coverts tipped with while ; forehead, sides of head, neck, and tinder parts 
pure white. 

Hob. North-eastern Siberia, migrating south to Japan, the 
coasts of China, Burma, and rarely those of India ; accidental in 
Alaska. 

But little is on record respecting this Sandpiper, which is 
easily recognizable by its broadly spatulate bill, and it is said to 
frequent mud-flats in company with other waders. It breeds in 
Northern Siberia, but its nest and eggs are as yet unknown. 

MACHETES, Cuv., 1817. 

1080. RUFF. 
MACHETES PUGNAX. 

AfacJietes pugnax (Linn.), Syst. Nat. 1. p. 247 (1766) ; Naum. vii. p. 502, 
Taf. 190, 191, 192, 193 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 345, pi. xcv. ; Gould, B. of 
E. iv. pi. 325 j id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 61 ; Dresser, viii. p. 87, 
pis. 557, 558 ; Layard, B. of S. Afr. p. 329 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. 
p. 327 ; (Sharpe). Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 500 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. 



MACHETES 781 



p. 885 ; (Blanf.), F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 268 ; (Eiclgway), p. 168 ; 
Sannders, p. 601 ; Liiford, v. p. 122, pis. 53, 54 ; Poynting, p. 179, 
pi. 38. 

Combattant, Paon de Mar, French; Combatiente, Span.; 
Crambetta, Ital. ; Kampfhahn, German; Kamphaan, Dutch; 
Brushane, Dan., Norweg., and Swed. ; Suokukko, SuoJmlainen, 
Finn.; Twoukhtann, Dratschounn, Russ.; Habib-el-tchibib,'"M.ooT.; 
G-eh-wala, Hindu. 

<$ ad. (N. Russia). Upper parts generally brown, varied with, black, 
warm buff and chestnut ochreous ; sides of rump nearly v/hite ; tail ashy 
brown varied with black and chestnut-red ; quills blackish brown ; wing- 
coverts ashy brown ; feathers on the sides of neck and round the breast 
elongated, forming a conspicuous ruff or cape, white tinged with cream- 
buff ; breast below the ruff and upper flanks glossy blackish marked with 
white ; rest of under parts white, the under tail-coverts slightly marked 
with black ; face covered with warty yellowish tubercles ; bill blackish 
brown, fleshy at the base ; legs yellowish brown ; iris blackish brown. 
Culmen T68, wing 7'1, tail 27, tarsus 2'05 inch. The ruff varies ex- 
tremely in colour and markings, scarcely any two birds, except those that 
have it uniform black or white, are alike. The female has the crown, nape, 
and upper parts sandy brown marked with blackish brown ; wings and 
tail as in the male ; chin whitish ; throat, breast, and upper flanks ashy 
brownish marked with darker brown ; rest of under parts white ; no sign 
of a ruff. In winter the male also lacks the ruff and tubercles on the 
face, and has the throat and neck as in the female. 

. Hob. Europe generally, breeding from the North Cape down 
to Denmark, and rarely in Eastern England ; in winter it passes 
as far south as the Cape of Good Hope ; in Asia it is found as far . 
north as Kamchatka, south to India, Ceylon, and Borneo ; rarer 
in the east, but found as far as Japan ; of occasional occurrence 
in Eastern North America. 

Frequents damp marshy localities. The Ruff is a silent bird, 
but in the spring and during migration the note, a low kaek, 
kaek, kick, kack, may be heard. The Ruff is polygamous, and in 
the spring the males assemble, or as it is termed " hill," and 
fight, or rather spar, for the possession of the females or Reeves, 
which alone undertake the cares of incubation. The nest 
is on the ground, well hidden, and the eggs, usually 4, but 
sometimes only 3, in number, are generally laid in May, 
and are pale olivaceous or stone-buff in ground-colour, richly 
blotched and marked, chiefly at the larger end, with umber- 
brown, and a few purplish grey shell spots, and measure about 
1-69 by 1-22. 



782 TRINGITES BARTRAMIA 



TRINGITES, Cab., 1856. 
1081. BUFF-BREASTED SANDPIPER. 
TRINGITES RUFESCENS. 

Tringites rufescens (Vieill.), Nouv. Diet. xxiv. p. 470 (1819) ; (Gould), 
B. of E. iv. pi. 326 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 64 ; Newton, P.Z.S. 
1867, pi. xv. fig. 4 (egg) ; Dresser, viii. p. 109, pi. 561 ; Saunders, 
p. 601 ; Lilford, v. p. 99, pi. 43 ; Poynting, p. 183, pi. 39 ; T. sub- 
ruficollis (Vieill.), torn. cit. p. 465 (1819) ; Kidgway, p. 169 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 521. 

( ad. (Mexico). Upper parts clay -buff marked with black, the^ dorsal 
feathers tipped with dirty white ; quills blackish brown, the elongated 
inner secondaries metallic blackish brown margined with ochreous ; tail 
brown tinged with metallic grey, with a subterminal blackish band and 
tipped with bufFy white, the outer feathers marbled with blackish ; under 
parts clay-yellow, paler on the abdomen and under tail-coverts, the sides of 
the breast blotched with black ; the under surface of the wing marbled 
with black ; bill greenish black ; legs clay-yellow ; iris hazel-brown. 
Culmen 0'9, wing 5 '15, tail 2 -25, tarsus 1*25 inch. Sexes alike. 

Hob. America, breeding in the high north, and migrating 
south for the winter as far down in South America as Peru and 
Paraguay; of accidental occurrence in Europe, but has been 
obtained about a dozen times in England, three times in Ireland, 
once in Switzerland, and once in Heligoland. 

Is chiefly met with inland and not on the coast, and frequents 
grassy plains and also sandy arid localities. It is tame and un- 
suspicious, and runs with ease and swiftness ; on the wing it most 
nearly resembles a Ringed Plover. Its call-note is a low, weak 
tweet, and its food consists of insects of various kinds. It breeds 
in Arctic and subarctic America late in June or early in July, 
the nest being a mere depression in the ground scantily lined 
with a few withered leaves and dried grasses, and the eggs, 4 in 
number, are clay-yellow with an olivaceous or drab tint, or of a 
peculiar grey in ground-colour, boldly and sharply marked, chiefly 
at the larger end, with rich umber-brown and with purplish grey 
underlying shell blotches ; in size they measure about 1*46 by T05. 

BARTRAMIA, Less., 1831. 

1082. BARTRAM'S SANDPIPER. 
BARTRAMIA LONGICAUDA. 

Bartramia longicauda (Bechst.), Kurze Uebers. Latham, p. 453, pi. 184 
(1811) ; (Dresser), viii. p. 119, pi. 562 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxiv. p. 509 ; Ridgway, p. 169 ; Saunders, p. 603 ; Lilford, v. 



BARTRAMIA TOT ANUS 783 

p. 101, pi. 44 ; Pointing, p. 187, pi. 40 ; Tringa bartramia, Wils. 
Am. Orn. vii. p. 63, pi. 50, fig. 2 ; (Gould), B. of E. iv. pi. 313 ; 
(id.), B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 63 ; (Naum.), viii. p. 43, Taf. 196. 

ad. (Wisconsin). Forehead buffy white marked with blackish brown ; 
crown blackish brown and rufous buff with an irregular central buff stripe ; 
hind neck brownish buff and black ; back and rump blackish brown, the 
former with rufous buff margins ; upper surface of wings greyish buff 
barred with blackish brown ; tail long, graduated, the middle feathers buffy 
brown, the rest pale rufous, all barred with black, the latter tipped with 
white and with a large subterminal black bar ; chin and fore face white ; 
neck and breast buffy white, the former striped, the latter margined 
with black ; rest of under parts white, the flanks and under wing- 
surface barred with black ; bill yellowish at base, otherwise blackish ; 
legs clay-yellow ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1-4, wing 6*65, tail 3'6, 
tarsus 1'95. Sexes alike. In winter the upper parts are paler, and the 
under parts less boldly marked. 

Hob. Eastern and Central America, north to the Yukon 
valley and Nova Scotia, south in winter to Brazil and Peru ; 
of rare and accidental occurrence in Britain, Germany, Holland, 
Malta, Italy, and has been once recorded from Australia. 

Frequents the grass prairies, where it is not seen in flocks, 
but singly or in pairs. Its call, when it takes wing, is a 
melodious whistle of three notes. As a rule it is not shy, and 
will often squat, reminding one of a Stone Curlew. Its food 
consists chiefly of insects, especially grasshoppers, and it is 
also known to eat berries. Its flesh is extremely well flavoured, 
and in the autumn it is very fat. Its nest is a mere hollow 
in the ground, and the eggs, 4 in number, are usually laid in 
June, and are pale clay ochreous or creamy drab with numerous 
purplish grey shell-markings and umber-brown surface spots, 
and measure about T75 by 1*28. 

TOTANUS, Bechst., 1803. 

1083. REDSHANK. 
TOTANUS CALIDRXS. 

Totanus calidris (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 245 (1766) ; Naum. viii. p. 95, 

Taf. 199 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 329, pi. Ixxxix. ; Gould, B. of E. iv. 
. pi. 310 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 54 ; Dresser, viii. p. 157, pis. 567 
" fig. 1, 568 fig. 1, 569 fig. 2 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 464 ; 

Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 320 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. 

p. 414 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 866 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. 

p. 264 ; Saunders, p. 615 ; Lilford, v. p. 113, pi. 49 ; Poynting, 

p. 217, pi. 46. 



784 TOTANUS 



Chevalier-Gambetta, French ; Chalretta, Portug. ; Archibebe, 
Ti/ort, Span. ; Pettcgola, Ital. ; Gambett- Wasserlaufer, German ; 
Turduur, Dutch ; Stelkur, Icel. ; Eddben-Klire, Dan. ; Rodbenet- 
sneppe, Norweg. ; Rodbent-snappa, Swed. ; Punajalka-wkla, Finn. ; 
Krasnonoshka, Nastojascliy-ulit, Russ. ; Gkota-batan, Hindu. 

ad. (Finland). Upper parts brown striped with blackish, the 
elongated secondaries, scapulars, and wing-coverts barred and marked with 
blackish ; quills dark brown, the short secondaries white slightly marked 
with brown ; larger wing-coverts white-tipped ; lower back, rump, upper 
tail-coverts, and outer tail-feathers white, the two last barred with blackish ; 
middle tail-feathers similar but ashy brown instead of white ; under parts 
white, the throat, neck, and breast boldly striped with blackish, the flanks 
barred and striped, and under tail-coverts slightly barred with blackish ; 
bill dark red at base, otherwise blackish ; legs orange-red ; iris dark brown. 
Culmen 2'0, wing 6'4, tail 2'8, tarsus 1'92 inch. Sexes alike. In winter 
the upper parts are ashy grey, and the under parts are much less striped 
and marked with blackish than in the summer. 

Hob. Europe generally, breeding from Lapland down to the 
Mediterranean; Africa south to the Cape Colony in winter; 
the Canaries ; Asia, east to Japan, north to nearly 70 N. lat., 
south on passage and in winter to Mongolia, Corea, China, 
India, and Ceylon, to the Malay Archipelago. 

Frequents the sea shore except during the breeding season, 
when it is found both on the coast and in damp marshy places 
more inland. It is shy and wary, and when disturbed flies 
round uttering its shrill cry. Its flight is swift, but wavering, 
and it is able to swim with ease, and even dive when wounded. 
The nest is a cup-shaped depression in the ground, usually in a 
grass tuft, sometimes in an open situation, and the eggs, which 
are deposited from early in April to the latter part of May, ac- 
cording to latitude, are 4 in number, clay-buff in ground-colour, 
marked with purplish brown underlying shell blotches and 
dark brown surface spots and blotches, some being much bolder 
marked than others; in size they measure about 1*68 by 117. 

1084. SPOTTED REDSHANK. 
TOTANUS FUSCUS. 

Totanus fuscus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 243 (1766) ; Naum. viii. p. 123, 
Taf. 200 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 326, pi. Ixxxviii. ; Gould, B. of E. iv. 
pi. 309 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 55 ; Dresser, viii. p. 165, pis. 567 
fig. 2, 568 figs. 2, 3, 569 fig. 1 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 463 ; 
Seebohm. B. Jap. Emp. p. 319 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 409 ; 



TOTANUS 785 



Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 869 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 265 ; 
Saunders, p. 617 ; Lilford, v. p. 118, pi. 51 ; Poynting, p. 223, 

pi. 47. 

Chevalier Irun, French ; Clmit, Andario, Span. ; Gambetta 
fosca, Ital. ; Dunk-elf arbiger- Wasscrlciufcr, German ; Zwarte- 
Ruiter, Dutch ; Sortsncppe, Dan. and Norweg. ; Svartenappa, 
Swed. ; Rivikl, Cipcastak, Lapp. ; Mustavikla, Musta-Tjuti, 
Rivatu, Finn. ; Polevoipetoioshock, SchtscJiegol, Russ. ; Batan, 
Gatni, Hindu. 

$ ad. (N. Kussia). Head, neck, and entire under parts sooty black, 
some of the chin and hind-neck feathers narrowly tipped with white ; 
upper parts sooty black with a slight metallic gloss, and marked with white, 
giving a spotted appearance ; lump white, the upper tail-coverts blackish 
Tbarredwith white ; tail black, the middle feathers indistinctly barred with 
grey, the rest marked and tipped with white ; flanks and under tail- 
coverts barred with white ; under wing-surface white slightly marked with 
grey ; bill black, but red at base of lower mandible ; legs dark Ted ; 
iris dark brown. Culmen 2'5, wing 6'7, tail 2'82, tarsus 2*3 inch. Sexes 
alike. In winter the crown, sides of head, hind neck and upper parts are 
brownish ashy, unspotted ; a white streak over, and the space round the 
eye white ; wings and tail greyer than in the summer ; under parts white, 
the sides of the neck streaked, and flanks marked with pale ashy or sooty 
grey ; legs dull reddish orange. 

Hob. Northern Europe, ranging into the Arctic Circle to 
about 69 N. lat. ; Asia north to Kamchatka ; during passage 
and in winter ranging to Southern Europe, Africa as far south 
as the Cape Colony, Japan, China, Corea, Mongolia, and India ; 
only occurs in Great Britain on passage. 

In its habits it somewhat resembles "the Common Redshank, 
but is readily distinguishable by its larger size and by not 
having the short secondaries white. Nor does it frequent the 
sea coast so much, and breeds inland, usually in dry forest 
districts. It frequently wades in search of food, and can swim 
with ease. Its call-note is a clear, loud tjuti. As a rule it is 
shy and wary, but will approach quite close when its young are 
threatened. Its food consists of worms, insects, small crusta- 
ceans, &c. Its nest is a cup-shaped hollow in the ground, 
scantily lined, and the eggs, 4 in number, are deposited in May 
or early in June, and in ground-colour vary from dark stone- 
buff to pale greenish buff and bright beryl-green, and are 
marked with pale purplish shell-blotches and dark umber-brown 
surface spots and blotches, these latter being often collected at 
the larger end; in size they measure about 1*87 by T25. 



786 TOTANUS 



1085. GREENSHANK. 
TOTANUS GLOTTIS. 

Totanus glottis (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 245 (1766) ; Naum. viii. p. 145, 
Taf. 201 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 336, pi. xci. ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 312 ; 
David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 462 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 321 ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 860 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 266 ; 
T. nebularius, Gunner. Leem. Lapp. Beschreib. p. 251 (1767) ; 
(Kidgway), p. 165 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 481 ; Tot. 
canescens (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 668 (1788) ; Dresser, viii. p. 173, 
pi. 570 ; Saunders, p. 619 ; (Gould), B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 53. 

Chevalier gris, French ; Andario, Picarot, Span. ; Pantana, 
Ital. ; Grunfiimger- Wasserlaufer, German ; Groenpootige Ruiter, 
Dutch ; Gronbenet-Klire, Dan. ; G-lutsneppe, Norweg. ; Grlutt- 
snappa,Swed.] Stuore-tav6u,~La,pp.] Valkea ViJda, Finn.; Bolchoi- 
Ulit, Russ. ; Tantanna, Hindu. ; Awo-aski-chidori, Jap. 

(J ad. (Scotland). Head, neck, and upper parts generally ashy grey, 
broadly striped with black ; quills blackish, the first primary only with 
the shaft white ; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts white, the last 
irregularly barred with grey ; middle tail-feathers bluish grey, the rest 
white, more or less barred ; under parts white, the throat and breast, not 
the chin, distinctly spotted with black, flanks barred ; bill recurved ; 
blackish ; legs and feet green ; iris brown. Culmen 2 '3, wing 7 '7, tail 3'8, 
tarsus 2*3 inch. Sexes alike. In winter the upper parts are paler grey 
with narrower stripes, the dorsal feathers with white margins, the throat and 
breast less distinctly marked with blackish, and the legs paler, more 
yellowish green. 

Hob. Europe, north almost to the North Cape, breeding in 
the northern portion of its range, and south to the Scottish High- 
lands ; migrating in autumn and winter to Southern Europe and 
Africa, as far south as the Cape Colony ; Asia north to Kam- 
chatka, east to Japan ; on migration and in winter occurring in 
Manchuria, Corea, China, Burma, India, and Ceylon, south to 
Australia; of rare and accidental occurrence in Eastern America. 

In habits it differs but little from the Redshank, but is more 
often seen by inland waters, and breeds often far inland, at 
some distance from water, and its cry is clearer and louder 
than that of the Redshank. Its nest is a mere depression in 
the ground, scantily lined with a few grass-bents, and the 4 
eggs, which are usually deposited in May or June, are pale bufify 
white or stone-buff, with purplish brown shell-markings and 
bright dark brown surface blotches and spots, chiefly at the 
larger end, and measure about 1*91 by T33. 

> 



TOTANUS 787 



1086. NORDM ANN'S GREENSHANK. 
TOTANUS GUTTIPER. 

Totanus guttifer, Nordm., in Erman's Reise, p. 17 (1835) ; (Sharpe), 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 479 ; (Tacz.), F. O. Sib. 0. p. 858 ; Blanf. 
F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 267 ; T. haughtoni, Armstrong, Str. Feath. 
1876, p. 344 ; Harting, Ibis, 1883, p. 133, pi. iv. 

$ ad. (Amoor River). Very like T. glottis but smaller, has the 
middle tail-feathers white marbled with brownish grey, the rest white with 
a subterminal dusky line, the breast only sparsely spotted, and the lower 
back, rump, under wing-coverts, and axillaries pure white ; basal half of 
bill horny yellow, the rest blackish ; feet ochreous yellow ; iris dark 
brown. Culmen 2'3, wing 6*6, tail 2'7, tarsus 1*65 inch. 

Hob. Kamchatka, and Eastern Siberia, wintering in South 
China, Burma, and India. 

Is as yet but little known, and nothing is on record respecting 
its nidification. Owing to its resemblance to T. glottis it may 
have been overlooked, but it can be distinguished from that 
species, as well by its smaller size as by the palmation of the 
toes, which is more as in Terekia. 

1087. MARSH-SANDPIPER. 
TOTANUS STAGNATILIS. 

Totanus stagnatilis, Bechst. Orn. Taschenb. ii. p. 292 ; Naum. viii. 
p. 171, Taf. 202 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 314 ; Dresser, viii. p. 151, 
pi. 566 ; David and Oust. p. 463 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 322 ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 422 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. 0. p. 864 ; 
Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, v. p. 263. 

Chevalier stagnatile, French; Chorlito, Span. ; Albastrello, Ital. ; 
Teich- Wasserlaufer, German ; Prudovoi- Ulit, Russ. ; Choto-gotra, 
Hindu. 

$ ad. (Hungary). Upper parts greyish brown tinged with buff, 
mottled and streaked, except on the wing-coverts, with black ; lower ack, 
rump, and upper tail-coverts white, the last spotted and barred with black ; 
middle tail-feathers greyish brown with darker bars, the rest chiefly white ; 
quills brown, the secondaries externally margined with white ; under 
parts white ; the cheeks, ear-coverts, and upper breast minutely dark 
spotted ; and the flanks irregularly barred ; bill dark brown, but greenish 
at the base below ; legs olivaceous ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1'7, wing 5*3* 
tail 2-5, tarsus 2'0 inch. Sexes alike. In winter the upper parts are 
brownish grey, somewhat marked with white, the wing-coverts darker ;, 
under parts and axillaries pure white. 

3 F 



788 TOTANUS 



Hob. Central and Southern Europe, chiefly in the eastern 
portions ; a rare straggler to the north central parts of Europe, 
but has occurred in Heligoland ; Africa in winter, as far south 
as the Orange River ; Asia, east to Japan, north to Dauria ; in 
winter ranging to Manchuria, Burma, India, Ceylon, the Malay 
Archipelago, and Australia. 

In general appearance and habits it is a miniature Green- 
shank. It frequents inland ponds, rivers, and marshes, and is 
as a rule not a shy bird, but sprightly and elegant in its 
movements. It usually breeds near, but occasionally at some 
distance from water, in grassy places, its nest resembling that 
of its congeners, and its eggs, 4 in number, are usually laid in 
June or July, and are ochreous buff, sometimes with a faint 
olivaceous tinge, with pale purplish brown shell-markings and 
rich dark brown surface spots and blotches, and measure about 
1-49 by 111. 

1088. YELLOWSHANK. 
TOTANUS FLAVIPES. 

Totanus flavipes (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 659 (1788) ; Dresser, ix. p. 377, 
pi. 715 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 431 ; Ridgway, p. 166 ; 
Saunders, p. 613 ; Lilford, v. p. 116, pi. 50; Poynting, p. 215, 
pi. 45. 

$ ad. (Wisconsin). Crown, nape, and hind-neck blackish brown, 
streaked with white ; upper parts blackish brown, clearly marked and 
spotted with white and buffy grey ; upper tail-coverts white, barred with 
blackish ; quills blackish brown, the shaft of the first white, of the rest 
brown ; middle tail-feathers dark ashy grey, the rest white, all barred with 
blackish ; under parts white, the sides of head, neck, and breast streaked 
with blackish, those on the lower neck and breast broader ; flanks barred 
with blackish ; the axillaries with ashy brown ; bill greenish black ; legs 
yellow ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1/6, wing 6*2, tail 2-6, tarsus 2'0 inch. 
Sexes alike. In winter the upper parts are darker and the markings 
reduced to a few whitish spots ; upper tail-coverts, chin, and upper throat 
nearly white ; flanks less marked with greyish brown. 

Hob. North America, from the Hudson's Bay Territory, and 
Alaska, where it breeds, to Patagonia in winter ; has occurred 
in South Greenland, and is a rare straggler to England, where 
two authentic examples have been obtained. 

In habits it does not differ from its allies. It breeds in the 
high north of America, the nest being a mere depression in the 



TOTANUS 789 



ground scantily lined with grass-bents or dead leaves, or else 
quite unlined. The eggs, 4 in number, are usually deposited 
late in May or early in June, and vary a good deal, having the 
ground-colour from light drab to dark clay-ochre, the shell- 
markings pale purplish grey, and the surface spots and blotches 
black or blackish brown. In size they measure about I fl 78 
by 113. 

1089. GREEN SANDPIPER. 
TOTANUS OCHROPUS. 

Totanus ochropus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 250 (1766) ; Naum. viii. p. 51), 
Taf. 197 ; Gould, iv. pi. 315, fig. 1 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 56 ; 
Dresser, viii. p. 135, pi. 564 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 465 ; 
Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 325 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. 
p. 437 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 872 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. 
p. 262 ; Saunders, p. 609 ; Lilford, v. p. 105, pi. 46 ; Kidgway, 
p. 166 ; Poynting, p. 209, pi. 44. 

Chevalier cul-blanc, French ; Lavandera grande, Cherlovita, 
Span. ; Culbianco, Ital. ; Puriktirter- Wasserlciufer, German ; 
Witgatje, Dutch ; Graabenet Klire, Dan. ; Grraabenet-Sneppe, 
Norweg. ; Skagswappa, Swed. ; Mustasiipi-vikla, Finn. ; Tscher- 
nysch, Russ. 

$ ad. (Spain). Crown, sides of head, and neck blackish brown, striped 
with white ; upper parts blackish brown, tinged with metallic olivaceous 
and spotted with white ; lower rump, upper tail-coverts, base of tail, and 
outermost tail-feathers white, rest of tail blackish brown, with three bars 
and the tips white ; under parts white ; the neck and flanks closely marked 
with blackish brown ; axillaries brownish black with narrow white angular 
bars ; bill blackish, tinged with grey at the base ; legs lead-grey, washed 
with green on the joints ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1'4, wing 5*4, tail 2*55, 
tarsus 1*33 inch. Sexes alike. In winter the upper parts are uniform 
greyish brown unspotted, and the crown and hind neck are ashy brown 
with a white streak above the eye. 

Hal. Europe generally, north to the Arctic Circle but not in 
Lapland, breeding down to the north central portions, passing 
down to South Europe and Africa as far as the Cape Colony in 
winter ; Asia, north to Kamchatka, east to Japan ; south in 
winter to the Malay Archipelago ; Corea ; China ; Burma, 
India, and Ceylon; of accidental occurrence in Nova Scotia. 

Is generally to be found near inland ponds and streams, 
seldom on the coast, often at ponds in the woodlands. Its note 
is a clear loud dlee-dlee-dlee, uttered quickly, and its flight is 
swift and graceful. Like its allies it feeds on insects, larvae, and 

3 F 2 



790 TOTANUS 



worms. Its mode of breeding is absolutely peculiar, as it 
places its 4 eggs, in the latter half of May, in deserted nests of 
Thrushes, Blackbirds, Jays, and other birds, and even those of 
the Squirrel, almost always in the vicinity of a pond. The eggs 
vary in ground-colour from delicate greyish sea-green to 
greenish grey, and are marked with purplish grey shell blotches 
and dark brown surface spots, which are usually larger and 
more numerous at the larger end ; in size they measure about 
1-55 by 1-12. 

1090. SOLITARY SANDPIPER, 
TOTANUS SOLITARIUS. 

Totanus solitarius (Wilson), Amer. Orn. vii. p. 53, pi. 58, fig. 3 (1813) ; 
Dresser, ix. p. 373, pi. 714 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. 
p. 444; Ridgway, p. 166; Saunders, p. 611; Lilford, v. p. Ill, 
pi. 48 ; Tot. chloropygius, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. vi. p. 401 (1816). 

ad. (New Brunswick). Differs from T. glareola in having the rump 
and central tail-coverts and tail-feathers dark greenish brown, the rest of 
tail-feathers and lateral coverts white, barred with blackish ; under wing- 
coverts and axillaries white, narrowly barred with greenish brown ; bill 
dull greenish at base, otherwise blackish ; legs dark greenish "grey ; iris 
brown. Culmen 1 '35, wing 5*25, tail 2*3, tarsus 1 '28 inch. Sexes alike. 
In winter the upper parts are greyer, the white spots less distinct, and the 
fore neck less distinctly streaked. 

Hal. America, north to about 65 N. lat. in summer, and south 
to Argentina in winter; an accidental straggler to Britain, 
where three authenticated examples have been obtained. 

In habits this bird resembles T. glareola, and in America 
frequents damp localities in the forest, and especially alder 
swamps. Its nest and eggs arenas yet unknown. 

1091. WOOD-SANDPIPER. 
TOTANUS GLAREOLA. 

Totanus glareola (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 677 (1788) ; Naum. viii. 
p. 78, Taf. 198 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 330, pi. xc. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of E. 
iv. pi. 315, fig. 2 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 57 ; Dresser, viii. 
p. 143, pi. 565 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 464 ; Seebohm, B. 
Jap. Emp. p. 324 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 491 ; Tacz. 
F. O. Sib. O. p. 874 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 261 ; 
Kidgway, p. 166 ; Sauuders, p. 607 ; Lilford, v. p. 109, pi. 47 ; 
Poynting, p. 203, pi. 43. 

Chevalier sylvain, French; Carregadet, Span.; Piro-piro- 
loscareccio, Ital. ; Brucli- Wasserlaufer, German ; Boschruiter, 



TOT ANUS 791 

Dutch ; Kjcersneppe, Dan. ; Gronbenet-Snqppe, Norweg. ; Grdribena, 
Swed. ; Ucca-av6u, Lapp. ; Lire, Suovikla, Finn. ; Travnik, 
Bolotney-Kulik, Russ. ; CJwpka, Tutwari, Hindu. 

$ ad. (Finland). Crown, nape, and hind neck blackish brown finely 
striped with white ; a white streak over the eye- and ear-coverts, and a 
blackish brown one from the base of the bill to the eye ; upper parts 
blackish brown with a greenish tinge, spotted with white and greyish buff ; 
upper tail-coverts white ; middle tail-feathers like the back, but barred 
with buffy grey and white, the rest white barred with blackish brown ; 
shaft of first quill only white ; chin white ; sides of head, neck, and breast 
washed with buffy grey, and striped, the breast and flanks more boldly, 
with blackish brown angular bars ; rest of under parts white, the axillaries 
marked with brown ; bill black ; the base of lower mandible olive- 
greenish ; legs greenish ochreous ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1'25, wing 4'9, 
tail 2'15, tarsus 1*45 inch. Sexes alike. In winter the pale margins are 
broader on the upper parts, which are paler than in summer, and the 
throat, neck, and flanks are less marked with brown, but the two former 
are more washed with buffy grey. 

Hab. Europe generally, north far into Lapland ; and in winter 

migrating down to South Africa ; Asia, north to Kamchatka, 

east to Japan, south to Corea and China, passing down to 

Burma, India, Ceylon, the Malay Archipelago, and Australia in 

winter. 

Is more particularly an inland marsh-frequenting species, 
and is also often seen in damp wooded localities. Its call-note 
is a very clear, loud whistle, and in the pairing season it utters 
a succession of notes, hero, leero, leero, teeleedl, teeleedl, teeleedl, 
uttered several times in succession. It breeds in open, marshy, 
grass- covered localities, the nest being a depression in an ele- 
vated patch scantily lined, and the 4 eggs, which are usually laid 
in May, or early in June, vary in ground-colour from stone-grey 
to stone-ochre, with purplish grey shell-markings, and reddish 
brown or dark brown surface spots and blotches, and in size 
measure about 1'41 by 1*06. 

1092. SUMMER-SNIPE. 
TOTANUS HYPOLEUCUS. 

Totanus hypoleucus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 250 (1766) ; Naum. viii. p. 7, 
Taf. 194 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 333, pi. xc. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. 
pi. 316 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 58 ; Dresser, viii. p. 127, pi. 563 ; 
(David and Oust.) Ois. Chine, p. 467 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. 
p. 326 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 456 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 
O. p. 882 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv.p. 260 ; (Eidgway),p. 170 ; 
Saunders, p. 605 ; Lilford, v. p. 103, pi. 45, Poynting, p. 193, pi. 41. 



792 TOTANUS 



Chevalier guignette, French ; Magarico das rochas, Portug. ; 
Lavandera cJiica, Siseta, Span. ; Piro-piro-piccolo, Ital. ; Fluss 
Uferlaufer, German ; Oeverloopcr, Steenvirik, Dutch; Muddersneppe, 
Dan. ; Strandsnipe, Norweg. ; Drillsnappa, Swed. ; Libik, Lapp. ; 
Ranta-siippi, Koska-siippi, Finn. ; Beregovnik, Russ. 

$ ad. (N. Kussia). Upper parts bronzy olivaceous brown, the crown, 
hind neck, and back, wing-coverts, scapulars, and upper tail-coverts barred 
and narrowly striped with blackish ; primaries blackish, the secondaries 
with a broad basal band and tips white ; middle tail-feathers like the back, 
the rest white, barred with blackish ; chin and a streak over the eye white ; 
sides of neck and breast pale ashy grey, striped with blackish ; rest of 
under parts white ; base of bill dull fleshy, the rest dark brown ; legs 
grey, tinged with green ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1-1, wing 4'5, tail 2'55, 
tarsus 1 *0 inch. Sexes alike. In winter the upper parts are more uniform 
and less marked with black ; the throat and breast greyer, and striped 
less distinctly. The young have the feathers on the upper parts tipped 
with brownish ochreous and narrowly barred with black. 

Hob. The whole of Europe from the Arctic Ocean to the 
Mediterranean, breeding almost everywhere ; Africa, in winter 
south to the Cape Colony ; Asia generally, north to Kamchatka ; 
Japan, Corea, Mongolia, Manchuria, China, Burma, India; in 
winter migrating south to Australia. 

Frequents inland streams, ponds, and lakes, and is not often 
seen on the sea coast, nor does it collect in flocks, but is seen 
singly or in pairs, and affects places where the shores of the 
lakes or banks are wooded or covered more or less with bushes, 
and is as a rule shy and wary. Its note is a shrill di, di, di, its 
flight is rapid but wavering, and it frequently nods its head, 
and jerks its tail when tripping along. It breeds in un- 
frequented places near water, often on a river bank or some- 
times in willow thickets, its nest being a mere depression 
scantily lined with a few grass blades, and its 4 eggs, which are 
usually deposited in May, vary from creamy white to warm 
stone-buff in ground-colour, the surface markings from dull red 
to brownish red, and the shell spots are purplish grey. In size 
they measure about 1*42 by 1*04. 

1093. SPOTTED SANDPIPER. 
TOTANUS MACULARIUS. 

Totanus macularius (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 249 (1766) ; Wilson, Am. 
Orn. vii. p. 60, pi. 59, fig. 1 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 335, pi. xc. fig. 3 ; 
Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 317 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 59 ; (Nauru.), 
viii. p. 34, Taf. 195 ; Dresser, ix. p. 367, pi. 713 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B, 
Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 468 ; Saunders, p. 605* ; Ridgway, p. 170 ; 
Poynting, p. 199, pi. 42. 



TO TAN US 793 



( ad. (Washington). Differs from T. hypoleucus in having the upper 
parts more boldly marked with blackish brown, the breast thickly, and 
the rest of the under parts more sparsely spotted with brownish black ; 
base of bill fleshy pink, the rest dusky brown ; legs pale pink ; iris brown, 
Culmen I 1 10, wing 4 '4, tail 2'1, tarsus T05 inch. Sexes alike. In winter 
the upper parts are olivaceous brown, without the bold dark markings ;. 
wing-coverts barred with blackish ; under parts white ; the sides of lower 
neck washed with pale ashy brown. The young bird has all the secondaries 
barred with ashy brown, whereas in that of T. hypoleucus the 8th and 9th 
are nearly white. 

Hal. North America generally, migrating in winter south to- 
Brazil ; of rare and doubtful occurrence in Britain, but of still 
more doubtful occurrence elsewhere in Europe. 

In habits and nidification it closely resembles T. hypoleucus, 
but its eggs are different, being creamy drab or creamy ochreous 
in ground-colour, the underlying shell-markings of an indistinct 
neutral tint, and the surface spots and blotches rich dark 
brown. In size they measure about T22 by 0'93. 

1094. GREY-HUMPED SANDPIPER. 
TOTANUS BREVIPES. 

Totanus brevipes, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. vi. p. 410 (1816) ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 449 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 877 ; Eidgway, 
p. 168 ; T. pulverulentus, Mull. Naturk. Verh. Land en Volkenk. 
p. 152 (1829-44) ; Temm. and Schlegel, Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 109, 
pi. 65 ; T. griseopygius, Gould, P.Z.S. 1848, p. 39 ; id. B. of 
Austral, vi. pi. 38 ; T. incanus (nee. Gmel.), David and Oust. 
Ois. Chine, p. 466 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 323. 

$ ad. (Japan). Upper parts almost uniform ashy grey, the rump, upper 
tail-coverts, and middle tail-feathers bluer, the remaining tail-feathers 
pale ashy grey ; a narrow line over the forehead to behind the eye white, 
slightly marked with slaty black ; chin white ; neck striped ; the breast 
and upper flanks narrowly barred with slaty blackish ; rest of under parts 
white ; bill brown ; legs ochreous yellow ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1*6, 
wing 6 -55, tail 3*0, tarsus 1*4 inch. Sexes alike. In winter many of the 
feathers on the upper parts are narrowly margined with dull white ; the 
sides of the head, neck, face, breast, and upper flanks ashy grey unbarred. 

Hob. Kamchatka, Eastern Siberia, and Japan, migrating 
south for the winter to China, the Malay Archipelago, the 
Papuan Islands, and Australia. 

Nothing appears to be on record respecting the habits or 
nidification of this species. 



794 TOTANUS TEREKIA 

1095. WANDERING SANDPIPER. 
TOTANUS INCANUS. 

Totanus incanus, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. 658 (1788) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxiv. p. 453 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 880 j (Ridgway), p. 168. 

$ ad. (Bering Is.). Differs from T. brevipes in having the neck darker 
and more boldly striped, and the under parts generally, including the 
under tail-coverts, but not the middle of the abdomen, boldly and broadly 
barred with blackish slate ; bill and feet dull greenish ; iris brown. Cul- 
men 1*7, wing 6*7, tail 3'0, tarsus 1*3 inch. In winter the sides of the 
neck and of the breast and flanks are dull slate grey, the middle of the breast, 
sides of abdomen, and under tail-coverts narrowly barred with slaty 
blackish ; middle of abdomen white. 

Hal. The Pacific coasts of North America from the Galapagos 
and Lower California to the Aleutian Islands, Norton Sound and 
Alaska; the Commander Islands, Kamchatka, the Chukchi 
Peninsula; in winter migrating to the Sandwich Islands and 
throughout Oceania to the New Hebrides. 

Is said to be numerous on the rocky shores of all the islands 
of Bering Sea, and when disturbed on their feeding-grounds show 
but little alarm. Their note is a loud ringing whistle, which 
they utter when they take flight. This species may be dis- 
tinguished from T. Irempes in all plumages by having the 
nasal groove extending to within the terminal third of the 
upper mandible, whereas in T. Irempes it scarcely extends 
beyond the half, and the tarsus is usually reticulated behind 
and not plated. Nothing appears to be known respecting the 
nidification of this species. 

TEREKIA, Bonap., 1838. 

1096. TEREK SANDPIPER. 
TEREKIA CINEREA. 

TereJcia cinerea (Giild.), Nov. Comm. Petrop. xix. p. 473, tab. 19 (1774), 
(Naum.), xiii. p. 248, Taf. 386, fig. 3 ; Gould, B. of Austral, vi. 
pi. 34 ; Dresser, viii. p. 195, pi. 572 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, 
p. 460 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 474 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. 0. 
p. 856 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 258 ; Scolopax terek, Lath. 
Ind. Orn. ii. p. 724 (1790) ; (Gould), B. of E. iv. pi. 307 ; (See- 
bohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 326. 

Morodunka, Russ. 



TEREKIAMA CRORHA MPHUS 795 



$ ad. (Archangel). Upper parts grey lined with blackish, and a dis- 
tinct black line along each side of the middle of the back ; least wing-coverts 
and quills black, the latter washed with grey, the secondaries and inner 
primaries tipped with white ; tail grey with a faint coppery gloss ; under 
parts white ; the sides of the head, neck, and breast striped with greyish 
brown, the last tinged with grey ; bill curved upwards, blackish, with the base 
of lower mandible greenish yellow ; legs pale yellowish green ; iris blackish 
grey. Culmen T8, wing 5 '3, tail 2 '4, tarsus 1-05 inch. Sexes alike. In 
winter the upper parts lack the black, it being only faintly indicated, and 
the under parts are white, the sides of neck and breast washed with grey, 
and the sides of the head streaked with grey. 

Hob. Northern Russia, having only once been recorded from 
so far west as Finland ; of rare occurrence in Germany and Italy ; 
migrating south through Eastern Europe to South Africa ; 
Northern Siberia, migrating south through Japan, China, and 
India to Australia in winter. 

By many authors the present species has been united to the 
Godwits, but it is essentially a Sandpiper, in habits most nearly 
resembling T. hypoleucus, and its call-note is a clear, loud, 
musical whistle. It frequents river banks and the shores of 
small lakes and ponds, and feeds on worms, insects, &c., like the 
Sandpipers. Its nest, which is a mere depression in the ground, 
is usually situated in open places near bushes, and its 4 eggs, 
which are usually deposited in June, are dull buff with purplish 
grey shell-, and purplish brown surface- spots and blotches, and 
measure about 1/53 by 1*7. 

MACRORHAMPHUS, Leach, 1816. 

1097. RED-BREASTED SNIPE. 
MACRORHAMPHUS GRISEUS. 

Macrorhamphus griseus (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 658 (1788) ; Gould, B. 
of E. iv. p. 323 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 76 ; Dresser, viii. p. 187, 
pi. 571 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 394 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 951 ; Ridgway, p. 151 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 330; Saun- 
ders, p. 621 ; Lilford, v. p. 71, pi. 29 ; Poynting, p. 123, pi. 27 ; N. 
noveboracensis (Gmel.), ut supra ; Wilson, Am. Orn. vii. p. 45, 
pi. 58, fig. 1 ; M. scolopaceus, Lawr. Ann. Lye. New York, v. p. 4, 
pi. 1 (1852) ; Kidgway,p. 151. 

ad. (N. America). Crown, nape, and upper parts varied black and 
rusty rufous ; rump and upper tail-coverts white, tinged with rufous and 
barred with black ; quills blackish, the short secondaries and larger wing- 
coverts dark grey, margined and tipped with white ; tail broadly barred 



796 MACRORHAMPHUS 



with black, the middle feathers rusty ochreous, the rest white ; sides of 
head, throat, and under parts rusty red, paler on the lower abdomen ; sides 
of neck and upper flanks spotted, lower flanks and under tail-coverts barred 
with black ; iinder wing-coverts and axillaries white, barred with blackish 
grey ; bill blackish brown ; legs pale olivaceous ; iris brown. Culmen 2 '35, 
wing 57, tail 2'45, tarsus T4 inch. Sexes alike. In winter the crown, 
nape, and upper parts are dull ashy grey, the back slightly marked with 
blackish ; lower back nearly white ; no trace of rufous in the plumage ; 
under parts white, the neck and breast clouded, and the flanks and under 
tail-coverts barred with ashy grey. 

Hob. North America, breeding in the high north, wintering 
in Central and South America ; of rare occurrence in S. Green- 
land ; Britain, frequently in France, and twice in Denmark ; the 
Chukchi Peninsula in N.E. Siberia, and has been twice obtained 
in Japan. 

In habits it resembles the Sandpipers and Godwits, and has 
nothing in common with the Snipes except its bill. In winter 
and on passage it collects in flocks, and frequents marshy 
localities and mud-flats, feeding on worms and insects of 
various kinds. It breeds in Arctic America in June, the nest 
being a depression in the ground, usually in a grassy hummock 
in marshy places, the lining being merely a few dry leaves. 
The 4 eggs vary in ground-colour from clay-olive to greyish 
ochreous, and the markings, which are collected chiefly at the 
larger end, are dark umber-brown. In size they measure about 
175 by 1-22. 

1098. SEMIPALMATED SNIPE. 

MACRORHAMPHUS SEMIPALMATUS. 

Macrorliamphus semipalmatus, Jerdon : Blyth, J. A. Soc. Beng. xvii. 
p. 252 (1848) ; (David and Oust.), Ois. Chine, p. 474, pi. 121 ; 
(Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 936 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. 
p. 257 ; Eidgway, p. 151 ; M. taczanowskii (Verreaux), Kev. and 
Mag. 1860, p. 206, pi. 14 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 400. 

$ ad. (Dauria). Differs from M. griseus in being larger, in having the 
lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts closely marked and barred with 
blackish brown ; the under parts more uniform rufous, unspotted on the 
throat and breast, and the under wing-coverts white, unbarred ; beak and 
legs black ; iris dark brown. Culmen 3'03, wing 6'68, tail 3'0, tarsus 
T97 inch. In winter dress it may be distinguished by the barred rump, &c., 
the unbarred axillaries and under wing-coverts, and the flanks and under 
tail-coverts less barred. In general appearance and size it resembles L. 
lapponica, being very Godwit-like, but is readily distinguishable by its 
barred rump and snipe-like bill. 



MACRORHAMPHUti LIMOSA 797 

Hub. Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk and Dauria); Mongolia and 
China in winter; has also been obtained in Burma and near 
Calcutta in winter. 

Is said to frequent the marshy shores of large rivers in Dauria, 
but I find nothing on record respecting its habits, which are 
probably similar to those of M. griseus. Its nest and eggs are 
unknown. 

LIMOSA, Briss., 1760. 
1099. BAR-TAILED GODWIT. 
LIMOSA LAPPONICA. 

Limosa lapponica (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 246 (1766) ; Dresser, viii. 
p. 203, pis. 573 figs. 1, 2, 574 fig. 2 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mns. xxiv. 
p. 373 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 932 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. 
p. 256 ; Ridgway, p. 163 ; Saunders, p. 623 ; Lilford, v. p. 129, 
pi. 56 ; Poynting, p. 231, pi. 49 ; L. cegocephala, Linn. Syst. Nat. 
i. p. 246 (1766) ; L. meyeri, Leisl. Nachtrag. Bechst. Naturg. ii. 
p. 172 (1811-15); Naum. viii. p. 428, Taf. 214; L. rufa, Temm. 
Man. d'Orn. ii. p. 668 (1820) ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 306 ; id. B. of 
Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 51 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 343, pi. xciv. 

Barge rousse, French ; Parda, Portug. ; Tetol, Span. ; Pittima 
minore, Ital. ; Rostrothe-Uferschnepfe, German; Rosse-G-rutto, 
Dutch ; Rodlrun-Koblersneppe, Dan. ; Rodspove, Norweg. ; 
Myrspofv, Rostrod-Ldngndbba, Swed. ; Kydi, Lapp. ; Puna-Kuovi, 
Finn. ; Krasnoi-sookalen, Russ. ; Kojaku-chidori, Jap. 

$ ad. (Pagham). Crown, nape, and upper parts blackish brown, mar- 
gined with rust-red ; rump white with narrow brown lines ; upper tail- 
coverts white, washed with rufous and marked with dark brown ; tail 
similar but broadly barred with dark brown and tipped with white ; 
primary quills blackish brown ; secondaries dark grey margined with 
white, the inner ones darker and marked with rufous ; sides of head, neck, 
and under parts rich ferruginous ; the lores, auriculum, and sides of neck 
lined with black ; lower abdomen washed, and under tail-coverts marked 
with white, the latter spotted with brown ; under wing-coverts white with 
dark central lines and submargins ; axillaries white banded with blackish ; 
bill reddish yellow at base, otherwise blackish ; legs black, iris brown. 
Culmen 3'5, wing 8'4, tail 2'7, tarsus 2'2 inch. Female larger and less 
rufous. In winter the upper parts are ashy brown with dark shafts and 
paler margins to the feathers ; lower back and rump white with a few 
dark markings ; lower parts white marked with brown on the fore neck 
and upper breast. 

Hob. Northern Europe into Lapland, and Asia, east to the 
Yenesei valley ; in autumn migrating south to South Europe, 



798 LIMOSA 



and Africa south to Senegambia ; Canaries ; Asia, south to Sind 
in winter ; Great Britain in spring, autumn, and winter. 

Frequents estuaries, mud-flats, and the sea shore, and is 
usually seen in company with other waders. Its flight is light 
and buoyant, and its note a loud shrill whistle. Its food consists 
of worms, aquatic insects, and crustaceans, in search of which it 
may be seen probing the mud and sands. It breeds in the in- 
terior of Lapland, not further west than the Tornea valley, and 
as far east as the Yenesei, its nest being a mere depression in 
the ground, or on a tussock, and the eggs, 4 in number, are 
usually deposited in May, and are light olive-green, marked, 
chiefly at the larger end, with dark brown, and measure about 
2-0 by 1-49. 

1100. SUBSP. LIMOSA BAUERI. 

Limosa baueri, Naum. Vog. Deutschl. viii. p. 429 (1836) ; David and 
Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 459 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. O. p. 933 ; Ridgway, 
p. 163 ; L. novce-zealandim, Gray, Gen. of B. iii. p. 570 (1847) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 377 ; L. uropygialis, Gould, 
P.Z.S. 1848, p. 38 ; id. B. of Austr. vi. pi. 29 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. 
Emp. p. 329. 

Veretennic, Russ. 

$ ad. (Japan). Differs from L. lapponica in summer in having the 
red portion of the plumage paler, the lower back and rump blackish 
with white margins, and the axillaries distinctly barred with brown. 
Culmen 3*15, wing 8*74, tail 2*95, tarsus, 2*16 inch. In winter it can 
always be recognised by the dark rump and barred axillaries. 

Hob. Alaska ; Eastern Siberia ; the Commander Islands ; 
Mongolia ; Japan ; Corea ; migrating to S. China, the Malay 
Archipelago, Oceania, Australia, and New Zealand in winter. 

In general habits it does not differ from L. lapponica. It 
breeds in the Lake Hanka district in Mongolia, and in Alaska, 
its nest being a rounded depression in a tussock, lined with 
dry grass, and its 2 eggs, which are described as being light 
olivaceous, spotted with dark brown, but sometimes nearly 
uniform, in size measure about 2'20 by 1*42. 

1101. BLACK-TAILED GOD WIT. 
LIMOSA BELGICA. 

Limosa lelgica (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 663 (1788) ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iv. p. 254 ; Saunders, p. 625 ; Poynting, p. 235, pi. 50 ; L. 
limosa (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 245 (1766) ; Sharpe, Cat. B, Br. 



LIMOSA 799 



Mus. xxiv. p. 381 ; Ridgway, p. 164 ; L. melanwra, Leisl. Nachtr. 
Bechst. Naturg. ii. p. 153 (1813) ; Naum. viii. p. 406, Taf. 212, 213 ; 
Gould, B. of E. iv. pi. 305 ; id. B. of Gt, Brit. iv. pi. 50 ; Hewitson, 
ii. p. 342, pi. xciii. ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 329 ; L. melanu- 
roides, Gould, P.Z.S. 1846, p. 84; id. B. of Austral, vi. pi. 28; 
L. brevipes (nee. Gray), Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Scolopaces, p. 21 
(1864) ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 460 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 929 ; L. cegocephala (nee. Linn.), Dresser, viii. p. 211, pi. 574; 
Lilford, v. p. 125, pi. 55. 

Barge a queue noire, French ; Abujeia, Sarseruelo, Span. ; 
Magarico gallego, Parda, Portug. ; Pittima, Ital. ; Schwarz- 
schwanziger- Uferschnepfe, German ; Grutto, Schries, Dutch ; 
Jardreka, Icel. ; Sorthalet-Rodspove, Norweg. ; Sorthalet-Kobber- 
sneppe, Dan. ; Rodspof, Swed. ; JtlvdoshJca, Veretennik, Russ. ; 
Grudera, Hindu. ; Sorihashi-cMdori, Jap. 

$ ad. (England). Head, neck, and breast rusty red, the crown and 
nape striped with black ; upper parts barred black and rusty red ; lower 
back and rump blackish ; upper tail-coverts white ; tail black, the middle 
feathers tipped with grey, the outermost white on the basal half ; quills 
blackish, the inner primaries and secondaries white at base ; wing-coverts 
earthy grey, the larger with broad white tips ; breast indistinctly barred 
with black ; under parts white, irregularly barred with black and rufous, 
the flanks washed with rufous ; axillaries and under wing-coverts white ; 
beak blackish brown, orange at the base ; legs blackish ; iris brown. Cul- 
men 3'9, wing 8'0, tail 3'6, tarsus 2'8 inch. Female larger and duller 
coloured. In winter the plumage lacks all red, the upper parts are earthy 
grey, the throat, neck, and upper breast pale earthy grey, the rest of the 
under parts white. 

Hob. Europe generally, a regular visitor to Iceland, where it 
breeds ; accidental in Greenland ; wintering in South Europe 
and Africa, south to Abyssinia ; Asia, east to Japan, north to 
Kamchatka ; Mongolia, Corea, Manchuria ; China, Burma, India, 
the Malay Archipelago, and Australia in winter; formerly 
breeding in England and abundantly in the Netherlands. 

Frequents marshy and damp localities, and in winter the sea 
coasts, and feeds on worms, insects, snails, larvae, &c. Its note 
is a clear tu-ee-tooo, oft repeated, and when alarmed it utters a 
clamorous wail, grutto, grutto. The nest is a mere depression 
in the moss, and the 4 eggs, which are usually deposited in 
May, are dull greenish indistinctly marked with dark brownish 
olive, and in size measure about 213 by 1'46. 

Birds from East Asia are as a rule rather smaller than 
European ones. 



800 NUMENIUS 



NUMENIUS, Briss., 1760. 

1102. ESKIMO CURLEW. 
NUMENIUS BOREALIS. 

Numenius borealis (Forster), Phil. Trans. Ixii. p. 411 (1772) ; Audub. 

B. Am. pi. 208 ; Newton, P.Z.S. 1871, pi. iv. fig. 1 (egg) ; Dresser, 

viii. p. 221, pi. 575 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 368 ; 

Kidgway, p. 171 ; Saunders, p. 631 ; Lilford, v. p. 137, pi. 59 ; 

Poynting, p. 253, pi. 54. 

ad. (N. America). Crown, nape, and upper parts umber-brown, 
marked with dull isabelline, and in parts washed with pale rufous ; quills 
dark earth-brown, the shafts white ; upper wing-coverts margined with 
greyish brown ; tail dull rufous brown, barred with umber-brown ; sides 
of face white striped with brown ; a dark line through and behind the 
eye ; throat white ; rest of under parts pale rufous buff, the middle of the 
abdomen nearly white ; breast with V-shaped brown markings ; flanks 
rufous, similarly marked ; under wing-coverts and axillaries rich rufous 
barred with blackish brown ; under tail coverts rufous buff, similarly 
barred ; beak brownish black ; base of lower mandible yellowish flesh ; 
legs greenish brown ; iris blackish brown. Culmen 2*4, wing 8*0, tail 3'4, 
tarsus 1'8 inch. Female similar. 

Hob. North America, north to within the Arctic Circle, 
migrating south in the winter through Central America to the 
southern parts of South America ; of rare and accidental occur- 
rence in Greenland and Britain. 

Frequents not only the sea coasts but is frequently to be met 
with inland, and on migration and in winter is found in large 
flocks. It feeds on insects and molluscs, and is also said to 
be partial to crowberries. It breeds in the barren grounds in 
Arctic North America, the nest being a mere hollow in the 
ground lined with a few decayed leaves, and the eggs, which 
are laid late in June or early in July, vary in ground-colour 
from pale ashy green to ochreous drab, and deep olivaceous 
drab, and the markings and blotches are of various shades of 
sepia, usually more numerous at the larger end. In size they 
measure about 2*0 by 1*45. 

1103. LITTLE WHIMBREL. 
NUMENIUS MINUTUS. 

Numenius minutus, Gould, P.Z.S. 1840, p. 176 ; id. B. of Austral, vi. 
pi. 44 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 458 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. 
Emp. p. 317 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 371 ; Tacz. F. 0. 
Sib. 0. p. 947 ; N. minor (nee. Leach), Dresser, viii. p. 245. 



NUMENIUS 801 



<$ ad. ((Jhina). Differs from N. borealis in having the upper parts 
conspicuously mottled with warm sandy buff; the sides of the head, 
mesial line, and under parts rufous isabelline or sandy buff ; lower throat 
and neck streaked, and flanks barred with dusky brownish ; under wing- 
coverts and axillaries rufous isabelline, barred with dusky brown ; bill 
blackish brown, the base of lower mandible flesh-coloured ; legs grey ; iris 
dark brown. Culmen 2'0, wing 7*3, tail 3'0, tarsus T8 inch. 

Hob. Eastern Siberia and Mongolia ; Japan and China ; the 
Moluccas and Australia on passage and in winter. 

Nothing seems to be on record respecting the habits of this 
bird, which evidently breeds in Eastern Siberia, not far north of 
Dauria, but its nest and eggs are as yet unknown. 

1104. WHIMBREL. 
NUMENIUS PKLffiOPUS. 

Numenius phczopus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 243 (1766) ; Naum. viii. 
p. 506, Taf. 217 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 324, pi. Ixxxvii. fig. 1 ; Gould, 
B. of E. iv. pi. 303 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 49 ; Dresser, viii. 
p. 227, pi. 576 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 356 ; Blanf. 
F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 253 ; Ridgway, p. 171 ; Saunders, p. 629 ; 
Lilford, v. p. 135, pi. 58 ; Poynting, p. 249, pi. 53. 

Courtis, French ; Maqarico gallego, Portug. ; Zaraptto, Serranct, 
Span. ; Chiwrletto, Ital. ; fiegen-brachvogel, German ; Regenwulf, 
Dutch ; Spdi, Icel. ; Lille-Eegnspove, Dan. ; Smaaspov, Norweg. ; 
Smdspofv, Swed. ; Ktiskastak, Lapp. ; Pieni-Kuovi, Finn. ; Malyi- 
Kronsclinep, Kulik, Russ. ; Chota-G-oungh, Hindu. 

$ ad. (Sussex). Crown and nape dark brown with a mesial and two 
superciliary lines to the nape dull white ; upper parts dark brown with 
indistinct greyish brown margins ; hind neck dull white streaked with 
brown ; rump and upper tail- coverts white, the latter spotted and barred 
with dusky ; tail brownish grey, barred with dark brown and tipped with 
white ; quills blackish brown, the shafts white ; wing-coverts dusky 
brown spotted with dull white ; under parts white ; the sides of head, 
neck, breast, and flanks streaked with brown ; under wing-coverts and 
axillaries white, barred with brown ; bill black, the base of lower mandible 
pale brown ; legs light greyish blue ; iris brown. Culmen 3'0, wing 9'3, 
tail 4-0, tarsus 2'3 inch. Female similar but larger. 

Hob. Europe generally, north to Iceland, Greenland, and 
Lapland, migrating through Southern Europe to South Africa 
and Madagascar, Azores, Canaries, and Madeira for the winter ; 
Asia, east to India and Burma, south to the Malay Archipelago. 



802 NUMENIUS 



In habits it resembles the Curlew. In the autumn and spring 
it is usually seen on our coasts or on pasture lands near the sea 
in small bands or flocks, and feeds on small shell-fish, insects, and 
crustaceans. Its note is a trilling tetty, tetty, tetty, tet quickly 
repeated. It breeds in the Faeroes, Northern Scandinavia, 
and Iceland, its nest being a depression on some slightly 
elevated and dry spot in the marshes, scantily lined with a few 
dead leaves or grass-bents, and its 4 eggs, which are usually 
deposited late in May or early in June, vary in colour from olive- 
brown to dark greenish brown, and are clouded and blotched, 
chiefly at the larger end, with dark umber-brown, but occasionally 
they are unmarked. In size they average 2*29 by 1*60. 

1105. SUBSP. NUMENIUS VARIEGATUS. 

Numenius variegatus (Scopoli), Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 92 
(1786) ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 317 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxiv. p. 361 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 943 ; N. uropygialis, Gould, 
P.Z.S. 1840, p. 175 ; id. B. of Austral, vi. pi. 43. 

Ko-shaku-shigi, Jap. 

ad. (Japan). Differs from N. phceopus in having the lower back and 
rump boldly marked with brown, and the axillaries more broadly and 
closely barred. Culnien 3'2, wing 8'9, tail 3*78, tarsus 2'2 inch. 

Hob. Eastern Siberia, north to Kamchatka; Japan, Corea, 
and China ; migrating south through the Malay Archipelago to 
Australia for the winter. 

In habits it does not appear to differ from N. phceopus, but its 
nest and eggs seem to be unknown. 



1106. SLENDER-BILLED CURLEW. 
NUMENIUS TENUIROSTRIS. 

Numenius tenuirostris, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. viii. p. 302 (1817) ; Naum. 
viii. p. 527, Taf. 218 ; Dresser, viii. p. 237, pi. 577 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 348. 

Gourlis a bee grSle, French ; Zarapito, Span. ; Ghiurlotello 
Ital. ; Diinnschnabliger Brachvogel, German. 

$ ad. (Malta). Differs from N. arquatus in being much smaller, the 
hind neck greyish white streaked with rufous brown ; lower back, rump, 
and upper tail-coverts pure white, the latter marked with fine brown lines ; 



NUMENIUS 803 



lores, eye-streak, cheeks, and ear-coverts white marked with fine lines and 
specks of black ; throat pure white ; under parts white, the lower throat 
and breast with central brown streaks, the sides of the breast with large 
pear-shaped spots ; under wing-coverts and axillaries pure white ; bill 
brown, the base of lower mandible flesh-coloured ; legs plumbeous grey ; 
iris brown. Culmen 275, wing 9'3, tail 3'8, tarsus 21 inch. Sexes 
alike. 

Hal. Southern Europe, of rare occurrence in Central Europe 
but has been obtained in Holland, Belgium, and France ; 
North Africa, ranging south to Khartoum ; to the east it is 
found in Transcaspia, where it probably breeds. 

In habits this Curlew is said to differ from N. arquatus in 
frequenting marshy localities and often wading up to the 
belly in water. Respecting its nidification nothing definite 
appears to be known. 

1107. COMMON CURLEW. 
NUMENIUS ARQUATUS. 

Numenlus arquatus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 242 (1766) ; Naum. viii. 
p. 478, Taf. 216 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 322, pi. Ixxxvii. fig. 2 ; Gould, 
B. of E. iv. pi. 302 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 48 ; Dresser, viii. p. 243, 
pi. 578 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 314 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxiv. p. 341 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 938 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, 
iv. p. 252 ; Saunders, p. 629 ; Lilford, v. p. 131, pi. 57 ; Poynting, 
p. 243, pis. 51, 52 ; N. lineatus, Cuv. Regne Anim. i. p. 521 (1829) ; 
David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 457. 

Courtis, French ; Magarico real, Portug. ; Zarapito redl, Span. ; 
Chiurlo, Ital. ; Grosser Brachvogel, German ; Wulp, Dutch ; 
Stor-Rvgnspove, Dan. ; Stor-Spove, Norweg. ; Storspof, Swed. ; 
Iso-kiwvi, Finn. ; Kulik-kotrous, Bolschoi-Kronschnep, Russ. ; 
Goar-Goungh, Hindu. 

(J ad. (Sweden). Upper parts, head, and neck blackish brown with 
dirty white and pale fulvous margins to the feathers, some tinged with 
rufous ; lower back and rump white with a few scattered drop-shaped 
spots ; upper tail-coverts white slightly barred with brown and marked 
with rufous ; tail white barred with blackish brown, the middle feathers 
tinged with ashy grey ; quills blackish brown ; shafts of outer ones white ; 
chin, upper throat, and region round the eye white ; rest of under parts 
white, the neck, breast, abdomen, and under tail-coverts narrowly, the 
flanks boldly striped with blackish brown ; under wing-coverts and 
axillaries mottled or more or less barred with brown ; bill dull fleshy 
at base, otherwise dark brown ; legs plumbeous grey ; iris brown. 
Culmen 5'0, wing 11*6, tail 4'9, tarsus 3'0 inch. Female similar. 

3 G 



804 NUMENIUS 



Hob. Europe generally, north nearly to the Arctic Circle in 
summer ; on migration and in winter south to the Cape Colony 
in South Africa; Madagascar; Asia, east to Dauria, and has 
occurred in Japan ; Mongolia ; China ; Burma, India, Ceylon, 
the Andamans, Nicobars, and Laccadives in winter. 

Frequents moors and open plains during the summer and 
open flats on the coasts in winter, and is one of the most 
cautious and wary birds. It feeds on worms, snails, insects of 
various kinds, and berries, and in winter on marine animals 
and crustaceans. Its note is a loud, weird, uncanny cry, which 
it utters directly it takes flight on the approach of an intruder. 
It breeds on the moors or in marshy places, the nest being a 
mere depression on a tussock, scantily lined, and the eggs, 4 
in number, are usually deposited from early in April to late in 
May, and vary from light greenish fco dark olivaceous in ground- 
colour, and are marked with purplish brown shell-markings 
and dark umber-brown surface spots and blotches ; in size they 
measure about 2 <I 72 by 1*84. 



1108. AUSTRALIAN CURLEW. 
NUMENIUS CYANOPUS. 

Numenius cyanopus, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. viii. p. 306 (1817) ; Seebohm, 
B. Jap. Erap. p. 315 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 350 ; Tacz. 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 940 ; N. australis^ Gould, P.Z.S. 1837, p. 155 ; 
id. B. of Austr. vi. pi. 42 ; N. major (nee. Steph.), Temm. and 
Schlegel, Faun. Jap. Aves, pi. 66 ; N. tahitiensis (nee. Gmel.) r 
Swinhoe, P.Z.S. 1871, p. 410 ; Eidgway, p. 171 ; Darid and Oust. 
Ois. Chine, p. 458. 

ad. (China). Differs from N. arquatus in having the rump and 
upper tail- coverts conspicuously marked with brown, and the upper and 
under parts washed with warm vinous buff or rufous buff ; under wing- 
coverts and axillaries broadly barred with blackish brown. Culmen 7*8,. 
wing 13'0, tail 5'4, tarsus 3'3 inch. 

Hob. Eastern Siberia, north to Kamchatka ; Japan, Corea, 
and China ; passing the winter as far south as Australia ; of 
rare occurrence in Alaska. 

It is said not to differ from our European Curlew in its 
general habits. Nothing, however, appears to be known 
respecting its nidification. 



IBIDORHYNCHUS HYDROCHELIDON 805 

IBIDORHYNCHUS, Vigors, 1831. 

1109. IBIS-BILL. 
IBIDORHYNCHUS STRUTHERSI. 

HAdorhynchus struthersi, Vigors, P.Z.S. 1831, p. 174; Gould, Cent. B. 

Himal. Mts. pi. 79 ; id. B. of As. vii. pi. 61 ; David and Oust. Oie. 

Chine, p. 456, pi. 118; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 335; 

Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 249 ; Falcirostra kaufmanni and 

longipes, Severtz. Turk. Jevotn. pp. 69, 146/147, pi. x. (1873). 
<$ ad. (Kan-su). Crown, nape, face to the hind part of the eye, 
fore neck, and a broad band across the breast black ; rest of the head 
and neck blue-grey becoming white where it meets the black ; upper parts 
generally buffy French-grey, becoming bluish on the outer primaries, outer 
wing-coverts, and rump ; upper tail-coverts blackish terminated with blue- 
grey ; tail ashy blue-grey narrowly barred with blackish, and tipped with 
black, the outer web of the outermost feathers white broadly barred with 
black ; primaries with a white spot near the end of the inner web, largely 
increasing on the inner quills ; under parts, with under wing-coverts and 
axillaries, pure white ; bill curved, deep crimson ; legs blood-red ; iris 
crimson. Culmen 3'0, wing 9'3, tail 4'7, tarsus 1*8 inch. Female similar, 
but with the black portions of the plumage slightly tinged with brown. 
Young birds lack the blackish on the head and breast. 

Hob. Central Asia, from Western Turkestan east to Tibet,, 
Mongolia, and China ; the Afridi country, Afghanistan, and: 
the Himalayas from Kashmir to Upper Assam. 

Is chiefly to be met with singly or in pairs or small parties 
on the mountain streams, as high as 12,000 feet, and winters in 
the mountains in spite of the cold. It is said to be rather 
shy, and when taking wing utters a loud note, and flies very 
low, close to the water, following the curves of the stream. 
It certainly breeds in the Himalayas, but its nesting habits 
and eggs are as yet unknown. 

HYDROCHELIDON, Boie, 1822. 

1110. BLACK TERN. 
HYDROCHELIDON NIGRA. 

Hydrochelid-on nigra (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 227 (1766); (Naum.), x. 
p. 189, Taf. 256 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 488, pi. cxxxv. ; (Gould), B. of 
E. v. pi. 422 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 75 ; Dresser, viii. p. 327, 
pi. 592 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv.p. 17 ; id. Manual, p. 633 ; 
Ridgway, p. 46 ; Lilford, vi. p. i. pi. i. ; S. Jissipes, Lath. Ind. Orn. 
ii. p. 810 (1790 nee. Linn.) 

3 G 2 



806 HYDROCHELIDON 

Guifette noire, French ; Gaivina, Ferreirinho, Portug. ; 
Fumarell, Span. ; Mignattino, Ital. ; Schwarze-Seeschwalbe, 
German ; Zwarte-Zeezwaluw, Dutch ; Sort-Terne, Dan. and 
Norweg. ; Svart-Tarna, Swed. ; Tschernaya-martyschka, Russ. 

# ad-. (Spain). Crown, nape, and hind neck glossy black ; upper 
parts and tail plumbeous blue-grey; quills darker plumbeous grey; 
sides of head, throat, and under parts plumbeous black ; under wing- and 
tail-coverts white, the former tinged with grey ; bill purplish black ; legs 
blackish brown with a purplish tinge; iris dark brown. Culmen 1*3, 
wing 8-0, tail 3'25, only moderately forked, tarsus 0'65 inch. Sexes alike. 
The young bird has the forehead and hind neck white, the upper parts 
brownish ashy marked with light brown, the fore back blackish and the 
under parts white, marked with blackish on the sides of the breast, and 
the adult in winter is similar, but the upper parts are clearer grey and 
the markings on the sides of the breast are absent. 

Hob. Europe generally, north to about 60 3 N. lat., now only 
a rare visitant to Britain ; Africa in winter to Abyssinia on 
the east, and Loango on the west side ; Asia Minor and Asia 
east to Western Turkestan. In the New World it is replaced 
by a nearly allied species, H. surinamensis (Gmel.). 

As a rule the Black Tern is extremely tame and fearless. On 
the wing it is extremely graceful and may often be seen hover- 
ing over the water for a moment and then pouncing down like 
a stone on its prey. It feeds chiefly on aquatic insects of 
various kinds, worms, grubs, &c. It breeds in swamps, making 
a tolerably well constructed nest of grass and marsh plants, and 
late in May deposits 3 eggs, which are ochreous clay in ground- 
colour, sometimes with an olivaceous tinge, marked with 
purplish grey shell spots, and blackish surface spots and blotches, 
and measure about T49 by TO. 

1111. WHITE-WINGED BLACK TERN. 
HYDROCHELIDON LEUCOFTERA. 

Hydrochelidon leucoptera (Schinz.), in Meisn. and Schinz. Vog. der 
Schweiz. p. 264 (1815) ; (Naum.), x. p. 215, Taf. 257 ; (Gould), B. 
of E. v. pi. 423 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 76 ; Dresser, viii. p. 321, 
pis. 590, 591 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 524 ; Saunders, Cat, 
B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 6 ; id. Manual, p. 635 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iv. p. 308 ; Kidgway, p. 47 ; Lilford, vi. p. 3, pi. 2 ; H. 
fasipes, Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1015. 

Hirondelle de mer leucopt&re, French ; Fumarell, Span. ; 
Mignattino ali-branchi, Ital. ; Weissfliiglige Seeschwalhe, 
German. 

A 



HYDROCHELIDON 807 



3 ad. (Algeria). Differs from H. nigra in having the upper and 
under parts deep black ; the upper tail-coverts, tail, edge of the wing, and 
lesser wing-coverts white, the larger coverts French-grey ; under tail- 
coverts white ; bill reddish black ; legs coral-red ; iris dark brown. 
Culmen I'l, wing 8 -2, tail 3'0, tarsus 0'8, middle toe with claw 0'9 inch. 
In winter and in immature dress it may be distinguished from H. nigra 
by having the rump and upper tail-coverts almost white, the bill stouter, 
and the tarsus and foot longer. 

Hob. Central and Southern Europe ; an irregular visitor to 
Britain ; Africa as far south at least as the Transvaal ; Asia 
Minor and Asia east to China, north to Dauria; Mongolia; 
Manchuria ; Burma ; Eastern India and Ceylon ; south to 
Australia and New Zealand ; has been obtained in Wisconsin 
(North America) and Barbadoes. 

In habits this Tern resembles H. nigra. but its note is louder 
and harsher, and it is somewhat swifter and more agile on the 
wing. It breeds in societies in marshy localities, and its nest and 
eggs resemble those of the Black Tern. 

1112. WHISKERED TERN. 
HYDROCHELIDON HYBRIDA. 

Hydrochelidon hybrida (Pall.), Zoogr. Ross. As. ii. p. 338 (1811) ; 
Dresser, viii. p. 315, pis. 588, 589 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, 
p. 524 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 10 ; id. Manual, p. 537 ; 
Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 307 ; Lilford, vi. p. 5, pi. 3 ; H. 
leucopareia (Natterer), in Temm. Man. d'Orn. ii. p. 746 (1820) ; 
(Gould), B. of E. v. pi. 424 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 77 ; (Naum.), 
x. p. 168, Taf. 255; Hewitson, ii. p. 483, pi. cxxxiv. fig. 2 ; 
Ridgway, p. 47 ; H.fluviatilis, Gould, P.Z.S. 1842, p. 140 ; id. B. of 
Austral, viii. pi. 31. 

Hirondelle de mer moustac, French ; Paino mayor, Span. ; 
Mignattino ligio, Ital. ; Weissbartige Seeschwalbe, German ; 
Mer&hik, Moor. 

$ ad. (S. Spain). Crown and nape glossy black ; upper parts and 
tail slate-grey, rather darker on the primaries ; outermost tail-feathers 
with the outer web white ; a white streak from the gape to the nape ; 
chin white, throat grey, darker on the breast, and becoming black on the 
abdomen and flanks ; under wing- and tail-coverts white ; bill and legs 
blood-red; iris dark brown. Culmen 1 '45, wing 9*2, tail 3'4. outer tail- 
feathers 0*7 longer than the middle ones, tarsus 0*9 inch. Sexes alike. 
In winter the forehead and fore crown are white, the rest of the crown, 
nape, and hind neck black marked with white, the upper parts paler than 
in summer, and the under parts white. The young bird is similar, but has 
the upper parts blotched with blackish. 



808 HYDROCHELIDON STERNA 

Hob. Southern, South-western, and Central Europe ; a rare 
straggler to North Germany and Britain ; Africa south to 
the Cape in winter; temperate Asia east to China; Burma, 
India, and Ceylon, passing south in winter through the Malay 
Archipelago to Australia; has once been recorded from 
Barbadoes. 

Frequents marshes and inland waters in preference to the 
sea coasts, and in general habits resembles its allies. It feeds 
on small fish, caterpillars, aquatic insects of various kinds, 
leeches, and dragon-flies. It breeds in marshes, in tolerably 
large colonies, building a somewhat large but clumsy nest of 
aquatic plants, which is placed on the herbage on the surface of 
the water, and lays 2 or 3 eggs, which vary in ground-colour 
from greyish buff or stone-buff to pale greenish or greenish 
grey, and are marked with purplish grey shell blotches, and 
blackish brown surface spots and blotches ; in size they measure 
About 1-52 by 112. 

STERNA, Linn., 1766. 

1113. ARCTIC TERN. 

STERNA MACRURA. 

Sterna macrura, Naum. Ms, 1819, p. 1847 ; id. x. p. 114, Taf. 253 ; 
Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 72 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 62 ; 
id. Manual, p. 649 ; Lilford, vi. p. 20, pi. 9 ; S. paradisea, Briinn. 
Orn. Bor. p. 46 (1764) ; Eidgway, p. 43 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1008 ; 
hirundo, Miiller, Zool. Dan. Prod. p. 170 (1774) ; Dresser, viii. 
p. 255, pi. 579 ; S. arctica, Temm. Man. d'Orn. ii. p. 742 (1820) ; 
Audub. B. Am. pi. 250 ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 419 ; Hewitson, ii. 
p. 481, pi. cxxxiii. figs. 1, 2. 

Sterne pamdis, French ; Gaiwna, Portug. ; Gavina, Span. ; 
Rondine di mare artica, Ital. ; Kilsten-Meerschwalbe, German ; 
Kyst-Term, Dan.; Modncebbet-Terne, Norweg. ; Bodndbbad-Tarna, 
Swed. ; Cerrik, Lapp. ; Lapintirra, Finn. ; Kraslika morsJcaya, 
Russ. 

ad. (Scotland). Crown black ; upper parts delicate silver-grey ; 
quills dark grey, the outer web ;of the first blackish ; secondaries tipped 
with white ; tail white, the outer webs of the two longest feathers dark 
grey ; chin, sides of face, under wing- and tail-coverts white ; rest of 
under parts eil ver-grey;. ; bill and legs coral-red ; iris blackish brown. 
Culmen T3, wing 10'4, tail 8'0, tarsus 0'55 inch. Sexes alike. In winter 
the forehead and crown are mottled with white, and the under parts are 
paler. 



STERNA 809 



Hal). The high northern portions of the Old and New 
Worlds, nesting north to 82 N. lat. or even higher ; in winter 
passing south to South Africa, South Asia, and South America 
as far as 66 S. lat. in the Southern Ocean. 

Frequents the sea coasts and islands off the coast, and is 
noisy but not shy. Its flight is extremely buoyant, easy, 
and graceful, and it will sometimes alight on the water and 
swim, and will even dive. It feeds on small fish, shrimps, and 
crustaceans of various kinds, and its note is recognizable from 
that of the Common Tern by a practised ear, being a somewhat 
plaintive keer, keer, or Jcee, kee, kee, or gip, gip, gip, gip, often 
modulated. It usually breeds close to the sea, but in some 
parts on the borders of inland lakes, making no nest, but 
depositing its 2 or 3 eggs on the sand, shingle, or on dry 
seaweed or grass ; these, which are usually deposited in June or 
July, according to latitude, vary in ground-colour from white to 
stone-grey, pale blue-green and rich greenish, and are spotted 
and blotched with umber-brown or blackish brown surface- 
markings and pale purplish shell-blotches ; in size they measure 
about 1-45 by 111. 

1114. COMMON TERN. 
STERNA FLUVIATILIS. 

Sterna fluviatilis, Naum, Isis, 1819, pp. 1847-1848 ; Dresser, viii. p. 263, 
pi. 580 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 525 ; Saunders, p. 647 ; 
id. Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 54 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1010 ; Blanf. 
F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 318 ; S. hirundo (partim), Linn. Syst. 
Nat. i. p. 227 (1766) ; Audub. B. N. Am. pi. 309 ; Naum. x. p. 89, 
Taf. 252 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 480, pi. cxxxiii. fig. 3 ; Gould, B. of E. 
v. pi. 417 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 70 ; Kidgway, p. 43 ; Lilford, 
vi. p. 17, pi. 8. 

Pierre Garin, French ; G-aivina, AndorJiina do mar, Portug. ; 
Gavina, Span. ; Rondina di mare, Ital. ; Fluss Meerschwalbe, 
German ; Vischdiefje, Dutch ; Almindelig-Terne, Dan. ; Makrel- 
Terne, Norweg. ; Fisktdrna, Swed. ; Kalatirra, Finn. ; Kraslika- 
rashnaya, Russ. 

$ ad. (England). Differs from S. macrura in having the under parts 
vinaceous grey, paler, the chin and cheeks white, the dark bands on the 
inner webs of the primaries wider and darker, and the outermost tail- 
feathers shorter ; bill coral-red, blackish at the tip ; legs coral-red ; iris 
dark brown. Culmen 1-5, wing 10'5, tail 5'6, tarsus 0'7 inch. 

Hal. Europe generally, but not ranging so far north as 
S. macrura ; migrating south down to South Africa in winter ; 



810 STERNA 



temperate Asia, passing south on passage and in winter to 
China, India, and the Malay Peninsula ; North America from 
Labrador to Texas, ranging south to Bahia, Brazil, in winter ; 
rare on Pacific coasts. 

In habits the Common Tern does not differ from the Arctic 
Tern, but it is less marine in the choice of habitat and is often 
found on rivers, lakes, and inland ponds. Its food and nest are 
also similar, but its note is somewhat harsher. Its eggs 
resemble those of S. macrura, and are also subject to con- 
siderable variation, but are as a rule a trifle larger, averaging 
about 1-59 by 119. 

1115. NORDMANN'S TERN. 
STERNA LONGIPENNIS. 

Sterna longipennis, Nordmann, in Ermans Reise, p. ]7 (1835) ; Middend. 
Sib. Reise, p. 246, Tab. 25, fig. 4 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, 
p. 526 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 296 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxv. p. 67 ; Blanford, F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 319 ; S. 
camtschatika, Kittlitz, Denkw. Reise, i. p. 322, and ii. p. 200 (1858) ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1011. 

$ ad. (Amoor). Intermediate between S. fluviatilis and S. macrui-a, 
having like the former the under parts vinaceous grey ; the upper parts 
slightly darker than the latter species ; stripe on the inner web of outer 
primaries as broad as in S. fluviatilis ; bill black ; legs blackish ; iris 
dark brown. Culmen 1'6, wing 10*6, tail 7'1, tarsus 0*75 inch. 

Hob. Eastern Siberia, north to Kamchatka ; Japan ; China ; 
Ceylon ; in winter migrating as far south as New Guinea. 

In habits, food, and nidification, this Tern does not differ 
from S. macrura. Its eggs, from Kamchatka, are described as 
being rather less marked than those of that species, and measure 
about 1-55 by 112. 

1116. ROSEATE TERN. 
STERNA DOUGALLI. 

Sterna dougall'i^ Montag. Orn. Diet. Suppl. (1813) ; Naum. x. p. 78, 
Taf. 251 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 479, pi. cxxxii. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of E. v. 
pi. 418 ; Dresser, viii. p. 273, pi. 581 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxv. p. 70 ; id. Manual, p. 645 ; Lilford, vi. p. 15, pi. 7 ; Blanford, 
F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 319 ; Kidgway, p. 44 ; S. paradisea, 
Keys, and Bias. Wirbelth. Eur. p. 247 (1840, nee. Briinn.) ; Gould, B. 
of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 71 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1008; S. gracilis, 
Gould, P.Z.S. 1845, p. 76 ; id. B. of Austral, vii. pi. 27. 






STERNA 811 



Sterne de Dougall, French ; Paradies-Meerschwalbe, German ; 
Don ff alls- Terne, Dan. 

< ad. (Massachusetts). Crown and nape glossy black ; upper parts 
light French-grey ; the rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail white washed 
with grey ; rest of plumage white ; under parts tinged with delicate rose- 
colour ; first primary with the outer web blackish ; bill orange-red at the 
base, otherwise black; legs orange-red; iris dark brown. Culmen T7,. 
wing 9'0, tail 9'0, the lateral feathers extending nearly 6 inches beyond 
the middle ones, tarsus 0'8 inch. Sexes alike. In winter the forehead 
is white, the crown and nape brownish black marked with white, the bill 
nearly black, and the under parts lack the rose tinge. 

Hdb. Europe, north to Britain, and rarely to Denmark ; 
somewhat rare in South Europe, but has been recorded from 
South Africa and the Azores ; the coasts of Asia north to the 
Loo-choo Islands; China, Ceylon, the Andamans; Malaysia, south 
to Australia and New Caledonia ; Eastern America from Massa- 
chusetts to Venezuela ; West- Indies, and the Antilles. 

In general habits it resembles the Common and Arctic 
Terns, but its cry is easily distinguishable from either of those. 
It is essentially an oceanic species, and its breeding range is 
very wide. Its eggs, 2 to 3 in number, are deposited on the 
ground on the coast, in sandy localities, and on small islands, 
and resemble those of the Common and Arctic Terns, but are 
as a rule more elongate in shape, and measure about 1'67 
by 1-18. 

1117. ALLIED TERN. 
STERNA MEDIA. 

Sterna media, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 198 (1820) ; Dresser, viii. 
p. 285, pi. 583 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 86 ; Blanf. F. 
Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 313 ; S. affinis, Cretzschm. in Riipp. Atlas, 
p. 23, Tab. 14 (1826) ; S. bengalensis, Lesson, Traite d'Orn. p. 621 
(1831) ; S. torresii, Gould, P.Z.S. 1842, p. 140 ; id. B. of Austral, 
vii. pi. 25. 

ad. (Egypt). Crown and nape deep black, the nuchal feathers 
elongated ; neck, fore back, chin, throat, and under parts white ; mantle 
ashy grey ; rump and tail pearly ash-grey, the outermost tail-feathers 
white ; quills hoary grey on the outer web, the inner web blackish near 
the shaft and tip, otherwise white ; bill yellow with a greenish tinge ; legs 
and toes black, the soles pale yellowish ; iris brown. Culmen 2 '5, wing 
11-6, tail 6'3, outer leathers 3 inches longer than the middle ones, tarsus 
1*05 inch. In winter the forehead is dull hoary grey, the crown white 
closely spotted with black, the nape black. 



812 STERNA 

Hob. Mediterranean, from the Straits of Gibraltar, where it 
is somewhat rare, to Egypt ; the Red Sea down to Madagascar ; 
coasts of Persian Gulf, Indian Ocean, India, Ceylon, and Burma 
(rarely), ranging south to Malacca, Sumatra, Java, Celebes, and 
North Australia. 

In general habits it appears to resemble the Sandwich Tern. 
It frequents the sea coasts and small islands, and is very 
gregarious, being usually seen in large flocks, and like its allies 
feeds on small fish. It breeds in colonies, the [nest being a 
mere depression near the shore, usually in sand, and the eggs, 
2 in number, are in general character like those of the Sand- 
wich Tern, are dull white, glossless, with purplish grey shell- 
markings, and dark brown surface spots, and measure about 
2-18 by 1-56. 

1118. SANDWICH TERN. 
STERNA CANTIACA. 

Sterna cantiaca, Grael. Syst Nat. i. p. 606 (1788) ; Naum. x. p. 50, 
Taf. 250 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 478, pi. cxxxii. figs. 2, 3 ; Gould, B. of 
E. v. pi. 415 ; (id.), B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 69 ; Audub. B. of Am. 
pi. 279 ; Dresser, viii. p. 301, pi. 586 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxv. p. 75 ; id. Manual, p. 643 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. 
p. 312 ; Lilford, vi. p. 13, pi. 6 ; S. acuflavida, Cabot, Proc. Bost. 
Soc. ii.-p. 257 (1847) ; Eidgway, p. 40. 

Hirondelle de mer caugek, French ; G-arajau, Portug. ; G-olon- 
drina de mar, Span. ; Beccapesci, Ital. ; Brand-Meerschwalbe, 
German ; Gfroote-zeezwaluw, Dutch ; Kentisk-Terne, Dan. 

( ad. (Turkey). Head to below the eye and nape glossy black, the 
nuchal feathers elongated ; a white line from the nostril along the edge of 
the upper mandible ; mantle plain French-grey ; primaries with white 
margins to the inner webs ; tail white ; under parts white with a very faint 
pink tinge ; bill black, the tip yellow ; legs black ; iris dark brown. 
Culmen 2 -35, wing 12*1, tail 6'8, the outer feathers 3'4 longer than the 
middle ones, tarsus I'l inch. In winter the forehead is white, the 
crown and nape white closely spotted with black ; a blackish spot before 
the eye. 

Hob. Europe, but not extending north above Britain or 
Denmark, and a very rare straggler to Southern Sweden ; on 
passage, and in winter ranging as far south as the Canaries 
and the Cape of Good Hope ; Asia, east to Sind ; the Atlantic 
coasts of North America, Cuba, Jamaica, both sides of Central 
America, and as far south as Bahia in Brazil. 



STERNA 813 



Is essentially a marine bird, frequenting the coast, but has 
been recorded as nesting near salt water on a moorland loch, 
yet this is very exceptional. It feeds, like its allies, on small 
fish, its flight is strong and rapid, and its note is a loud harsh 
Jcirrhitt, kirhitt. It nests in communities, usually in sandy places 
near the sea, its 2 or 3 eggs being deposited in a depression in 
the ground, usually in May or June. These are subject to con- 
siderable variation, the ground-colour varying from white to 
stone-buff, the shell-markings being purplish or pale brownish 
grey, and the surface spots and blotches, which are in some 
more pronounced than in others, are blackish brown ; some 
have peculiar hieroglyphic streaks, as if drawn with a pen. In 
size they measure about 2'05 by T42. 



1119. CASPIAN TERN. 
STERNA CASPIA. 

Sterna caspia, Pal]. Nov. Comm. Petrop. xiv. p. 582, tab. xxii. fig. 2, 
(1770) ; Naum. x. p. 18, Taf. 248 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 477, pi. cxxxi. 
figs. 2, 3 ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 414 ; (id.), B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 68 ; 
Dresser, viii. p. 289, pi. 584 ; (David and Oust.), Ois. Chine, p. 522 ; 
(Saunders), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 32 ; id. Manual, p. 641 ; 
Lilford, vi. p. 11, pi. 5 ; (Blanf.), F. Brit, Ind. Birds, iv. p. 309 ; 
(Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1006 ; 8. tschegrava, Lepechin, Nov. Comm. 
Petrop. xiv. p. 500 (1770) ; Bidgway, p. 39 ; S. strenuus (Gould), 
P.Z.S. 1846, p. 21 j (id.), B. of Austral, vii.pl. 22. 

Sterne tschegrava, French ; Garnica, Span. ; Beccapesci mag- 
giore, Ital. ; Raub-Meerschwalbe, German ; Reus-Zeezwaluw, 
Dutch ; Rov-Terne, Dan.; Skrantarna, Swed. ; Raukutirra, Finn. ; 
Kraslikti-tschegravdy Russ. ; Abou-Belaha, Arab. ; Rekra, in Sind. 

< ad. (Dobrudscha). Crown to just below the eye and nape glossy 
black ; nuchal feathers elongated ; mantle French -grey; rest of upper 
parts, tail, and under parts white ; quills hoary grey, the margins of the 
inner webs slate-grey ; bill bright coral-red ; blackish at the tip ; legs black ; 
iris dark brown. Culmeri 2'9, wing 15 '5, tail 6'0, outer feathers 1'3 longer 
than the middle ones, tarsus 1*8 inch. In winter the crown is white 
striped with black ; a blackish patch in front of the eye ; bill orange-red, 
tipped with horn-colour. 

Ha~b. Europe, north to the head^of the Gulf of Bothnia ; an 
irregular visitor to England; Africa south to the Cape and 
Madagascar; Asia, north to Southern Dauria, east to China, 
south to India, Ceylon, and Burma; the Malay Archipelago, 
Australia, and New Zealand ; North America generally, rarer 



814 STERNA 



on the Pacific coast, ranging south in winter to Florida on the 
east and Mexico on the west side. 

Frequents the sea coasts, seldom inland waters. It feeds 
chiefly on fish, but is said also to sometimes devour young 
birds of the smaller Terns. Its note is a loud, deep, harsh 
craaJc, craa. It breeds either in pairs or in communities, placing 
its eggs on the ground ; these, 2 to 3 in number, are usually 
deposited late in May or early in June, and vary in ground- 
colour from stone-grey to stone-buff with a greenish tinge, and 
are marked with purplish grey shell blotches, and blackish- 
brown surface spots, blotches, and blotchy lines. In size they 
measure about 245 by T75. 

1120. ROYAL TERN. 
STERNA MAXIMA. 

Sterna maxima, Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 58, No. 988 (1783) ; Dresser, ix, 
p. 383, pi. 716 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 80 ; Kidgway, 
p. 40; 8. cayennensis, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 604 (1788) ; Audub. 
B. Amer. pi. 273 ; S. regia, Gambel. Pr. Phil. Acad. iv. p. 228 
(1848). 

( ad. (S. Carolina). Crown and nape black, the nuchal feathers 
elongated and pointed ; neck, edge of wing from carpus, tail, and under 
parts white ; mantle pearl-grey, the rump paler grey ; outer webs of 
primaries dark grey, a broad line near the shaft, and ends of inner webs 
blackish grey ; bill orange-red ; legs black ; iris brown. Calmen 2 '8, wing 
14*3, tail 6'2, outer feathers extending 2*0 beyond the middle ones, tarsus T35 
inch. In winter the forehead and fore crown are white mottled with black, 
and a small space at the base of the bill dull grey ; bill paler orange. 

Hob. America, on the east side from Long Island to Southern 
Brazil, possibly to Parana, on the west side from California to 
Peru ; West Coast of Africa from the Straits of Gibraltar to 
Angola. 

In general habits it resembles S. caspia, but is said to swim 
very rarely. It breeds near the sea, usually in sandy places, 
laying 2 eggs, which are buffy white or pale yellowish, some- 
what sparsely spotted with purplish grey and dark umber, and 
measure about 2'59 by 1*71. 

1121. GULL-BILLED TERN. 
STERNA ANGLICA. 

Sterna anglica, Montag. Orn. Diet. Suppl. fig. (1813); Naum. x, 
p. 38, Taf. 249 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 476, pi. cxxxi. fig. 1 ; Gould, 
B. of E. v. pi. 416 ; (id.), B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 74 ; Dresser, 



STERNA 815 



viii. p. 295, pi. 585 ; (Saunders), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 25 ; 
id. Manual, p. 639 ; Lilford, vi. p. 9, pi. 4 ; S. aranea, Wils. 
Am. Orn. viii. p. 143, pi. 72, fig. 6 (1814) ; ? S. nilotica, Gmel. 
Syst. Nat. i. p. 606 (1788) ; (Ridgway), p. 38 ; S. macrotarsa, 
Gould, P.Z.S. 1837, p. 26 ; (id.), B. of Austral. Suppl. pi. 81 ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1004. 

Sterne hansel, French; G-olondrina de mar, Cagard, Span.; 
Beccapesci-inglese, Ital. ; Lach-meerschwalbe, German ; Lach- 
Zeezwalmv, Dutch ; Engelsk-Terne, Dan. ; Tschernonosaya- 
Martyschka, Russ. 

ad. (Turkey). Crown and nape glossy black leaving a white line 
along the edge of the gape ; chin, throat, sides of neck and under parts 
white ; upper parts with the tail pale bluish pearl-grey ; quills towards 
the tip and the inner web blackish grey, lighter in the centre ; bill and 
legs black ; iris brown. Culmen 1'6, wing 11-65, tail 5'0, lateral tail- 
feathers 1*6 inch longer than the middle ones, tarsus 1'2. In winter the 
forehead is white, the nape greyish white striped with black ; space before 
the eye marked with black ; behind the eye a blackish stripe. 

Hob. Europe, to about 55 N. lat. in summer; a rare straggler 
to Great Britain, but nests on the island of Sylt; Northern 
Africa down to below Kordofan ; temperate and Southern Asia, 
north to Mongolia ; Manchuria ; in winter somewhat irregularly 
distributed in Burma, India, and Ceylon, and ranging as far 
south as Australia, where it breeds. 

In habits it somewhat resembles S. cantiaca, but is more 
Gull-like, and its note, ef ef, or af af, is much more like that of 
a Gull. It feeds also largely on insects, orthoptera, coleoptera, 
and lepidoptera, locusts and grasshoppers. It breeds in com- 
munities, the nest being a mere depression in the sand or soil, 
sometimes with a scanty lining of straws, and in May or early in 
June deposits 2 to 3, rarely 4 eggs. These vary in ground-colour 
from stone-ochre and greyish white to pale greenish brown 
marked with pale greyish brown shell spots, and greenish or 
reddish brown surface spots and blotches, and measure about 
1-85 by 1-36. 

1122. LITTLE TERN. 
STERNA MINUTA. 

.Sterna minuta, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 228 (1766) ; Naum. x. p. 145, Taf. 
254 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 484, pi. cxxxiv. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of E. v. 
pi. 420 ; (id.), B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 73 ; Dresser, viii. p. 279, pi. 
582 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 116 ; id. Manual, p. 651 ; 
Blanford, F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 321 ; Lilford, vi. p. 21, pi. 10. 



816 STERNA 



Sterne naine, French ; Catalinita, Moncheta, Span. ; Fraticello, 
Ital. ; Zwerg-Meerschwalbe, German ; Dwerg-zcezwaluw, Dutch \ 
Dvcerg-Ternc, Dan. ; Smdtarna, Swed. ; Malay a- Marty schka, 
Malaya-Kraschka, Russ. 

ad, (England). Forehead white ; a stripe from the base of the bill 
through, the eye, crown, and nape deep black ; mantle and upper rump 
dark pearl-grey ; lower rump, tail-coverts, tail, and entire under parts pure 
white ; first three primaries with blackish shafts, and blackish in colour, 
broadly margined on the inner web with white ; bill yellow tipped with 
black ; legs light orange ; iris brown. Culmen 1*4, wing 6 '75, tail 3'8, 
the lateral feathers 1'95 longer than the middle ones, tarsus 0'6 inch. 
In winter the upper parts are rather darker, and more white on the 
forehead. 

Hal. Europe generally, from Southern Sweden to the Mediter- 
ranean, but rarer in the north; Britain in summer; North 
Africa and the West Coast down to the Cape in winter ; Asia 
east to India and Burma, and south in winter as far as Java. In 
America it is replaced by a nearly allied species, S. antillarum. 

In general habits it differs but little from the Common Tern, 
and is equally graceful on the wing. It usually frequents the 
sea coasts, though it is not unfrequently seen on inland waters, 
Its food consists of small fishes, aquatic insects, and larvae, and 
its note is a shrill, somewhat harsh kreeJc, or Jcree. Its 2 to 3 eggs 
are deposited on the sand or shingle, usually late in May or 
early in June, and are greyish yellow or stone-ochre in ground- 
colour, somewhat sparingly covered with violet-grey shell- 
markings and blackish brown surface spots, and measure about 
T28 by 0-92. 

The young of this and all the preceding Terns resemble the 
adult in winter dress, but have the upper parts marked or 
mottled with buff, dusky brown, or blackish. 



1123. ASIATIC LITTLE TERN. 
STERNA SINENSIS. 

Sterna sinensis, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 608 (1788) ; (David and Oust.), 
Ois. Chine, p. 527 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 298 ; Saunders, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 113 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1014 ; 
Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 320 ; Sternula placens, Gould,. 
Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. p. 192 (1871) ; id. B. N. Guin. v. pi. 72. 



STERNA 817 



ad. (China). Differs from S. minuta in being larger, in having the 
shafts of the primaries white, the outer web of the first, and inner web 
near the shaft dark grey, the upper tail-coverts and tail pure white, and 
the outer tail-feathers longer. Culnien 1 '5, wing 7'4, tail 5'6, the outer 
feathers 3 '3 longer than the middle ones, tarsus 0'65 inch. 

Hob. Ceylon, Burma, and China, east to Japan ; Malaysia 
down to New Guinea, Australia, and New South Wales. 

In habits it does not appear to differ from Sterna minula, 
frequenting similar localities and feeding also on small fish 
and small crustaceans, &c. It breeds on sand-banks in rivers 
and on the coast, in March and April in Pegu, and from June 
to August in Ceylon, depositing its 2 to 3 eggs on the 
ground. The eggs vary in ground-colour from stone-grey to 
yellowish or pale brownish buff and olivaceous grey, the shell- 
markings being bluish inky and purplish grey and the surface 
blotches of dark sepia and brown of various shades ; in size they 
measure about 1*24 by 0'94. 



1124. ALEUTIAN TEEN. 
STERNA ALEUTICA. 

Sterna aleutica, Baird, Trans. Chicago Acad. 1869, p. 321, pi. 31, fig. 1 ; 
Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 98 ; Ridgway, p. 45 ; Seebohm, 
B. Jap. Emp. p. 299 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1013. 

$ ad. (Alaska). Crown, nape, and loral streak black ; middle of forehead 
back to the eye white ; mantle slate-grey ; rump, tail, chin, lower cheeks, 
under wing- and tail-coverts white ; primaries dark grey, the outer web of 
the first blackish, a dark line on the inner web next the white shaft ; white 
wedges to the four outer primaries ; secondaries edged with white ; 
abdomen and breast pale slate-grey ; bill and legs black ; iris dark brown. 
Culnien 1'5, wing 10'65, tail 6'5, lateral tail-feathers 3'6 longer than the 
middle ones, tarsus 075 inch. In winter there is more white on the 
forehead. 

Hob. Alaska; both sides of the Bering Sea; the Aleutian 
Islands ; Saghalien and South-eastern Japan. 

In habits it is said to resemble the Arctic Tern, but its note 
is weaker and more squeaky. It deposits its 1 to 2 eggs on the 
ground, and these resemble those of the Arctic Tern, but are 
darker in ground-colour and more boldly marked ; in size they 
measure about 1*6 by 1*15. 



818 STERNA 



1125. SOOTY TERN. 
STERNA FULIGINOSA. 

Sterna fuliginosa, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 605 (1788) ; Naum. xiii. p. 267, 
Ta'f. 387 ; Wils. Am. Orn. viii. p. 145, pi. 72, fig. 1 : Gould, B. of 
Austral, vii. pi. 32 ; Temm. and Schlegel, Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 133, 
pi. 89 ; (David and Oust.), Ois. Chine, p. 528 ; Dresser, viii. 
p. 307, pi. 587 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 106 ; id. Manual, 
p. 653 ; Kidgway, p. 45 ; Lilford, vi. p. 26, pi. 11 ; Blanf. F. Brit. 
Ind. Birds, iv. p. 324. 

<$ ad. (Florida Keys). Forehead, sides of head to the eye, chin, 
throat, and entire under parts white ; crown, a stripe from the base of the 
bill through the eye, nape, hind neck, and upper parts, with the tail black, 
the mantle tinged with brown ; the outermost feather on each side of the 
tail greyish black towards the end of the inner web, otherwise white ; bill 
and legs black ; iris reddish brown. Culmen 1*9, wing 11 '2, tail 7'0, 
tarsus 0*92 inch. In winter the lores and crown are marked with white. 

Hob. Atlantic, chiefly on the 'southern islands, the southern 
coasts of North America, and as far south as Chili ; several parts 
of the African coasts ; rarer on the coasts of Asia, but is found 
as far south as Australia ; very rare on the Pacific coasts of 
America, but has been recorded from the Aleutian Islands and 
Western Mexico. Has been obtained three times in England, 
and thrice on the continent of Europe. 

Is essentially a marine bird, and nests in large communities 
on many of the tropical and subtropical islands, depositing as a 
rale a single egg on the ground. The eggs are white or cream- 
buff in ground-colour, the shell-markings purplish grey, and the 
surface spots and blotches deep red ; some are but slightly 
marked, but others are very boldly blotched. In size they 
measure about 2*0 by T39. 

1126. PANAYAN TERN. 
STERNA AIOGSTHETA. 

Sterna ancestheta, Scop. Del. Faun, et Flor. In. i. p. 92, No. 72 (1786) ; 
Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 301 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. 
p. 101 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 323 ; ti. panaya, Lath. 
Ind. Orn. p. 808 (1790) ; (Gould), B. of Austral, vii. pi. 33. 

ad. (Paternoster Island). Differs from S. fuliginosa in being 
smaller, in having the hind neck and fore back greyish white, the upper 
parts paler, blackish slate, and the webbing of the feet different, not con- 
tinued to the claws, but only to the last joint of the toes. Culmen 1-7, 
wing 10'3, tail 8'3, tarsus 0'8 inch. 



STERNA ANOUti 819 



Hob. Tropical seas generally ; both coasts of Africa, south to 
Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands ; the Indian Ocean and 
China Seas, north to Japan, and south to New Guinea, North 
Australia, the Fiji, Tonga, Ellice, and Phoenix Groups ; of 
accidental occurrence on the coasts of Florida, and is said to have 
once occurred at the mouth of the Thames. 

In general habits it resembles S. fuliginosa, but does not breed 
in such large colonies, its single egg being laid on the sand 
or ground, or in holes in the coral or sandstone, in May. The 
eggs resemble those of S. fuliginosa, but are rather smaller 
and less boldly marked. 



ANOTTS, Steph., 1826. 

1127. NODDY. 
ANGUS STOLIDUS. 

Anous stolidus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 227 (1766) ; (Audub. ), B. Am. 
pi. 275 ; (Gould), B. of E. v. pi. 421 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 486, 
pi. cxxxiv. fig. 3 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 300 ; Gould, B. 
of Austral, vii. pi. 34 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 529 ; 
Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 136 ; id. Manual, p. 655 ; 
Ridgway, p. 48 ; Lilford, vi. p. 29, pi. 13 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. 
Birds, iv. p. 325. 

(J ad. (Brit. Honduras). Forehead nearly white ; crown pale grey 
passing into greyish brown on the nape ; lores and orbital region black ; 
cheeks and throat plumbeous ; rest of plumage above and below chocolate- 
brown ; wings and tail blackish ; bill black, orange at the angle of the 
gape ; legs dusky vinous purple ; iris deep brown. Culmen 2'1, wing 
10'15, tail 6'2, tarsus I'O inch. 

Hob. Tropical and subtropical seas ; the Atlantic and Pacific 
coasts of America down to Tristan da Cunha in the Atlantic ; 
the coasts of tropical and subtropical Africa, and of Asia north 
to Japan ; Australia down to about 35 S. lat. ; islands of the 
Pacific up to Laysan, &c., and down to the Galapagos, but not 
Peru or Chile ; is said to have been obtained off the south- 
east coast of Ireland. 

Is essentially an oceanic species. It feeds on small fish, 
mollusca, medusae, &c. Unlike the other Terns, it constructs a 
somewhat bulky nest of twigs, grass, or seaweed, which is placed 
on a bush or tree, and deposits 1 egg only, which is laid from 
January to May and September, according to latitude. The 
eggs are dull and glossless in texture, white, muddy white, or 

3 H 



S20 ANOUS XEMA 



buffy white in ground-colour, sparingly marked with pale pur- 
plish grey shell spots and reddish brown or dark brown surface 
spots, and measure about 2'06 by 1'38. 

XEMA, Leach, 1819. 

1128. SABINE'S GULL. 

XEMA SABINII. 

Xema sabinii (J. Sabine), Trans. Linn. Soc. xii. p. 520, pi. 29 (1818) ; 
(Middendorff), Sib. Reise, p. 244, Tab. xxiv. fig. 5, pull. ; Tab. xxv. 
fig. 1, egg (1853) ; (Naum.), xiii. p. 272, Taf. 272, figs. 3, 4 ; (Gould), 
B. of E. v. pi. 429 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 67 ; Newton, P.Z.S. 
1871, p. 57, pi. iv. fig. 5 (egg) ; Dresser, viii. p. 337, pi. 593 ; 
Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mas. xxv. p. 162 ; id. Manual, p. 657 ; 
Ridgway, p. 38 ; Lilford, vi. p. 32, pi. 14 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 1046. 

< ad. (Arctic America). Head and upper neck rich dark plumbeous 
bordered below with, black ; mantle pale blue-grey ; edge of the wing 
and first five quills. black, the latter margined on the inner web, and tipped 
with white ; secondaries and their coverts blue-grey tipped with white ; 
rest of plumage and the tail white ; the latter slightly forked ; bill 
blackish, tipped with orange on the upper, and yellow on the lower 
mandible ; edge of eyelids and gape vermilion ; legs blackish ; iris light 
brown. Culmen 1'3, wing ll'O, tail 4'6, tarsus 1'4 inch. Sexes alike. 
In winter the head and neck are white, the ear-coverts and back of head 
and neck dusky plumbeous. The young have the mantle brownish grey 
marked with pale brown and dirty white, the crown brownish ashy, and 
the tail crossed by a subterminal black band. 

Hob. The most northern parts Arctic regions of the Old and 
New Worlds, visiting the British Isles, where it has been 
obtained on many occasions, the coasts of the North Sea to 
Norway, Denmark, Holland, N. Germany, and France, and has 
been recorded from as far south as Switzerland, Austria, and 
Hungary ; in America it has been obtained on the Atlantic side 
as far south as the Bermudas and Texas, and on the Pacific it 
visits the coasts of Peru to Callao Bay in numbers. So far as is 
known, it breeds only from the Taimyr to the Yukon, not in 
Spitsbergen or Greenland. 

In general habits and especially in its flight this Gull is very 
Tern-like, and in the breeding season associates with the Arctic 
Tern. It feeds chiefly on insects of various kinds in the breed- 
ing season, and small fish and crustaceans in the winter. It 
breeds in the high north, its nest being a depression in the 
moss, and its 2 eggs, which are laid late in June or early in 



XEMARHOD OSTETHIAPA GOPHILA 8 2 1 

July, are dull brownish olivaceous, indistinctly blotched, chiefly 
at the larger end, with dull brown, and measure about 172 by 
1-30. 

RHODOSTETHIA, Macgill., 1842. 

1129. CUNEATE-TAILED GULL. 
RHODOSTETHIA ROSEA. 

Rhodostethiarosea (Macgill.), Mem. Wern. Soc, v. No. xiii. p. 249(1824) ; 
Dresser, viii. p. 343, pi. 594 ; Murdoch, Exp. Pt. Barrow, p. 123, 
pis. i. ii. ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 167 ; id. Manual, 
p. 659 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. O. p. 1048 ; Ridgway, p. 37 ; Lilford, 
vi. p. 33, pis. 15, 16 ; L. rossii, Richardson, App. Parry's Second Voy. 
p. 359 (1825) ; Xauin. xiii. p. 270, Taf. 388, figs. 3, 4 ; (Gould), B. of 
Gt. Brit. v. pi. 63. 

ad. (Disco). Mantle pearl-grey ; primaries rather darker, the first 
with the outer web black nearly to the tip ; secondaries tipped with white ; 
rest of the plumage, and tail, which is cuneate, white, the under parts 
tinged with rose-pink ; middle of neck encircled by a black band, broadest 
behind ; bill blackish ; legs coral-red ; iris dark brown. Culinen 0'95, 
wing 10 '1, tail 4'4, the middle feathers 0'8 longer than the outermost, 
tarsus I'l inch. Sexes alike. In winter the black collar is absent, and 
the under parts are quite white. The young bird has the crown and hind 
neck clouded with dusky, the upper parts marked with sooty blackish and 
buff, and the tail terminated with blackish brown. 

Hob. Franz Josef 's Land and the Polar seas : straying south 
in autumn and winter, and has been then recorded once from 
Yorkshire, several times from Greenland, once from the Faeroes, 
once from Heligoland, once from St. Michael's, Alaska, and 
numbers have been obtained at Point Barrow ; in Asia it 
inhabits the Arctic Ocean. 

But little is known respecting the habits of this Gull, and its 
nest and eggs have not been discovered. 

PAGOPHILA, Kaup, 1829. 

1130. IVORY GULL. 
PAGOPHILA EBURNEA. 

Pagophila elmrnea (Phipps), Voy. N. Pole, App. p. 187 (1774) ; (Naum.), 
x. p. 341, Taf. 263; Carte, Journ. R. Dubl. Soc. i. pp. 57, 60, 
pis. 1, 2 (eggs) ; (Gould), B. of E. v. pi. 437 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit, 
v. pi. 62 ; (Audubon), B. Am. vii. pi. 445 ; Dresser, viii. p. 349, 
pi. 595 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 301 ; id. Manual, 
p. 685 ; Coliett, Ibis, 1888, p. 440, pi. xiii. (nestling and eggs) ; 
Lilford, vi. p. 68, pi. 30 ; ? L. albus, Gunnerus, in Leems. Beskrif. 
Lappl. p. 285 (1767) ; (Tacz.), F. O. Sib. 0. p. 1055 ; Kidgway,p. 24. 

3 H 2 



822 PA GO PHIL A RISSA 

Mouette Uanclie, French ; Schnee-Meive, Elferibein-Meive, 
German ; lismaage, Dan. and Norvveg. ; Hvitmase, Swed. ; 
ValkealoJcki, Finn. 

< ad. (Spitsbergen). Entire plumage white ; bill French-grey at the 
base and on the culmen, pea-yellow at the tip ; legs and feet black ; iris 
dark hair-brown, eyelids brick-red. Culmen 1*5, wing 12'2, tail 5'9, 
tarsus 1*5 inch. Sexes alike. The young bird is marked with blackish 
grey. 

Hob. The most northern parts of the Polar world, straying 
south in winter to Britain, Scandinavia, the coasts of Germany 
and Holland ; has once been obtained at the mouth of the Somme 
in France, and once near Lausanne in Switzerland. In North 
Asia it occurs in Kamchatka, and throughout Arctic America 
as far south as New Brunswick and Newfoundland as a rare 
visitant. 

Is generally to be met with in the vicinity of ice-masses, and 
feeds chiefly on the leavings of walrus and seal hunters, and 
is very tame and confiding. McClintock found it breeding on 
Prince Patrick's Island in 1852-53, Malmgren in N.E. Spits- 
bergen in 1865, and Capt. Johannesen found a breeding colony 
on a small island off Spitsbergen in August, 1887, and obtained 
19 eggs. The nests were composed of green moss, a few stalks 
and leaves of algae, a few small wood splinters, feathers, and one 
or two particles of lichen. The eggs, 1 or 2 in number, are 
light greyish brown with a faint admixture of yellowish green 
in ground-colour, and are spotted and blotched with dark brown, 
and most nearly resemble those of Larus canus. In size they 
measure about 2*36 by 1*32. 

KISSA, Stephens, 1826. 

1131. KlTTIWAKE. 
RISSA TRIDACTYLA. 

Rissa tridactyla (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 224 (1766) ; (Naum.), x. p. 322, 
Taf. 262 ; (Hewitson), ii, p. 493, pi. cxxxvii. ; (Gould), B. of Gt. 
Brit. v. pi. 61 ; Dresser, viii. p. 447, pis. 607, 608 ; Seebohm, B. 
Jap. Emp. p. 294 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 305 ; id. 
Manual, p. 683 ; Kidgway, p. 25 ; Lilford, vi. p. 63, pi. 29 ; 7?. t. 
pollicaris, Stejn., in Baird, B., and Ridgway, Water B. N. Am. ii. 
p. 402 (1884) ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. 0. p. 1052 ; Ridgway, p. 25 ; L. rissa r 
Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 224 (1766) ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 435. 

Mouette tridadyle, French ; Gamcta, Gabina, Span. ; Gaivota, 
Portug. ; GabUano-terragnola, Ital. ; Dreizelun-Mewz, German; 



HISS A 823 



Drieteenige-Meeuw, Dutch ; Tretaaet Maagc, Dan. ; Krykje, 
Norweg. ; Ringtjaen, TrrMig-Mdsc,S\ved. 

<$ ad. (Greenland). Head, neck, upper tail-coverts, tail, and entire 
under parts pure white ; mantle dark French-grey or slate-grey ; quills 
black at the end, the inner primaries with an apical white tip, the first 
with the outer web black ; secondaries and scapulars edged with, white ; 
hind toe absent or rudimentary ; beak yellow, red at the gape ; legs and feet 
blackish brown ; iris brown ; edges of eyelids red. Culmen 1 ! 5, wing 
11-2, tail 5"2, tarsus 1*25 inch. Sexes alike. In winter the nape and 
sides and back of neck are streaked with grey. The young bird has the 
upper parts variegated with black, a mark before the eye and a large patch 
on the ear-coverts blackish grey ; a semi-collar on the hind neck, the first 
4 quills and a broad tip to the tail black. 

Hob. The Arctic and subarctic regions of the Old and New 
Worlds as far south as North-west France, the Kurile Islands in 
Asia, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence in N. America in summer ; 
ranging in winter south to the Caspian, the Mediterranean, and 
Canaries, and on the American side to the middle United States 
and Bermuda. 

Essentially a bird of the sea cliffs, it is only seen inland when 
driven by stress of weather, and feeds on small fish, crustaceans, 
and other maritime animals, which it usually fishes up from the 
surface of the water. Its flight is soft and easy, and it both 
swims well and can also dive. It breeds on the ledges of cliffs 
skirting the sea, often in companies of thousands, and constructs 
a rather bulky nest of seaweeds and grasses. The eggs, usually 
3 in number, are deposited in May or June, and in ground- 
colour are ochreous grey, sometimes tinged with greenish, or 
pale greenish olivaceous, clouded and spotted with pale purplish 
grey and dark brown. In size they measure about 2 '9 by T53. 

1132. RED-LEGGED KITTIWAKE. 
RISSA BREVIROSTRIS. 

Rissa Ireviroslris (Bruch), J. f. O. 1853, p. 103 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. 
Mu?. xxv. p. 312 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. 0. p. 1053 ; Eidgway, p, 25 ; 
L. Irachyrhynchus (nee. Richardson), Gould, P.Z.S. 1843, p. 106 ; 
Rissa nivea (nee. Pallas), Gray, List. B. B. Mus. Anseres, p. 174 
(1844) ; D. G. Elliot, New and Unfig. B. N. Am. ii. pi. 54. 

ad. Differs from R. tridactyla in having the mantle darker, the outer 
webs and margins of inner webs of the primaries up to the 4th darker, 
the under wing-coverts greyish slate, but paler than the mantle ; bill 
lemon-yellow with a tinge of green ; legs and feet bright red ; iris brown. 



824 RISSA LARUS 



Culmen T25, wing 12'5, tail 5 '6, tarsus 1'25, middle toe with claw 1'95 
inch ; hind toe very small, sometimes with and sometimes without a 
claw. The young bird differs from that of R. tridactyla in lacking the 
black band on the wing and on the tail. 

Hob. The Bering Sea from the Kamchatkan coasts to the 
Aleutian and Prybiloff Islands. 

In habits it resembles the Kittiwake, and like it breeds on the 
ledges of almost inaccessible cliffs by the sea, its eggs being 
also similar in appearance, and measuring about 2*36 by 1/64. 

LARUS, Linn., 1766. 

1133. BLACK-HEADED GULL. 
LARUS RIDIBUNDUS. 

Larus ridibundus. Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 225 (1766) ; Naum. x. p. 264,. 
Taf. 260 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 491, pi. cxxxvi. figs. 2, 3 ; (Gould), B. of 
E. v. pi. 425 ; (id.), B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 64 ; Dresser, viii. p. 357, 
pis. 596, 597, fig. 1 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 520 ; Seebohm. 
B. Jap. Emp. p. 295 ; Saunder?, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. 207 ; id. 
Manual, p. 665 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 300 ; (Tacz.), F. 
0. Sib. 0. p. 1040 ; Lilford, vi. p. 39, pi. 19 ; L. capisfratus, Temm. 
Man. d'Orn. ii. p. 785 (1820). 

Gotland rieur, French ; Gaivota, Chapalhtta, Portug. ; Gavina,. 
Gaviota, Span. ; Galliano comune, Ital. ; Lachmewe, Mohrenkopf, 
German ; Kokmeeuw, Dutch ; Hcettemaage, Dan. and Norweg. ; 
Skrattmdse, Swed. ; Naumdokki, Finn. ; TschaiJca, Russ. ; Yuri- 
kamome, Jap. 

< ad. (S. Russia). Hood brownish black or coffee-brown ; mantle pale 
French-grey ; a narrow space round the eye, tail-coverts, tail, and entire 
under parts white, the last faintly tinged rose-colour ; primaries white, 
with the tips and margins of the inner webs black ; secondaries French- 
grey, the outer ones tipped with blackish ; bill, edges of eyelids, legs, and 
feet lake-red ; iris deep brown. Culmen 1'8, wing 12'0, tail, 5*0, tarsus 1*8. 
In winter the hood is absent, there being a little grey before the eye and 
on the occiput, and a blackish grey patch behind the eye. 

Hal. Europe, north to the Faeroes, the Baltic Islands and 
Archangel, south to the Mediterranean ; wintering in Africa, 
south to Nubia ; Asia east to Japan, north to Kamchatka ; 
wintering in India, China, and the Philippines. 

In habits it differs from many of its allies in selecting inland 
marshes for the purpose of nidification. Its flight is easy and 



LARUS 825- 



graceful, and it swims with ease, sitting very lightly on the 
water. Its note resembles the syllables kree, kree, or keck, kech,. 
and when uttered by many, resembles harsh laughter. Its food 
consists of small fish, insects, larvae, and worms. It breeds on 
inland marshes, and islands in lakes, usually in large societies, 
constructing its nest of reeds and dried grass, and in May, or 
sometimes late in April, deposits 3 eggs, which in ground-colour 
vary from pale bluish white to dark olivaceous brown, more or 
less spotted and blotched with deep umber and blackish brown, 
and measure about 2'2 by 1*47. 

1134. BROWN-HEADED GULL. 
LARUS BRUNNEICEPHALUS. 

Larus brunneicephalus, Jardon, Maclr. Journ. xii. p. 25 (1840) ; (David 
and Oust.), Ois. Chine, p. 521 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. 
p. 215 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 301. 

DTiomra, Hindu. 

( ad. (N.W. India). Differs from L. rldibundus in being larger, the 
hood browner, especially paler on the forehead, and the pattern of the 
quills (which are blacker) different ; the two outer quills black with elong- 
ated white subterminal spots, and a little white at the base, the 3rd with 
more white at base, with the white increasing on the inner ones ; bill red, 
brownish at the tip ; legs and feet red ; iris white or pale yellow ; sides 
red. Cnlmen 1'9, wing 13*5, tail 5 '2, tarsus 2'0 inch. In winter and 
immature dress it differs from L. ridibundus in the different pattern of the 
quills. 

Hob. Central Asia from Turkestan to Tibet and Mongolia ; 
wintering on the coasts and marshes of Burma, India, and Ceylon, 
and as for west as Aden. 

In general habits this Gull resembles L. ridilundus. It breeds 
on the high tablelands of Tibet in Central Asia, but its nest 
and eggs appear to be undescribed. 

1135. ADRIATIC GULL. 
LARUS MELANOCEPHALUS. 

Larus melanocephalm, Natterer, Isis, 1818, p. 816 ; Naum. x. p. 254, 
Taf. 259 ; (Gould), B. of E. v. pi. 427 ; Dresser, viii. p. 365, pi. 597, 
fig. 2 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 180 ; id. Manual, p. 667 ; 
Lilford, vi. p. 43, pi. 20. 

Gotland me'lanoce'pJiah ', French ; Galliano corallino, Ital. 



826 LAKUS 



ad. (Bosphorus). Differs from L. ridibundus in having the hood jet 
black ; a small crescentic white patch above and one below the eye ; the 
bill rather stouter and larger ; quills white, the first only externally mar- 
gined with black ; bill and legs red ; iris brown. Culmen T6, wing 12'0, 
tail 5'0, tarsus 1*9 inch. In winter it differs from L. ridibundus in the 
coloration of the primaries, and the nape and hind neck are much more 
striated, not clouded, with grey. 

Hob. The coasts of the Black Sea and Mediterranean, Spain, 
Portugal, and South France, straying north as far as England, 
where it has been obtained once or twice, and the mouth of the 
Somme, in Northern France. Winters as far south as Nubia. 

In habits it resembles L. ridibundus, but its cry, though very 
similar, may be distinguished by a practised ear. It breeds 
in the eastern portion of its range, on sand-banks and in 
lagoons, its nest being constructed of seaweed and grass, and in 
May, or early in June, 2 to 3 eggs are laid, which vary in 
ground-colour from white to pale stone-ochreous, with pale 
inky shell-markings and blackish brown surface spots, blotches, 
and scratches. In size they measure about 2 '28 by 1'55. 

1136. BONAPARTE'S GULL. 
LARUS PHILADELPHIA. 

Larus philadelpJiia (Ord), in Guthrie's Geogr. 2nd Amer. ed. ii. p. 319 
(1815) ; (Gould), B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 65 ; (Newton), P.Z.S. 1871, 
p. 57, pi. iv. fig. 6 (egg) ; Dresser, ix. p. 387, pi. 717 ; Saimders, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 185 ; id. Manual, p. 661 ; Ridgway, p. 36 ; 
Lilford, vi. p. 35, pi. 17 ; L. bonapartii, Swains, and Richards. Faun. 
Bor. Am. Birds, p. 425, pi. 72 (1831). 

ad. (Canada). Head and neck dark plumbeous black ; a narrow, 
interrupted white line round the eye ; mantle dark French-grey ; lower 
neck, upper tail-coverts, tail, and entire under parts white ; 1st primary 
white, but black on the outer web and across the tip, 2nd black across the 
tip and a little way np the edge of the inner web, the 3rd and 4th with 
broad subterminal black bands and white tips, pearl-grey on the inner 
webs, the rest up to the 7th grey with black subterminal bars, the 7th and 
8th grey with a small dark margin at the end of the inner web ; bill deep 
black ; legs and feet orange-red ; iris dark brown. Culmen T6, wing 10'3, 
tail 4'0, tarsus 1*38 inch. In winter the head and neck are white, slightly 
marked with grey, a grey spot on the ear-coverts, the legs flesh-coloured. 

Hcib. North America, breeding in the Fur countries and 
found in winter as far south as Bermuda ; a rare straggler to 
Europe, having been obtained about six times in Britain, and 
once in Heligoland. 



LARUS 827 



In habits it resembles L. ridibundus, but its flight is more 
Tern-like, it is very graceful on the wing, and frequently 
perches on posts and trees. It breeds in colonies, placing its 
nest, which is constructed of sticks, sometimes intermixed with 
moss and lichens, on trees and bushes, and in June, or early in 
July, deposits 3, rarely 4, eggs, which are pale olivaceous green 
or olivaceous brown with purplish grey shell -markings and 
blackish brown surface spots and blotches, and which measure 
about 1-95 by 1'35. 

1137. GREAT BLACK-HEADED GULL. 

LARUS ICHTHYAETUS. 

Lams ichthyaetits, Pall. Reise Russ. Reich?, ii. p. 713 (1773) ; Dresser, 
viii. p. 369, pi. 598 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 176 ; id. 
Manual, p. 669 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 299 ; Lilford, vi. 
p. 48, pi. 21. 

Rybak, Russ. ; CharabaMa, Tartar. 

<J ad. (Volga). Head and upper neck jet black ; above and below the 
eye a white spot ; mantle French-grey ; lower neck, upper back, tail, and 
under parts white ; primaries white, the first with the outer web, and a bar 
near the tip black, the rest with subterminal black bars ; secondaries French - 
.grey broadly tipped with white ; beak yellow, crossed by a broad red 
patch, and near the tip a black bar ; legs yellow, webs orange ; iris dark 
brown. Ctilmen 3*4, wing 18*8, tail 7'5, tarsus 2'8 inch. In winter the 
head is white, more or less streaked with brownish black. 

Hal. South-eastern Europe, but has been obtained in Greece, 
Hungary, Sardinia, Switzerland (?\ and once in the south-west 
of England ; North-east Africa in winter, south to Nubia ; 
Palestine and Asia Minor ; Asia, east to Eastern Turkestan, 
Mongolia, and Tibet; south to India,Burma, and Ceylon in winter. 

Frequents the sea coasts, large rivers, lakes, &c., and like its 
.allies feeds on small fish, insects, &c. I do not find any definite 
information respecting its breeding habits, but eggs from 
Sarepta, on the lower Volga, are*dull stone-drab in ground- 
colour, streaked and blotched with light and dark umber-brown, 
and measure 2'95 by 2'8. 

1138. SAUNDERS'S GULL. 

LARUS SAUNDERSI. 

Larus saundersi (Swinhoe), P.Z.S. 1871, pp. 273, 421, pi. xxii. ; (David 
and Oust.), Ois. Chine, p. 522 ; (Tacz.), F. O. Sib. 0. p. 1045 : Saun- 
ders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 183 ; Gavia kittlitzii, Swinhoe, Ibis, 
1860, p. 68 (nee. Bruch) ; L. schimperi, Schlegel (nee. Bruch), Mus. 
Pays-Bas, Lari, p. 40 (1863). 



828 LARUS 

$ act. (China). Differs from L. ridilundas in being smaller, in having 
the hood bluish black, the mantle rather darker, the inner secondaries 
chiefly grey, the rest white ; 1st primary white, with a mere hair line of 
black on the basal half of the outer web, and a marginal black band on the 
inner web ; the 2nd white exteriorly, black on the inner web to the sub- 
apex ; 3rd similar but with more black, which extends subapically over the 
outer web ; 4th grey basally, barred and margined with black, and broadly 
tipped with white ; 5th the black restricted to the inner web ; 6th and 
upwards grey, with paler tips and inner borders ; bill short and stout, 
black ; inside of mouth vermilion ; legs tile-red, claws black ; iris black ; 
edge of eyelids black. Culmen 1-4, wing 11-0, tail 4'4, tarsus 1'6 inch. 
In winter the head is white with little dark grey on the occiput. 

Hob. Eastern Siberia (Sidemi) ; Mongolia, China, Corea, and 
Japan in winter. 

Resembles L. ridibundus in its general habits and food, and 
frequents inland waters and rivers as much if not more than 
the sea coasts. Nothing is as yet known respecting its 
nidification. 

1139. LITTLE GULL. 
LARUS MINUTUS. 

Lam* minutus, Pall. Reise Russ. Reichs, iii. p. 702 (1771); Naum. x. 
p. 242, Taf. 258 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 490, pi. cxxxiv. fig. 1 ; (Gould), 
B. of E. v. pi. 428 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 66 ; Dresser, viii- 
p. 373, pis. 599, 599A ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 173 ; id. 
Manual, p. 663 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1043 ; Lilford, vi. p. 37, 
pi. 18 ; Ridgway, p. 36. 

Mouette pygmfo, French ; Gaviota, Span. ; Galibianello, Ital. ; 
Zwergmowe, German ; D-werg-meeuw, Dutch ; Dvcergmaage, Dan. ;, 
Dvargmds, Swed. ; Pikku-lokki, Finn. ; Tschaika-malaya, Russ. 

ad. (Ladoga). Hood deep black ; lower neck, rump, upper tail-coverts,, 
tail, and under parts white, the last tinged with rose-pink ; mantle delicate 
French-grey ; quills grey broadly edged with white, the margins of the 
inner webs smoke-grey ; under wing-coverts dark smoke-grey ; bill blackish 
lake-red ; legs and feet vermilion-red ; iris dark brown. Culmen 0*9,, 
wing 8-8, tail 3'6, tarsus 0'95 inch. In winter the head is white, the crown 
and nape tinged with grey, the legs and feet yellowish red. 

Hah North-eastern Europe; rare in Norway and Sweden; Fin- 
land to Uleaborg ; Russia to Archangel ; has once been obtained 
in the Fseroes ; of irregular occurrence in Britain ; in winter 
it ranges south to the Mediterranean and North Africa ; North 
Asia, east to the Sea of Ochotsk, but rare in South-east Siberia,, 







LARUS 



and has not been recorded from Mongolia or China ; has once 
been obtained in India ; an accidental straggler to Bermuda 
and the eastern United States (Long Island). 

Frequents inland waters and marshes, feeding on small fish 
and insects. Its flight is graceful and easy, and its note is a 
laughing kerr, arrr, arrr arr, which it utters when disturbed. 
It breeds in large companies, in marshy localities inland, con- 
structing a rather loosely formed nest of flag-leaves, grass, 
straws, &c., which is placed on almost floating islands, and 
late in May or early in June lays 3 to 4 eggs, which are not 
unlike some varieties of the Arctic Tern, greenish olive in 
ground-colour with blackish grey shell-markings and dark 
brown surface spots and blotches, in size measuring about 1*66- 
by 119. 

I have not described the young of these Black-headed Gulls,, 
as they all resemble the adult bird in winter dress, but have 
the upper parts brown or marked with brown. The sexes are 
alike. 



1140. COMMON GULL. 
LARUS CANUS. 

Larus canus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 224 (1766) ; Naum. x. p. 301, Taf. 
261 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 495, pi. cxxxviii. ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 437 ; 
id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 60 ; Dresser, viii. p. 381, pi. 600 ; David and 
Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 517 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 293 ; Saunders,. 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 277 ; id. Manual, p. 671 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 
0. p. 1033 ; Ridgway, p. 33 ; Lilford, vi. p. 49, pi. 22 ; L. niveus r 
Pall. (nee. Bodd.), Zoog. Ross. As. ii. p. 320, Tab. 64 (1811) ; Tacz.. 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1034. 

Gotland cendre, French ; Gavinote, Span. ; Gavina, Ital.; Sturm - 
mowe, German ; Kleine Zeemeeuw, Dutch ; Stormaage, Dan. ; 
Fiskemaage, Norweg. ; Fiskmdse, Swed. ; Kalalokki, Finn. - r 
Sisaja-Tschaika, Klusha, Russ. 

ad. (Sweden). Head, neck, tail-coverts, tail, "and entire under parts 
pure white ; mantle delicate light French-grey ; 1st primary black, with 
a broad white bar close to the tip, the 2nd with a smaller bar, the 3rd with 
merely a white spot near the tip ; inner primaries French-grey with black 
bars and white tips ; secondaries with broad white tips ; bill greenish 
yellow ; legs greenish grey ; iris golden brown, in very old birds greyish 
white ; orbital ring vermilion. Cnlmen 1'8, wing 14'0, tail 5*5, tarsus 
T85 inch. In winter the head and nape are streaked with dull brown. 



830 LARUS 

Hob. Europe generally, north to about 53 N. lat. and of rare 
occurrence in Iceland ; wintering in the Mediterranean and the 
Nile valley ; Eastern Asia, north to Kamchatka ; Japan, Corea, 
and China; wintering in the Persian Gulf; has once occurred 
in Labrador, 

In general habits it resembles its allies, and is not found 
only on the sea but tolerably far inland, where it feeds on the 
worms turned up by the plough, its food consisting of small 
fish, sand-eels, mollusca, and small Crustacea, worms, and insects. 
Its flight is light and buoyant, and its cry is shrill and somewhat 
harsh. It breeds both on the coast and on inland lakes, making 
a, nest of seaweed, grass, &c., and in May deposits 2 or 3, usually 
3, eggs, which are brownish olive, marked with dull purplish 
brown shell blotches and dark brown surface spots and blotches, 
in size measuring about 2'29 by 1'63. 

In North America the present species is replaced by a slightly 
smaller species, L. Irackyrhynchus, Richardson, which has once 
been obtained in the Kurile Islands. 



1141. SLENDER-BILLED GULL. 
LARUS GELASTES. 

Larus gelastes, Thienem. Fortpflanz. Vog. Eur. pt. v. p. 22, No. 351 
(1838) ; Dresser, viii. p. 389, pi. 601, fig. 2 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxv. p. 230 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 303 ; L. tenui- 
rosiris, Temm. Man. d'Orn. iv. p. 478 (1840) ; L. columbinus, Golo- 
watschow, Bull. Soc. Mosc. xxvii. p. 435, Tab. iv. (1854)s, 

Galliano roseo, Ital. 

$ ad. (Spain). Head, neck, tail, and entire under parts white, the 
under parts suffused with delicate rose-pink ; 1st primary with the outer 
web black except near the tip, and tipped with black ; 2nd, 3rd, and 4th 
with the outer web white, the inner brownish French-grey, becoming dark 
brown on the edge, all the quills broadly black at the tip ; mantle pearl- 
grey ; wing-coverts rather darker ; secondaries without white margins ; 
bill red ; legs, feet, and edges of eyelids coral- red ; iris pale straw-yellow, 
nearly white. Culmen 2'1, wing 12*0, tail 4'5, tarsus 2'1 inch. Sexes 
alike, and in winter scarcely differing, but the bill is orange-yellow and the 
legs lemon-yellow. 

Hal. The coasts of the Mediterranean ; East Africa to Keneh 
in Upper Egypt and Jeddah on the Red Sea ; West Africa south 
to Senegal ; Asia Minor, the Black Sea and the Caspian, east to 



LARUS 831 



Mesopotamia, the Persian Gulf, and Makran coasts of Baluchi- 
stan and Sind. 

Is essentially a sea bird, being seldom found inland except 
some short way up the larger rivers. It feeds on small fish and 
insects of various kinds. For breeding purposes it selects a 
sand-bank or the dry portions of a marsh or an island in a 
lagoon, where it nests in colonies. I found it nesting in May 
in the marismas of the Guadalquivir, on the dried mud of an 
island in the lagoon, constructing a somewhat loosely built nest 
of sticks and a few Flamingoes' feathers, the number of eggs 
being 3, sometimes only 2. These were white in ground-colour, 
with a faint rosy blush when fresh, with pale inky grey shell- 
markings and black or blackish brown surface spots and 
blotches, some being only sparingly marked, whereas others are 
very boldly and profusely blotched, chiefly at the larger end. 
In size they measure about 2*95 by T53. 



1142. AUDOUIN'S GULL. 
LARUS AUDOUINI. 

Larus audouini, Payraudean, Ann. Sc. Nat. viii. p. 462 (1826) ; Gould, 
B. of E. v. pi. 438 ; Dresser, viii. p. 395, pi. 601, fig. 1 ; Saimders, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 271. 

Galliano corso, Ital. 

# ad. (Toro). Head, tail, and entire under parts white ; mantle and 
rump pearl-grey, the lower hind neck rather paler ; first two primaries 
black, with a large white spot near the tip of the inner web, the rest 
pearl-grey, black towards the tip, and tipped with white ; under parts 
with a faint rose tinge in the freshly killed bird ; bill coral-red with a 
black band in front of the angle, the tip yellow ; legs olive-green ; iris 
hazel ; edge of the eyelids coral-red. Culmen 2'35, wing 15'7, tail 6*5, 
tarsus 2 '4 inch. Sexes alike. 

Hal. The western Mediterranean islands, rarer on the coasts 
of the mainland, occurring as far west as the Straits of Gibraltar, 
and sometimes as far east as the Greek Archipelago. 

In habits it appears to resemble the Herring-Gull, and is 
essentially a sea bird, breeding on the rocks of the small islands 
in colonies apart from its congeners, and depositing 1 or 2 
eggs, which are stone-buff with a slight olivaceous tinge, with 
inky grey shell-markings and blackish surface spots and blotches, 
and measure about 2 '5 by T73. 



LARUS 



1143. BLACK-TAILED GULL. 
LARUS CRASSIROSTRIS. 

Larus craszirostris, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. xxi. p. 508 (1818) ; David ami 
Oust Ois. Chine, p. 519 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 293 ; Tacz. 
F. O. Sib. O. p. 1037 ; Saunders, Cat B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 227 ; 
L. melanurus, Temm. PI. Col. livr. 77, pi. 459 (1828) ; id. and 
Schlegel, Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 132, Tab. 88. 

Umineko, Jap. 

<J ad. (Japan). Head, neck, under parts and upper tail-coverts white ; 
-mantle slate-grey ; tail white, the base pale grey, all except the outermost 
feather on each side crossed by a broad subterminal black band ; the five 
outer primaries blackish with white tips, increasing in size inwards ; 
scapulars and secondaries edged with white ; under wing-coverts white ; 
bill greenish yellow, becoming orange at the tip, and crossed by a black 
band ; legs and feet fleshy brownish ; iris pale straw-yellow, the edge of 
the eyelids vermilion. Culmen 2*5, wing 15*5, tail 6'0, tarsus 2'3 inch. 
In winter similar, but with a little greyish brown on the head and nape, a 

Hob. The Ussuri country, Eastern Siberia, the coasts of the 
Sea of Japan, and -Japan, the Island of Saghalien, and China 
south to about 22 N. lat. 

Is easily recognizable from L. canus (which it somewhat 
resembles) by the broad black band on the tail ; it frequents 
the sea coast, large rivers and lakes, and is one of the commonest 
species in Japan and North China. I find but little on record 
respecting its nidification, excepting that it nests on rocks, 
-depositing from the middle of May to the early part of June 
3 eggs, which vary in ground-colour from ochreous grey to pale 
olivaceous, and are spotted, blotched, and scratched with blackish 
brown or yellowish brown, in size measuring about 2'50 by 1*75. 

1144. HERRIXG-GULL. 
LARUS ARGENTATUS. 

Larus argentatus, Ginel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 600 (1788) ; Naum. x. p. 379, 
Taf. 266 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 499, pi. cxL; Gould, B. of E. v. 
pi. 434 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 59 ; Dresser, viii. p. 399, pi. 602, 
fig. 1 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 260 ; id. Manual, p. 673 ; 
Ridgway, p. 30 ; Lilford, vi. p. 51, pi. 23 ; L. smithsonianus, Coues 
Proc. Philad. Ac. 1862, p. 296 ; Ridgway, p. 31. 

Gotland argentt, French ; Gaivota, Alcatraz, Portug. ; Gaviota, 
Gavinot, Span. ; Silbermowe, German ; Zilvernufuw, Dutch : 

-. 



LARUS 833 



i-Havmaayc, Dan. ; Sding, Stor-Graamaage, Norweg. ; 
<''i-ttirut, Swed.; Hamnaa-lokki, Finn.; Tschaika-screbristarya, 
Russ. 

$ ad. (Orkneys). Head, neck, rump, tail, and entire under parts 
white ; mantle delicate light French-grey, the larger wing-coverts, 
secondaries, and scapulars broadly tipped with white ; first primary 
blackish, towards the tip white with a subapical black band, the next two 
grey at the base, then black with a large white spot at the tip, the rest 
grey, subapically black, and tipped with white ; beak pale yellow with a 
large red spot at the angle of the lower mandible ; legs and feet flesh- 
colour ; iris yellowish grey, the edge of the eyelids yellow. Culmen 2 '65, 
wing 167, tail 6'75, tarsus 2'5. In winter similar, but the head and neck 
are striated with pale brown. 

Hal. Northern Europe to the North Cape, east to the White 
Sea ; rare in Greenland ; in winter south to the Mediterranean 
basin, Black and Caspian Seas ; America, from the high north 
to Maine, passing south in winter to the Bermudas, Cuba, 
Mexico, and Southern California. 

In the winter season it frequents the coasts, inlets, and 
estuaries, where it finds small fish, especially herring fry, 
plentiful, for its food consists of small fish, fish fry, mollusca, 
crustaceans, clams, mussels, &c. ; the last it takes up in the air 
to some height and drops on the stones to break the shell, and 
it also visits ploughed land in search of worms and insects. 
It is also a great egg robber. It nests on cliffs, small islands, 
.and in America even on trees, sometimes building a bulky nest 
of grass straws and dry herbage, at others the nest is a mere 
depression in the ground with scarcely any lining. In May, 3 
eggs are deposited, which in ground-colour vary from brownish 

frey to dull olive-brown with violet-grey shell blotches and dark 
rown surface spots and blotches, in size measuring about 2*8 
by 1-9. 

1145. SUBSP. LARUS CACHLNNANS. 

Larus cachinnans, Pall. Zoogr. Ross. As. ii. p. 318 ; Saunders, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxv. p. 266 ; id. Manual, p. 674 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. O. 
p. 1030 ; L. UucophccuS) Licht. Nomencl. Av. p. 99 (1854) ; Dresser, 
viii. p. 411, pi. 602, fig. 2 ; L. michahettesii, Bruch, J. f. 0. 1855, 
p. 282. 

Galliano reale, Ital. ; Chochotunja, Russ. 

ad. (Algiers). Differs from L. argentatus in having the mantle 
darker, the ring round the eye and gape orange-red, the bill brighter 
coloured, and the legs and feet gamboge-yellow. Culmen 3-1, wing 18'5, 
tail 7*7, tarsus 2'85 inch. 



834 LARUS 



Hob. Southern Europe, in the west north to the Gulf of 
Gascony, in the east to the Dvina ; the entire Mediterranean 
basin ; Africa, in the west south to Angola, in the east to 
Khartoum ; Madeira, the Canaries, and Azores : the Black Sea, 
Caspian, arid Aral, eastward to Dauria ; wintering in Northern 
India and on the coasts of Baluchistan and Sind ; has once 
occurred in England. 

In habits this Gull does not differ from L. argentatus, and its 
note is a similar ha-hti-ka. Nor does it differ in nidification, 
and its eggs are similar. 

1146. SUBSP. LARUS VEG^E. 

Larus vegce, Stejn. Auk, 1888, p. 310 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. 
p. 269 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. O. p. 1028 ; Kidgway, p. 30 ; L. occidental 
(nee. And.), Swinhoe, P.Z.S. 1863, p. 326 ; David o.nd Oust. Ois, 
Chine, p. 520 ; L. cacJnnnans (nee. Pall.), David and Oust. op. cit. 
p. 519 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 291. 

<J ad. (E. Siberia). Differs from L. cachinnans in having the mantle 
darker and bluer, while the legs and feet are pale flesh-colour. Culmen 2'9 r 
wing 17*9, tail 7'55, tarsus 2'69 inch. 

Hob. The Arctic coasts of Siberia from the Taimyr Peninsula 
to Bering Straits and Kamchatka ; Japan and the coasts of 
China south to the Bonin Islands and Formosa in winter, as also 
the North-western American coasts down to California. 

In habits this Gull does not differ from L. argentatus, and 
its eggs are described as being similar and measuring about 
2-91 by 1-85. 

1147. LESSER BLACK-BACKED GULL. 
LARUS FUSCUS. 

Larus fuscus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 225 (1766) ; Nauru, x. p. 419, Taf, 
267 ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 431 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 56 ; 
Dresser, viii. p. 421, pi. 603 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. 
p. 250 ; id. Manual, p. 675 ; Kidgway, p. 28 ; Lilford, vi. p. 55 r 
pi. 24. 

Gotland a pieds jaunes, French; Alcatmz, Portug. ; Zafferano, 
Ital. ; fferingsmowe, German ; Kleine Mantelmeeuw, Dutch ; Silde- 
maage, Dan. and Norweg. ; Sillmdse, Svved. ; Selkalokki, Finn. ; 
Syeldielof, Russ. 

<$ ad. (Sweden). Head, neck, tail, and under parts white ; back and 
wings black, the former faintly washed with slate ; first primary with a 



LARUS 835 



white bar near the tip, the rest narrowly, the secondaries broadly tipped 
with white ; bill light yellow, the lower mandible with a bright red patcli 
towards the tip ; iris straw-yellow ; edge of eyelids vermilion ; legs and 
feet yellow. Culmen 2'4, wing 157, tail 6'0, tarsus 2*1 inch. 

Hob. Northern Europe, as far north in Sweden as Haparanda, 
and in Norway as the Russian frontier, east to the Dvina, west 
to the Faeroes and Great Britain, south to the Mediterranean ; 
wintering in the Canaries, Madeira, Africa south to Senegambia 
and Nubia ; rare in the North Caspian ; the Persian Gulf in 
winter. 

In habits it does not differ from its allies. It is chiefly found 
on the sea coasts, and feeds on small fish, Crustacea, land and 
marine mollusca, worms, &c. Its cry is loud, mellow, and plain- 
tive, and it also utters a cackling or laughing cry. It breeds on 
cliffs, in some parts ' on islands in lakes, and in marshes, con- 
structing a rather bulky nest of grass, moss, &c., and early in 
May deposits 2 to 3, usually 3, eggs, which in ground-colour vary 
from light greenish blue to pale olivaceous brown, and are 
spotted and blotched with violet-grey underlying shell-markings 
and dark brown surface blotches. In size they measure about 
275 by 1-96. 

1148. SIBERIAN GULL. 
LARUS AFFINIS. 

Larus affinis, Reinhardt, Vidensk. Meddel. 1853, p. 78; Dresser, viii. 
p. 417 ; Bidgway, p. 29 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 254 ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. O. p. 1026 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 304. 

$ ad. (Petchora). Differs from L. fuscus in being larger, with a 
proportionately shorter wing, the mantle paler, being dark dull slate- 
blue ; quills black, with a distinct dark slate pattern on the inner web, 
the first with a white spot near the tip, several others slightly tipped with 
white, the inner secondaries broadly white tipped ; bill and legs as in 
L. fuscus; orbital ring deep orange. Culmen 2*75, wing 17*4, tail 7*0, 
tarsus 2 '8 inch. 

Hob. Northern Europe and Asia from the Dvina to the 
Yenesei ; wintering on the coasts of Baluchistan, Western 
India, Malabar, Southern Arabia, Somaliland, Aden, and Socotra; 
has once been obtained in Heligoland, and the type in South 
Greenland. 

In habits it resembles L. fusciis, and its eggs are like those 
of that species. 



836 LARUS 



1149. SLATY-BACKED GULL. 
LARUS SCHISTISAGUS. 

Larus schistisagus, Stejneger, Auk, 1884, p. 231 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. 0. 
p. 1024 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 258 ; Ridgway, p. 29 ; 
L. marmus (nee. Linn.), Swinhoe, Ibis, 1874, p. 165 ; Seebohm, 
B. Jap. Emp. p. 291. ; 

O-seguro-kamome, Jap. 

< ad. (Kuriles). Head, neck, tail, and under parts white ; wings and 
mantle dark slate ; scapulars and secondaries tipped with white ; quills 
black, the inner webs of the outer ones grey ; third quill with a distinct 
white spot between the grey and the black on the inner web ; bill rich 
yellow with a red subterniinal spot on the lower mandible ; legs and feet 
dull purplish flesh-colour. Culmen 2*28, wing 18'0, tail 7'6, tarsus 2-7 
inch. 

Hctb. Coasts of Eastern Siberia, the Bering and Okhotsk Seas ; 
the Kurile Islands, and Northern Japan in winter. 

In habits it does not differ from its allies. It breeds in the 
Kurile Islands, but its eggs appear to be undescribed. 

1150. GREATER BLACK-BACKED GULL. 
LARUS MARINUS. 

Larus mar'mus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 225 (1766) ; Naurn. x. p. 438, Taf. 
268, 269 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 501, pi. cxli. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of E. v. 
pi. 430 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 55 ; Audub. B. Am. pi. 241 ; 
Dresser, viii. p. 427, pi. 604 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. 
p. 241 ; id. Manual, p. 677 ; Ridgway, p. 28 ; Lilford, vi. p. 57, 
pi. 25. 

Gotland a manteau noir, French ; Gfaivota, Alcatraz, Portug. ; 
Gavinbt, Span. ; Mugnaiaccio, Ital. ; Mantel-mowe, German ; 
Mantelmeeuw, Dutch ; Veidi-bjalla, Svart-baJeur, Icel. ; Svartbag- 
maage, Dan. ; Hafmaage, Norweg. ; Haf strut, Swed. ; Merilokki, 
Finn. 

ad. (Sweden). Head, neck, tail, and entire under parts white ; mantle 
black with a slaty tinge ; primaries black washed with slate on the inner 
web, the first and second with a broad white tip, the second with a black 
band across the white, the third with a narrow white tip, the inner ones 
with the terminal portion slate-grey, with a black subterniinal band and 
white tip ; secondaries and scapulars tipped with white ; bill light yellow 
with a red patch towards the end of lower mandible ; legs and feet 
greyish white with a fleshy tinge ; iris hazel ; edge of eyelids vermilion. 
Culmen 3'5, wing 20'0, tail 9'0, tarsus 3'0 inch. 



LARUS 837 



Hob. Northern Europe, east to the Petchora river, north in 
Norway to the Russian frontier, and in Sweden to about 
Sundsvall ; the Faeroes and Iceland ; rarer in Greenland ; fairly 
common in the northern part of Britain ; in winter migrating 
south to the Canaries and Mediterranean, where it is rare, east 
to Egypt, and the Volga ; the Atlantic coasts of North America, 
south to Virginia and Florida. 

It feeds on fish and offal, and being extremely predatory in 
its habits it destroys large numbers of the eggs and young of 
water birds, and will kill and devour wounded birds. Its note 
is a loud clear cry, yo w, yow, yow, and it often utters a hoarse 
cackle when on the wing. It nests not only on the sea coast 
but also about inland waters, making a large nest of dry grass, 
heather, wool, moss, and sometimes feathers, which it places on 
a rock or on the ground, and in May deposits 2 to 3 eggs, which 
are lighter or darker olive-brown, with dark or brown blotches, 
and in size measure about 3'0 by 2*13. 

1151. GLAUCOUS GULL. 
LARUS GLAUCUS. 

Larus glaucus, Fabricius, Faun. Groenl. p. 100 (1780) ; Naum. x. p. 350, 
Taf. 264 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 504, pi. cxli. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of E. 
v. pi. 432 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 57 ; Dresser, viii. p. 433, 
pi. 605 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 290 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxv. p. 289 ; id. Manual, p. 679; Kidgway, p. 26 ; Lilford, 
vi. p. 59, pi. 26 ; L. barrovianus, Ridgway, Auk, 1886, p. 330 ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1019. 

Eismowe, German ; Burgemeestei\ Dutch ; Hvitm&fr, Icel. ; 
Graamaage, Dan. ; Stor Hvidmnget-maage, Norweg. ; Hvittrut, 
Swed. ; Iso-lokki, Pormestari, Finn. ; Morskaia-Tschaika, Russ. 

ad. (Greenland). Mantle verj' pale blue-grey, rest of plumage pure 
white ; bill yellow with a red patch towards the tip of the lower mandible ; 
legs light flesh-colour ; iris light yellow, the edge of the eyelid vermilion. 
Culmen 3'1, wing 18*6, tail 8'5, tarsus 2'8 inch. 

Hal. The Arctic regions of the Old and New Worlds; in 
winter passing south to the coasts of Europe as far south as 
the Mediterranean (rarely), the Black Sea, and North Caspian ; 
in Asia to Japan ; in America to Long Island and the Great 
Lakes. 

In habits it resembles L. marinus, and like that bird builds 
a bulky nest of dry grass, seaweeds, &c., or utilizes a depression 

3 I 2 



838 LARUS 



in the ground, lining it scantily with grass. Its 3 eggs 
resemble those of L. marinus, but are subject to rather more 
variation both in ground-colour and markings. 

1152. ICELAND GULL. 
LARUS LEUCOPTERUS. 

Larus leucopterus, Faber, Proclrom. Isl. Orn. p. 91 (1822) ; Nauin. x. 
p. 367, Taf. 265 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 498, pi. cxxxix. figs. 1, 2 ; Dresser, 
viii. p. 439, pi. 606 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 295 ; id. 
Manual, p. 681 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1023 ; Ridgway, p. 26 j 
Lilford, vi. p. 62, pi. 28 ; L. islandicus, Edmonst. Mem. Wern. Soc. 
iv. p. 506 (1823) ; Gould, B. of E. v, pi. 433 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. 
pi. 58. 

Goeland leucoptere, French ; Polarmowe, German ; Kleine 
JBurgemeester, Dutch ; Hvitmdfr, Icel. ; Hvidvinget-Maage, Dan. 
and Norweg. ; Hvitvingad Trut, Swed. 

^ ad. (Greenland). Differs from L. glaucus in being smaller, with a 
proportionately longer wing. Culmen 2 '5, height of bill at base 0'65, 
wing 16-8, tail 7 '6, tarsus 2 '5 inch. 

Hob. Jan Mayen Island and Greenland in summer ; in winter 
to Iceland, the Faroes, Great Britain, Scandinavia (rarely), once 
in Finland, and as far south as the Gulf of Gascony in severe 
winters ; Atlantic coasts of North America, south, in winter, to 
Massachusetts and the Great Lakes. 

In habits it does not differ from L. glaucus. It breeds in 
Greenland, its nest being a mere depression in the ground, 
slightly lined with a few grass-bents, and it deposits 2 to 3 
eggs, which resemble those of L. glaucus, but are smaller, 
measuring about 2'78 by 1'87. 

1153. GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULL. 
LARUS GLAUCESCENS. 

Larus glaucescens, Naum. Vog. Deutschl. x. p. 351 (1840) ; Seebohm^ 
B. Jap. Emp. p. 290 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 284 ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1019 ; Ridgway, p. 27. 

ad. (Alaska). Differs from L. glaucus in wing pattern, and in 
Having the mantle blue-grey ; scapulars, secondaries, and primaries broadly 
tipped with white, the colour of the quills being two shades of ashy grey ; 
1st quill broadly terminated with white, the 2nd with a white sub- 
terminal spot on each web, the 3rd whitish at the apex of the wedge of the 
grey inner web, the 4th pale grey on the greater part of both webs, the 
darker colour being as a distinct bar, the 5th with a smaller dark bar 
surmounted by white, the 6th similar, but the bar reduced to a spot on 



LARUS STERCORARIUS 839 

the outer web, the rest grey at the base and tipped with white ; bill yellow, 
red at the angle of the lower mandible ; legs and feet light flesh-colour ; 
iris clear grey. Culmen 2'7, wing 17*0, tail 7'9, tarsus 2'6 inch. 

Hob. The coasts of the North Pacific and Bering's Sea ; 
Kamchatka ; the Aleutian and Commander Islands ; in winter 
south to Japan and California. 

In habits it resembles L. glaucus. It breeds abundantly on 
Bering and Copper Islands, frequently on isolated rocks and 
small islands, or on the ledges of rugged cliffs overhanging the 
sea, the nest being a depression, lined with dry grass, and early 
in July, 2 to 3 eggs are deposited, which resemble those of 
L. glaucus, but are somewhat smaller, greener, and more boldly 
spotted. 

STERCORARIUS. Briss., 1760. 

1154. GREAT SKUA. 
STERCORARIUS CATARRHACTES. 

Stercorarius catarrhactes (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 226 (1766) ; (NaumJ, 
x. p. 470, Taf. 270 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 505, pi. xlii. ; (Gould), B. 
of E. v. pi. 439 ; (id.), B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 78 ; Dresser, viii. 
p. 457, pi. 609 : (Saunders), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 315 ; (id.), 
Manual, p. 687 ; (Lilford), vi. p. 69, pi. 31 ; Cataracta sleua, Ketz. 
Faun. Suec. p. 161 (1800) ; Kidgway, p. 21. 

Labbe cataracte, French ; Gt^osse JRaubmowe, German ; Groote 
Jager, Dutch ; Havskumur, Hakallaslmmur, Icel. ; Stor-Kjove, 
Dan. ; Skua, Storjo, Norweg. ; Storlabl, Swed. 

ad. (Fseroes). General coloration dark brown marked with yellowish 
red ; crown, rump, and upper tail- coverts almost uniform dark brown, the 
feathers on the rest of the upper parts with rufous or rusty yellowish tips ; 
basal half of primaries white forming an alar patch ; tail blackish brown, 
marked with white at the extreme base ; throat feathers with yellowish 
shaft markings ; abdomen tinged, and flanks slightly marked with rufous ; 
bill black, paler at the base ; legs and feet blackish ; iris dark brown. 
Culmen 2 - 4, wing 15'6, tail 7'0, tarsus 2'7 inch. Sexes alike. The young 
bird is more distinctly marked with yellowish, and has more white on the 
wings and tail. 

Hob. Iceland, the Faroes, and Shetlands in summer ; rarer in 
South Greenland; scarce in Scandinavia; in winter south to 
the Straits of Gibraltar ; a rare straggler to Germany, Switzer- 
land, N. Italy, and the Mediterranean. 

Essentially predatory in its habits the Skua seldom takes 
the trouble to fish for itself, but despoils the Gulls of their 



840 STERCORARIUS 



prey, and also takes numbers of young sea birds and eggs ; it 
also feeds on carrion when obtainable. Its cry is a somewhat 
harsh skui, skid, and when disturbed and flying over its 
nesting place it utters a cry not unlike the cackling of a Goose. 
Its nest is a depression in the mossy ground on islands and 
high moorlands, scantily lined with dry grass and moss, and 
though not actually breeding in societies, several pairs are fre- 
quently found near together. Two eggs are deposited late in 
May, which are dull greenish olive-brown, some greener and 
others browner in tinge, marked with dark brown, and measure 
about 2-87 by 1'86. 

1155. POMATORHINE SKUA. 
STERCORARIUS FOMATORHINUS. 

Stercorariuspomatorhinus (Temm.), Man. d'Orn. p. 514 (1815) ; (Naum.). 
x. p. 487, Taf. 271 ; (Middend.), Sib. Eeise, Zool. p. 240, Taf. 24, 
fig. 1 (egg) ; (Gould), B. of E. v. pi. 440 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. 
pi. 79 ; Newton, P.Z.S. 1861, pi. xxxix. fig. 3 (egg) ; Dresser, viii. 
p. 463, pi. 610 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 330 ; Saunders, 

Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 322 ; id. Manual, p. 689 ; Tacz. F. 0. 
Sib. 0. p. 1061 ; Kidgway, p. 22 ; Lilford, vi. p. 74, pis. 32, 33 ; 
Boyce Hill, Ibis, 1900, p. 526, pi. xi. (eggs). 

Ldbbe Pomarin, French; Mandriao, Portug. ; Galliano nero, 
Ital.; Mittlere-Raubmowe, German; Middelste-Jzger, Dutch; Mid- 
delltjove> Dan. ; Bredhalet-Jo, Norweg.; Bredstjertad Labb, Swed.; 
Leveapyrstoinen-rdiska, Finn. ; Pomornik-srednie, Fdmka, Russ. 

ad. (Faeroes). Crown, nape, sides of head, back, wings, and tail 
deep brown or blackish brown ; fore back slightly marked with white ; 
primaries with basal portion and shafts white ; middle tail-feathers 
elongated but blunt ; neck all round, chin, and under parts white, the first 
tinged with golden yellow ; a band across the breast and flanks marked 
and barred with dark brown ; under wing-coverts, axillaries, lower 
abdomen, crissum, and under tail-coverts dark brown, the three last 
slightly marked with white ; bill dark horn, bluish at the base ; legs and 
feet blackish ; iris brown. Culmen 1'8, wing 13*8, tail 8'75, the middle 
feathers 2*7 longer than the lateral ones, tarsus 2'0 inch. In adult birds 
the middle rectrices are much elongated and almost spatulate, having a 
curious twist in the shaft which brings the lower surface of the vanes 
towards the tip to meet in a vertical direction. 

Hob. The high northern portions of the Old and New Worlds, 
in autumn and winter ranging to the British Islands, 
Scandinavia, and continental Europe south to the Mediter- 
ranean, where it is comparatively rare, and on the West African 
coast south to 23 S. ; Northern Siberia, Kamchatka, and the 



STERCORAEIUS 841 



Commander Islands, south in winter to Japan, Moulmein (once), 
and Cape York in Australia; Northern North America, in 
winter south to New Jersey, the Great Lakes, and Callao Bay. 

In habits this Skua does not appreciably differ from its allies, 
and feeds on fish, lemmings, and carrion, and also to a large 
extent plunders the smaller Gulls and Terns of their prey. Its 
cry is a short harsh crah. It was first found breeding on the 
Taimyr by von Middendorf in 1843, later in Greenland, and in 
1897 on the Yenesei by Mr. Popham. The nest is a hollow 
in a drier spot in marshy ground, and the 2 eggs vary in 
ground-colour from stone-grey with a greenish tinge to brownish 
olivaceous, and are spotted and blotched, chiefly at the larger 
end, with pale greyish brown and blackish brown, measuring 
about 2-62 by T86. 

1156. ARCTIC SKUA. 
STERCORARIUS CREPIDATUS. 

Stercorarius crepidatus (Banks), in Cook's Voy. Hawks worth's ed. ii. 
p. 15 (1773) ; Dresser, viii. p. 471, pis. 611, 612, fig. 2 ; Saunders, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 327 ; id. Manual, p. 691 ; Blanf. F. Brit. 
Ind. Birds, iv. p. 329 ; S. para.nticus (Bodd, nee. Linn.), Tabl. 
PI. Enl. p. 58, No. 991 (1783) ; (Gould), B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 80 ; 
(Xamn.), x. p. 506, Taf. 272, 273 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1056 ; 
Kidgway, p. 22 ; S. richardsoni (Swains.), Faun. Bor. Am. Birds, 
p. 433, pi. 73 (1831) ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 609, pi. cxliii. fig. 2 ; 
(Gould), B. of E. v. pi. 441 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 288 ; 
(Lilford), vi. p. 75, pi. 34. 

Labbe parasite, French ; Cagado, Portug. ; Cdgalo, Span. ; 
Labbo, Ital. ; Struntjager, Schmarotzer-fiaubmowe, German ; 
KLcine Jager, Dutch ; Spidshalet-Kjove, Dan. ; Leverjo, Norweg. ; 
Vanliga Labb, Swed. ; Kalapasko-raiska, Finn. ; Pomornik- 
tschujeadnui, Russ. 

$ ad. (Greenland). Crown and sides of head to below the eye, back, 
wings, and tail dark brown, the head rather paler, the back almost blackish 
brown ; shafts of outer quills white ; chin, neck all round, and under 
parts white ; sides and back of neck washed with yellow ; breast and 
lower throat washed with ashy brown ; crissum and under tail-coverts 
dark brown; middle tail-feathers elongated, tapered; bill lead-bine at 
base, otherwise blackish; legs blackish; iris brown. Culmen T5, 
wing 13 '3, tail 8*9, the middle feathers 3*1 longer than the lateral ones, 
tarsus 1-8 inch. Varieties of this species are not uncommon, which are 
almost uniform sooty blackish. 

Hob. The northern portions of the Old and New Worlds ; 
Greenland, Iceland, the Faeroes, N. Norway and Sweden, 



842 STEECORARIUS 



N. Russia, Britain ; in winter south to the Mediterranean and 
the West Coast of Africa to the Cape ; Northern Siberia, Kam- 
chatka, the Commander and Kurile Islands; in winter south 
to the Makran and Sind coasts, Australia and New Zealand ; 
the Arctic regions of North America, south in winter to New 
York, Illinois, Colorado, and the coast of Brazil. 

Like its allies it is a bold, rapacious bird, subsisting chiefly 
by plunder. It is swift and active on the wing, swirns with 
ease, but does not either dive or plunge. Its cry is plaintive, 
not unlike the prolonged mew of a cat, and when alarmed it 
utters a sound between a hiss and a croak. At its breeding 
places it is exceedingly bold and daring. The nest is a mere 
hollow in the moss or grass, in which 2 eggs are laid late in 
May or early in June ; these are greenish grey, greenish stone- 
colour, or olive-brown in ground-colour, more or less spotted 
and blotched with purplish grey and deep umber-brown, measur- 
ing about 217 by 1*57. It riests on moors, peat-bogs, or the 
grassy tops of sea cliffs, usually several pairs near together. 

1157. BUFFON'S SKUA. 
STERCORARIUS PARASITICUS. 

Stercorarius parasiticus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 226 (1766) ; (Gould), B. 
of E. v. pi. 442 ; Dresser, viii. p. 481, pi. 612, fig. 1 ; Saunders, Cat. 
B. Br. Mas. xxv. p. 334 ; id. Manual, p. 693 ; (Lilford), vi. p. 77, 
pi. 35 ; S. longicaudus, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. xxii. p. 157 (1819) ; 
Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 81 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1059 ; 
Eidgway, p. 23 ; L. crepidata (nee. Gmel.), Naum. x. p. 534, 
pi. 274 ; S. bu/oni, Boie, Isis, 1822, p. 562 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 508, 
pi. cxliii. fig. 1 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 289. 

Ldble a longue giieue, French ; Lablo coda-lunga, Ital. ; Kleiner 
Raubmowe, German ; Kleinsfe Jager, Dutch ; Lille Kjove, Dan. ; 
Fjeldjo, Norweg. ; Fjcillabl, Swed. ; Skaiti, Haskil, Lapp. ; 
funturi-miska, Finn. 

$ ad. (Lapland). Differs from S. crepidatus in being smaller, the 
crown, nape, and sides of head glossy blackish brown, the yellow on the 
cheeks much brighter, the upper parts ashy grey, the middle tail-feathers 
much longer, and the two first primaries only with white shafts ; bill plum- 
beous at the base, otherwise black ; legs plumbeous, with large black 
patches on the feet ; iris dark brown. Culmen lvL5, wing 11 -5, tail 13'0, 
the middle feathers 8*1 longer than the lateral ones, tarsus 1*5 inch. 

Hob. The Arctic regions of Europe, Asia, and America, 
migrating south in the autumn and winter as far as the Straits 
of Gibraltar ; of rare occurrence in the Mediterranean ; the 



STERCORARIUSPROCELLARIA 843 

Siberian coasts of the Arctic Ocean; Kamchatka and the 
Commander and Kurile Islands, migrating south in winter, and 
has once occurred as far south as between the Sandwich and 
Philippine Islands. In America it occurs in winter south to 
Florida and California. 

In habits it does not differ from the preceding species, and 
like it is bold and fearless. During the breeding season at 
least, it feeds on lemmings, mice, insects, and to a large extent 
on crowberries. Its cry is described as being a loud dismal 
shriek, i-i-i-ah, je-ah, je-oh, je-oh. It breeds in colonies in the 
large marshes and moors in the high north, not far from 
water, the nest being a mere depression in the ground, some- 
times lined with a few dry grass-bents, and the eggs, 2 in 
number, are usually laid in June, and are similar in appearance 
to those of the Arctic Skua, but as a rule greener in tone 
and subject to considerable variation. In size they measure 
about 2-10 by T43. 

The sexes of the birds included in the present genus do not 
differ ; the young birds are brownish with the upper tail-coverts 
and under parts barred and the back varied with rufous and 
brown ; those of S. pomatorhinus and S. parasiticiis are darker 
than those of S. crepidatus, but S. parasiticus is always dis- 
tinguishable by having the shafts of the two first primaries 
only white. The young in down of all three species are brown, 
those of S. pomatorhinus pale sooty brown with a rufous tinge, 
those of S. crepidatus sooty brown above, paler below, and 
those of S. parasiticus are much paler, being grayish brown 
above and below. 



PROCELLARIA, Linn., 1766. 

1158. STORM-PETREL. 
PROCELLARIA FELAGICA. 

Procellaria pelagica, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 212 (1766) ; Naum. x. p. 557, 
pi. 275, fig. 1 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 517, pi. cxlv. fig. 1 ; (Audub.), B. 
Am. pi. 340 ; (Gould), B. of E. v. pi. 448 ; (id.), B. of Gt. Brit. v. 
pi. 86 ; (Dresser), viii. p. 491, pi. 613, fig. 1 ; Salvin, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxv. p. 343; Sannclers, p. 727 ; Lilford, vi. p. 123, pi. 53 ; 
Bidgway, p. 70. 

Thalassidrome temptte, French ; Alma de mestre, Portug. ; 
Uccello delle tempeste, Ital. ; Schwalben-Stuvmvogel, German ; 
Stormvogeltje, Dutch ; Lille-Stormsvale, Dan. ; Liden-Stormsvale, 
Sorron-Pedder, Norweg. ; Stormsvala, Swed. 



844 PMOCELLARIA OCEANODROMA 



$ ad. (Orkneys). General colour sooty black, the under parts paler 
and browner ; median wing-coverts with pale tips ; base of upper tail- 
coverts and of tail, sides of crissum, and under tail-coverts white ; tail 
almost square ; bill and legs black ; iris dark brown. Culmen 0'58, 
wing 4'6, tail 2*15, tarsus 0'9 inch. Sexes alike. 

Hctb. North Atlantic Ocean, breeding on the Faeroes, Orkney, 
and Shetland Islands ; of rare occurrence in Scandinavia as 
far north as the Lofoten Islands ; the Mediterranean and the 
African coasts south to the Cape on the west, and occurs 
between the Zambesi and Zanzibar on the east side ; on the 
American coasts south to the Banks of Newfoundland ; is 
replaced by P. tethys, Bp., off the Galapagos, this species being 
larger, with the upper tail-coverts white and the tail emarginate. 

Essentially an oceanic bird the Storm-Petrel only frequents 
land for the purpose of nidification. It is tolerably swift on 
the wing, and skims the waves, following their undulations. It 
feeds on any fatty substance on the surface of the water, small 
molluscs, &c. During the breeding season it frequents islands, 
usually remaining in the holes during the day and wandering 
out to sea in the night. Late in June a single egg is deposited 
in a hole, or amongst the stones, the nest being scantily lined 
with plant-stems. The egg is rather elongated-oval in shape, 
the surface of the shell rather chalky, white in colour, gene- 
rally with a zone of pale reddish dots round one end, and 
measures about 1*12 by O85. 



OCEANODROMA, Reich., 1852. 

1159. LEACH'S PETREL. 
OCEANODROMA LEUCORRHOA. 

Oceanodroma leucorrhoa (VieilL), Nouv. Diet, xxv, p. 422 (1817) ; 
(Dresser), viii. p. 497, pi. 613, fig. 2 ; Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. 
p. 348 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. O. p. 1067 ; Kidgway, p. 71 ; Saunders, 
p. 729; (Lilford), vi. p. 127, pi. 54; Thai leachi, Temm. Man. 
d'Orn. ii. p. 812 (1820) ; (Naum.), x. p. 575, Taf. 275, fig. 2 ; 
(Hewitson), ii. p. 520, pi. cxlv. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 447 ; 
id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 85. 

Thalassidrome cul-Uanc, French ; Procellaria a coda forcuta 
Ital. ; Gabelschwdnziger-Schwalbensturmvogel, German ; Stor- 
Stormsvale, Dan. ; Klofthalet-Stormsvale, Norweg. ; Klyckstjertad- 
Stormsvala, Swed. ; Umi-tsubame, Jap. 



OCEANODROMA 845 



ad. (Bay of Fundy). General colour sooty blackish brown, the head, 
breast, and back tinged with grey ; inner secondaries and wing-coverts 
brownish grey, paler at the tips ; upper tail-coverts white, some with 
narrow dark edges ; tail forked ; lateral under tail-coverts white, the 
central ones sooty brown ; bill and feet black ; iris dark brown. 
Culmen 075, wing 6'0, tail 3'5, tarsus TO, bare portion of tibia 0*3 
inch. 

Hctb. Seas of Northern Europe, Asia, and America, wander- 
ing south in winter to the coasts of continental Europe and 
the Mediterranean ; of rare occurrence in Scandinavia ; Eastern 
Siberia, the Commander Islands, and Japan ; the Atlantic and 
Pacific coasts of N. America ; south to Virginia and California. 

In habits it resembles P. pelagica, and is, like that bird, 
essentially oceanic. It breeds on many of the Hebrides, and 
on the islands off the east coasts of North America, selecting in 
preference grassy places where it can burrow under the sods, 
but it also burrows under rocks. Early in June a single egg 
is laid, which is like that of P. pelagica but larger, measuring 
about 1'33 by 0'95. The nest is a small pad of dry grasses 
placed at the end of the nest-hole. 



1160. HARCOURT'S PETREL. 
OCEANODROMA CASTRO. 

Oceanodroma castro (Harcourt), A Sketch of Madeira, p. 123 (1851) ; 
Ogilvie Grant, Ibis, 1898, p. 314 ; Saunders, p. 731 ; 0. crypto- 
leucura, Eidgway, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. iv. p. 337 (1882); id. 
Manual, p. 71 ; Dresser, ix. p. 395, pi. 718 ; Scott Wilson, Aves 
Haiwaiiensis, p. 209 and pi. ; (Lilford), vi. p. 130, pi. 55. 

ad. (Porto Santo). Differs from 0. leticorrlwa in being rather 
browner in tone of colour, the tail less deeply forked, all the feathers but 
the middle ones white on the basal quarter ; upper tail-coverts white 
tipped with black. Culmen 0'85, wing 6'0, tail 2*8, the middle feathers 
0'2 shorter than the lateral ones, tarsus 0'85 inch. 

Hob. Sandwich and Galapagos Islands, and the South Atlantic 
Ocean, breeding as far north as the islets between Cape Verde 
Islands and Madeira ; has once strayed to England and twice 
to Denmark. 

In habits it does not differ from its allies, and, like those, 
breeds in holes, depositing in June a single egg, which is white, 
sometimes with a wreath of red spots round the larger end, 
and in size measures about 1*26 by 0*98. 



846 OCEANODROMA 



1161. SOOTY PETREL. 
OCEANODROMA FULIGINOSA. 

Oceanodroma fuliginosa (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 562 (1788) ; Stejn. Pr. 
U.S. Nat. Mus. xvi. p. 620 (1893) ; Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. 
p. 352. 

Ad. Crown, occiput, hind neck, back, scapulars, and upper rump 
uniform dark sooty slate, darker and more sooty on posterior scapulars, 
the longest feathers of which are distinctly paler at ends, with a narrow 
terminal margin of brownish white ; lesser and uppermost, median and 
greater wing-coverts sooty black ; rest of wing- coverts and tertials light 
greyish brown (between " broccoli " and " hair-brown ") ; alula, primary 
coverts, and remiges uniform sooty black ; lower rump light greyish 
brown ; upper tail-coverts and tail sooty black ; anterior portion of head 
all round silky deep sooty grey or greyish brown, deepening gradually 
into the darker colour of the occiput, &c. ; under parts uniform sooty 
greyish brown (much like the colour of the greater wing-coverts), the 
under wing-coverts rather lighter and more tinged with brown ; bill and 
feet black. Total length (skin) about lO'OO inches, wing 7'50, tail 4*45, 
forked for T60, culmen 0*70, depth of bill just before nasal tubes 0'25, 
tarsus 1*10, middle toe with claw riO. 

Hob. Japanese seas. 

I have not had an opportunity of examining a specimen of 
this Petrel, and have therefore reproduced Mr. Ridgway's 
description, furnished to Mr. Salvin (Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 353). 
Nothing appears to be known respecting the habits and nidifica- 
tion of this species. 

1162. JAPANESE BLACK PETREL. 
OCEANODROMA TRISTRAMI. 

Oceanodroma tristrami, Stejn. M.S. Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 354 ; 
0. melania (Seeb., nee. Bp.), B. Jap. Emp. p. 270 (1890). 

ad. (Japan). Anterior portion of head all round sooty greyish 
brown (decidedly darker than in 0. homochroa}, changing gradually to 
sooty blackish slate on hinder crown, occiput, and hind neck, and to deep 
greyish sooty brown on fore neck and chest ; rest of under parts light 
greyish sooty brown, each feather indistinctly tipped with darker (colour 
of chest), producing a very faint transversally mottled appearance, the 
under tail coverts, however, uniform, though the colour gradually becomes 
darker towards ends of longer feathers ; under wing-coverts uniform light 
greyish sooty brown, those along edge of wing much darker, with pale 
margins ; back, scapulars, and upper rump sooty slate-colour, each feather 



OCEANODROMA 847 



with one or two very indistinct darker bars, and tipped with a more 
decided slaty hue ; lesser wing-coverts and tertials darker greyish sooty 
brown, the longer of the latter narrowly margined with paler ; middle and 
greater wing-coverts and innermost secondaries light greyish brown, the 
margins of the secondaries and approximate coverts sooty -blackish ; lower 
rump light greyish brown (like large wing-coverts) ; upper tail-coverts and 
tail dark greyish brown (much paler than remiges), each feather showing 
a subterminal broad transverse spot of a darker shade of the same colour ; 
bill and feet black. Total length (skin) about 9 inches, wing 6 -20, tail 378, 
forked for 1'6, culmen 0'70, depth of bill through middle 0'20, tarsus I'lO, 
middle toe with claw 1*12. 

Hob. Japan. 

Not having been able to examine a specimen of this Petrel, I 
have, as before, been obliged to copy the description in the Brit. 
Mus. Catalogue. Nothing appears to be on record respecting the 
habits or nidification of this species. 

1163. SWINHOE'S PETREL. 
OCEANODROMA MONORHIS. 

Oceanodroma monorhls (Svvinhoe), Ibis, 1867, p. 386 ; (David and Oust), 
Ois. Chine, p. 515 ; Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. x\v. p. 356, pi. ii. 

Ad. (China). Differs from 0. tristrami in being somewhat smaller ; 
it lacks the lighter rump patch, and has the light-coloured wing area 
more restricted, the tail less deeply forked and the primaries much less 
short and pointed. Culmen 0'8, wing 6'0, tail 2 '9, the central feathers 0'7 
shorter than the lateral ones, tarsus 0'9, middle toe 0*9, inner toe 0'7 inch. 

Hob. Coasts of China and Japan. 

Respecting the habits and nidification of this species I find 
nothing on record, except that it is said to breed on the desert 
islands north-east of Formosa. 



1164. FORK-TAILED PETREL. 
OCEANODROMA PURCATA. 

Oceanodroma /wrcafo(Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 561 (1788) ; (Gould), Zool. 
Voy. " Sulphur," p. 50, pi. 33 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 271 ; 
Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1068 ; Eidgway, p. 70 ; Salvin, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxv. p. 357. 

g ad. (Kurile Islands). General colour bluish grey, the scapulars, 
wings externally, and space below the eye black ; the outer tail-feathers 
on each side with the outer web white nearly to the tip ; wing- coverts 



848 OCEANODROMA OCEANITES 

edged with greyish white ; chin, throat, and under tail-coverts nearly 
white ; bill and feet black. Culmen 0'83, wing 6'25, tail 3'6, the middle 
feathers 0'74 shorter than the lateral ones, tarsus 1*03. 

Hab. North Pacific Ocean, south to Oregon, and the Kurile 
Islands. 

In habits this Petrel is said not to differ from its allies. It 
breeds on small islands off Unalaska, on Copper Island and the 
Kuriles, in holes 3 feet or more deep in the steep basaltic rocks, 
depositing in July a single glossless white egg, sometimes marked 
at the larger end with purplish black or lilac dots or spots, and 
measuring about T31 by TOO. 

OCEANITES, Keyserl. and Bias., 1840. 

1165. WILSON'S PETREL. 
OCEANITES OCEANICUS. 

Oceanites oceanicus (Kuhl.), Beitr. p. 136, Tab. x. fig. 1 (1820) ; Dresser, 
viii. p. 505, pi. 614, fig. 1 ; Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 358 ; 
Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 354 ; Saunders, p. 733 ; Kidgway, 
p. 71 ; Lilford, vi. p. 131, pi. 56 ; 0. wilsoni (Bp.), Journ. Acad. 
Philad. iii. p. 231, pi. 9, fig. 2 (1823) ; (Audubon), B. N. Am. 
pi. 270 ; Gould, B. of Austral, vii. pi. 65. 

Casquilho, Portug. ; Pastor cito, Span. 

ad. (off Fayal). Sooty black with a greyish tinge, especially on the 
head and neck ; wing-coverts brownish, some of the middle ones marked 
with greyish white ; sides of rump and of under tail-coverts, and lower 
flanks white ; tail nearly even ; bill and legs black, the basal half of the 
webs yellow ; iris dark brown. Culinen 0'65, wing 5 '75, tail 3'0, 
tarsus 1'3, bare part of tibia 0'65 inch. 

Hob. Atlantic Ocean, north to the coasts of Labrador and of 
the British Isles, south to the Ice-barrier in the Antarctic 
Ocean ; the Indian Ocean north to the Mekran coast ; the 
Australian seas and New Zealand. 

In habits it resembles P. pelagica, and like it is essentially an 
ocean bird. It was found breeding on Kerguelen Island in 
January and February, by the Rev. A. E. Eaton, and since then 
plentifully on South Victoria Land, Antarctic regions. The 
single egg is laid in dry chinks and crevices under rocks, and 
is like that of P.pelagica, but speckled and dotted chiefly round 
one end with pink, and measures about 1*30 by 0'92. 

The young in down of all the preceding species of Petrels are 
covered with sooty brownish or greyish down from which they 
moult into the adult dress. 



PELAGODROMAPUFFINUS 849 



PELAGODROMA, Reichenb., 1852. 

1166, FRIGATE PETREL. 
PELAGODROMA MARINA. 

Pelagodroma marina (Lath.), Ind. Orn. ii. p. 826 (1790) ; (Gould), B. of 
Austral, vii. pi. 61 ; Dresser, ix. p. 399, pi. 719 ; Salvin, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxv. p. 362 ; Rirlg\vay, p. 72 ; Saunders, p. 735 ; Lilford, 
vi. p. 134, pi. 57. 

Ad. (Teneriffe). Upper parts slaty brown, darker on the crown and 
lower back, paler and greyer on the dorsal region, the feathers with slightly 
paler margins ; lower rump and upper tail -coverts pale slate-grey, the 
latter with narrow white margins ; wings and tail blackish brown ; secon- 
daries and wing-coverts margined and tipped with whitish ; a patch below 
the eye beyond the ear-coverts dark slaty brown ; forehead, superciliary 
stripe, and under parts white ; bill and legs black, the webs yellow with a 
dark edge. Culmen 0'9, wing 6'0, tail 3'35, the middle feathers 0'42 
shorter than the lateral ones, tarsus 1*7 inch. Sexes alike. 

Hal. Seas of the Southern Hemisphere, north to the Canary 
Islands and the Salvages ; has occurred on the coast of 
Massachusetts once, and twice off those of Great Britain. 

In habits this bird does not appear to differ from Leach's and 
the Storm Petrel. It has been found breeding on the Salvage 
Isles, on the Chatham and Houtmann's Abrolhos Islands, and 
on Nightingale Island, one of the Tristan da Cunha group. It 
nests in holes in the ground, depositing in April in the Salvages, 
in December in the Australian seas, a single white egg, finely 
spotted and often zoned at one end with fine reddish or 
purplish dots, and measuring about 1*47 by T07. 



PUFFINUS, Briss., 1760. 

1167. MANX SHEARWATER. 
PUFFINUS ANGLORUM. 

Puffinus anglorum (Temm.), Man. d'Orn. ii. p. 807 (1820) ; (Hewitson), ii. 
p. 514, pi. cxliv. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 443 ; id. B. of Gt. 
Brit. v. pi. 84 ; Dresser, viii. p. 517, pi. 615, fig. 1 ; Salvin, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxv. p. 377 ; Saunders, p. 741 ; Lilford, vi. p. 140, pi. 60 ; 
P. pujfinuS) Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 213 (1766) ; Ridgway, p. 60 ; P. 
arcticus, Faber, Prodr. Isl. Orn. p. 156 (1822) ; Naum. x. p. 618, 
Taf. 277. 



850 PUFFINUS 



Pttrel Manks, French ; Furabuxo, ChirSta, Portug. ; Animas, 
Diablos, Span. ; Berta-minore, Ital. ; Nordischer Tauchersturmvogel, 
German ; Noordsche-Pijlstormvogel, Dutch ; Skropa, Icel. ; Al- 
minddig Skraape, Dan. ; Lire, Norweg. ; Mindre Lira, Swed. 

ad. (Orkney). Crown, sides of head, and upper parts generally black, 
the sides of head slightly marked with white ; the hind neck tinged with 
grey ; entire under parts, flanks, and under wing-coverts white ; upper 
mandible blackish brown ; lower mandible bluish horn ; iris dark brown ; 
legs bluish flesh-colour. Culmen 1/6, wing 9'3, tail 3'2, tarsus 1/9 inch. 

Hob. North Atlantic Ocean ; Iceland, the Faeroes ; the British 
Islands ; of occasional occurrence on the coasts of Norway, 
Sweden, Denmark, Holland, and Germany, more common in 
Western Europe, Morocco, Canaries, and Madeira ; the Atlantic 
coast of America, south to Brazil. 

Essentially an ocean bird it only visits land during the breed- 
ing season, and may be seen far out at sea gliding with a Swift- 
like flight, close to the surface of the water. During the nest- 
ing season it is partly crepuscular, remaining in its hole during 
the day, and coming out in the evening. It breeds in burrows 
in the soil on cliffs, placing its single egg either on the bare 
ground or on a scanty pad of dry herbage at the end of its }iole. 
The eggs, which are laid in May or early in June, are white, 
smooth in texture, and measure about 2'37 by 1'65. 



1168. SUBSP. PUFFINUS YELKOUANUS. 

Puffinus yelkouanus (Acerbi), Bibl. Ital. cxl. p. 294 (1827) ; Salvin, Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 379 ; P. baroli, Bonelli, fide Bp. Compt. Rend, 
xlii. p. 769 (1856). 

$ ad. (Bosphorus). Closely resembles P. anglorum, but has the upper 
parts rather paler and browner ; the under tail-coverts as a rule dusky 
brown, and the axillaries brown towards the tips. Culmen 1*9, wing 9'0> 
tail 2'75, the middle feathers about 0'15 longer than the lateral ones, 
tarsus 1*8, middle and outer toes 1*95, inner toe 1/55. 

Hob. The Mediterranean; has occurred off the coasts of 
Northumberland, Yorkshire, Devonshire, and Cornwall. 

This is a very doubtful southern form or race of our Manx 
Shearwater, which does not differ in habits or nidification from 
that species. It breeds in the Mediterranean, chiefly on the 
islands in the eastern portion. 



PUFFINUS 851 



1169. GREAT SHEARWATER. 
PUFFINUS GRAVIS. 

Puffinm grams (O'Reilly), Voy. to Greenland, &c., p. 140, pi. 12, fig. 1 
(1818) ; Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 373 ; Saunders, p. 737 ; P. 
major (Faber), Prodr. Isl. Orn. p. 56 (1822) ; Gould, B. of Gt. Brit, 
v. pi. 83 ; Dresser, viii. p. 527, pi. 616, fig. 2 ; Ridgway, p. 59 ; 
Lilford, vi. p. 136, pi. 58 ; P. cinereus, Nutt. Man. Water Birds, 
p. 334 (1834). 

Stora skrofa, Icel. 

$ ad. (S. England). Crown, sides of head, nape, and upper parts deep 
brown, the feathers of the upper parts with paler margins ; wings and 
tail darker ; lower hind neck white tinged with brown ; lower part of 
upper tail-coverts white marked with brown ; under parts and under wing- 
coverts white ; under tail -coverts greyish brown tipped with white ; bill 
blackish horn ; outside of tarsus and exterior toe brownish, rest of feet and 
webs yellowish flesh ; iris dark brown. Culmen 2'35, wing 12'6, tail 4'7, 
tarsus 2-38, middle toe 2'65 inch. Sexes alike. 

Hob. The Atlantic Ocean from Greenland, Iceland, and the 
Fseroe Isles south to the Cape of Good Hope and Falkland 
Islands, appears occasionally in vast flocks off the Hebrides. 

In general habits it does not differ from P. anglorum. Nothing 
definite is known of its nidification, and authentic eggs are still 
wanting. 

1170. SOOTY SHEARWATER. 
PUFFINUS GRISEUS. 

Puffinus griseus (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 564 (1788) ; Dresser, viii. 
p. 523, pi. 616, fig. 1 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 266 ; Salvin, Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 386 ; Saunders, p. 739 ; Lilford, vi. p. 138, 
pi. 59 ; Kidgway, p. 61 ; P. fuliginosus, Strickl. P.Z.S. 1832, 
p. 129 ; P. stricldandi, Ridgw. Manual, p. 61 (1896). 

$ ad. (S. England). Upper parts sooty blackish brown with a choco- 
late tinge, the head, lower back, wings, and tail darker, the dorsal feathers 
with faintly paler edges ; under parts greyer ; the chin and upper throat 
dark ashy grey ; under wing-coverts greyish white with dark shafts and 
marbled with brown ; bill brownish black, paler on the edge of the lower 
mandible ; outer portion of tarsus and outer toe blackish brown ; rest of 
legs and feet dull brownish ochreous ; iris dark brown. Gape 2*25, 
wing 11*85, tail 3*7, tarsus 2'22, middle toe 2*8 inch. Sexes alike. 

Hob. Generally distributed throughout the seas of both 
hemispheres from the Faeroes and Banks of Newfoundland to the 

3 K 



852 PUFFINUS 



Cape of Good Hope and Straits of Magellan, and in the Pacific 
from California and the Kurile Islands to Australia, New Zealand, 
and the Auckland Islands. Breeds in the southern hemisphere. 

In habits this species does not differ from its allies. It nests 
in holes in the ground, depositing a single egg, white stained with 
reddish brown, which measures about 3'25 by 2*0. 

1171. MEDITERRANEAN SHEARWATER. 
PUFFINUS KUHLI. 

Puffinus kuhli (Boie), Isis, 1835, p. 257 ; Dresser, viii. p. 513, pi. 615, 
fig. 2 ; Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 375 ; Kidgway, p. 59 ; P. 
cinereus, Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 445 ; P. borealis, Cory, Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club. vi. p. 84 (1881) ; Ridgway, p. 59 ; P. major (nee. 
Temm.), Hewitson, ii. p. 516, pi. cxliv. fig. 3. 

Puffin cendrd, French ; Pardella de bico branco, Portug. ; Berta- 
maggiore, Ital. ; Ciefa, Maltese. 

Ad. (Algerian coast). Upper parts cinereous brown, the sides of the 
head and neck paler and greyer ; back and wing-coverts with paler 
margins ; wings and tail blackish brown ; under parts pure white ; under 
tail-coverts mottled at the edge ; bill livid yellowish, brownish horn 
towards the point ; legs and feet livid yellowish ; iris dark brown. 
Culmen 2'8, wing 13'6 ; tail 5*6, tarsus 2*1 inch. Sexes alike. 

Hob. The Mediterranean, and the Atlantic Ocean from the 
Massachusetts coast to Madeira and the Canaries ; Kerguelen 
Island. 

In habits it does not differ from P. anglorum. It nests on 
the islands of the Mediterranean and in the Canaries, depositing, 
in holes in the ground or crannies in the cliffs, a single white 
egg, measuring about 2 '61 by 1*73. 

1172. JAPANESE SHEARWATER. 
PUFFINUS LEUCOMELAS. 

Puffinus leucomelas, Temm. PI. Col. 587 (1836) ; id. and Schleg. Faun. 
Jap. Aves, pi. 85 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 264 ; Salvin, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxv. p. 370 ; Ridgway, p. 62. 

Ad. (Japan). Crown, nape, sides of head and of neck white closely 
striped and marked with blackish brown ; hind neck, upper parts, wings 
and tail deep brown, the dorsal feathers with narrow greyish white or 
greyish brown margins ; some of the upper tail-coverts tipped with white ; 
under parts and axillaries white ', under wing- coverts near the edge of the 
wing with dark discs ; bill horn-colour ; legs and feet flesh-coloured, the 
outer toe darker. Culmen 2'35, from the base of the feathers 2'0, wing 



PUFFINUS 853 



12 -6, tail 5 '4, lateral feathers 1'6 shorter than the middle ones, tarsus T85 
middle toe with claw 2 -5 inch. 

Hal. The seas of Japan and Corea, southwards to the 
Philippines, N. Borneo, Moluccas, and the northern coast of 
Australia. 

I find nothing on record respecting the habits or nidification 
of this species. 

1173. FLESH-COLOURED SHEARWATER. 
PUFFINUS CARNEIPES. 

Puffinus carneipes, Gould, P.Z.S. 1844, p. 57 ; id. B. of Austral, vii. 
pi. 57 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 265 ; Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxv. p. 385 ; Ridgway, p. 62. 

ad. (Japan). Entire plumage dark sooty chocolate-brown, the 
throat and under parts rather paler and greyer ; under wing-coverts and 
axillaries sooty brown ; bill fleshy white, the culmen and tips of 
mandibles brown ; legs, feet, and interdigital membranes yellowish 
flesh-colour. Culmen 2 -3, wing 12 -8, tail 5'0, tarsus 2*2, middle toe with 
claw 2-65 inch. 

Hob. The Australian and New Zealand seas, north to the 
Japanese seas. 

Respecting the habits of this bird I find practically nothing 
on record, but it doubtless does not differ from its allies. It 
breeds on the small islands off Cape Leeuwin on the coast of 
Australia, nesting in holes in the ground, and deposits a single 
white egg, which measures about 2'93 by T98. 

1174. SLENDER-BILLED SHEARWATER. 
PUFFINUS TENUIROSTRIS. 

Puffmus tenuirostris (Temm.), PI. Col. 587 (1835) ; (id.) and Schleg. 

Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 131, pi. 86 (1842) ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. 

p. 267 (1890) ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1066 ; Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 

xxv. p. 338 ; Ridgway, p. 62 ; P. brevicaudus, Brandt, Icon. Russ. 

Av. Tab. vi. fig. 171 (1836) ; Gould, B. of Austral, vii. pi. 56. 

ad. (Japan). Differs from P. carneipes in having the upper parts 

paler with paler margins to the feathers ; under parts paler and more 

ashy in tinge ; the throat with a bluish tinge ; the breast and abdomen 

feathers with slightly paler margins ; under wing-coverts paler grey ; 

bill fleshy horn-colour ; tarsi and toes yellowish, outwardly darker. 

Culmen 2'3, from base of feathers 1*9, wing 12'5, tail 5'3, tarsus 2'5 inch. 

Hob. Pacific Ocean north to Kamchatka and Alaska ; the 
Kurile Islands, Japan, and the coasts of Corea ; south to the 
Australian and New Zealand seas. 

3 K 2 



854 PUFFINUS 



Is said to spend the day out at sea and the night in its nest 
hole. Its flight is direct and very swift, and its food consists of 
small shrimps, crustaceans, and molluscs. Immense numbers 
breed on the islands in Bass's Straits, nesting in holes burrowed 
in the ground, depositing late in November each a single white 
egg, which measures about 2'75 by T88. 

1175. CAHOW. 
PUFFINUS OBSCURUS. 

PuffinuB obscurus (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 559 (1788) ; Gould, B. of E. v. 
pi. 444 ; Audub. B. N. Am. pi. 299 ; Dresser, ix. p. 403, pi. 720 ; 
Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 382 ; Lilford, vi. p. 141, pi. 61 ; 
P. auduboni, Finsch, P.Z.S. 1872, p. Ill ; Kidgway, p. 60 ; P. tene- 
brosus, Natt. fide Pelz. Ibis, 1873, p. 47 ; Ridgway, p. 60. 

Oahow, in Bermuda. 

Ad. (Bermudas). Upper parts slaty black ; under parts white extend- 
ing to the eye ; feathers on the sides of the head and neck mottled ; under 
wing-coverts white ; axillaries white slightly marked with slaty black at 
the tip ; bill blackish plumbeous paler on the lower mandible ; outside of 
tarsus and the outer toe blackish plumbeous, the rest fleshy yellow ; iris 
blackish brown. Culmen 1 B 45, wing 7'0, tail 3*2, tarsus 1'5 inch. Sexes 
alike. 

Hob. The tropical and subtropical seas of the whole world ; 
the eastern coasts of North America from New Jersey to Florida 
and formerly in abundance in Bermuda ; of accidental occur- 
rence on the coasts of the British Islands. 

In habits this Shearwater resembles P. anglorum, and like 
that species nests in holes in the ground or in rocks, or under 
projecting rocks, depositing in March a single white egg like 
that of P. anglorum, but smaller, measuring about 2*05 by T40. 

1176. EASTERN DUSKY SHEARWATER. 
PUFFINUS ASSIMILIS. 

Puffinus assimiUs, Gould, P.Z.S. 1837, p. 156 ; id. B. of Austral, vii. 
pi. 59 ; Dresser, ix. p. 407 ; Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 384 ; 
Eidgway, p. 61 ; Saunders, p. 743 ; P. nugax, Solander, M.S. Bp. 
Consp. ii. p. 205 (1856) ; P. bailloni, Bp. Compt. Kend. xlii. p. 769 
(1856). 

Ad. (Porto Santo). Differs from P. olscurus in having the upper parts 
rather bluer in tinge, the white extending rather more round the eye and 
on the lores ; under wing-coverts, axillaries, and under tail-coverts pure 
white ; outer portion of inner web of primaries white except at the tip ; 



PUFFINUS (ESTRELATA 855 

bill dark horn-colour ; tarsi and toes greenish yellow ; webs yellowish 
orange; iris dark brown. Culmen T2, wing 7*1, tail 2*85, tarsus T42 
inch. 

Hob. The Australian and New Zealand seas ; the Atlantic 
north to the Canaries and Madeira ; has occurred on the coasts of 
Great Britain at least twice. 

In habits it "resembles P. obscurus. Mr. Grant says that it is 
a very silent bird, but Mr. Boyd Alexander states that when on 
the wing it continually utters a weird cry, karki-karrou, karki- 
karroit,, karki-karroii. It breeds in holes, under boulders, and 
in clefts of rocks, depositing a single white egg, which measures 
about 170 by T32. 

I have carefully compared specimens from the North Atlantic 
with those from Australia, and fail to find any difference, therein 
agreeing with Mr. Salvin. 

(ESTRELATA, Bp., 1855. 

1177. CAPPED PETREL. 

OSSTRELATA H-ffiSITATA. 

(Estrelata hasitata (Kuhl.), Beitr. p. 142 (1820) ; Dresser, viii. p. 545, 
pi. 618 ; Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 402 ; Saunders, p. 745 ; 
Eiclgway, p. 66 ; Lilford, vi. p. 148, pi. 64. 

Diablotin of French Creoles. 

Ad. (Hayti). Crown and nape blackish brown, the feathers white at 
the base ; in front of and below the eye a few greyish black feathers ex- 
tending to the ear-coverts ; upper parts sooty brown ; back of neck, upper 
tail-coverts, anterior lores, and the whole of the under parts white ; tail 
white on the basal two-thirds, black on the terminal third ; bill black ; 
legs and feet yellow, the terminal portion of the toes and webs black. 
Culmen 1'7, wing 11/4, tail 6'1, tarsus l - 52 inch. 

Hob. The Lesser Antilles ; Dominica and Guadaloupe ; has 
occurred once in France and once in Great Britain; once in 
Hungary. 

In habits it is said to be nocturnal, and lays up in holes during 
the day, roaming about in search of food at night. It breeds in 
holes, but, so far as I can ascertain, no collection is in possession 
of an egg of this species. 

1178. SOFT-PLUMAGED PETREL. 
GESTRELATA MOLLIS. 

(Estrelata mollis (Gould), Ann. and Mag. N. H. xiii. p. 363 (1844) ; (id.), 
B. of Austral, vii. pi. 50 ; Ridgway, p. 63 ; Dresser, ix. p. 411, 
pi. 721 ; Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 406. 



856 (E STEEL AT A 



ad. (Funchal). Upper parts slate-grey, the head rather darker; 
feathers on the forehead margined with white ; a blackish grey patch in 
front of and below the eye ; wings blackish brown ; tail grey, the lateral 
feathers freckled with white ; lores, throat, and under parts white, the sides 
of the breast grey, the flanks freckled with grey ; bill blackish ; tarsus 
and basal portion of feet yellowish flesh, the rest black ; iris dark brown. 
Culmen 1'3, wing 10'4, middle tail-feathers 4'65, the lateral ones 3*25, 
tarsus 1-4 inch. 

Hob. The Southern Seas, in the Atlantic north to Madeira. 

Respecting the habits of this bird I find but little on record. 
Its flight is described as peculiarly rapid and graceful, and it is 
generally seen in small companies. It nests in New Caledonia 
about the summit of Mount Mou in burrows, depositing a single 
white egg, which measures about 2'1 by 1'6. 

1179. COLLARED PETREL. 
CESTRELATA BREVIFES. 

(Estrelata Irevipes (Peale), U.S. Expl. Exp. viii. p. 294, pi. 80 (1848) ; 
Stejn. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xvi. p. 617 ; Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxv. p. 408 ; Ridgway, p. 65 ; Saimders, p. 747 ; Lilford, vi. p. 146, 
pi. 63 ; P. torquata, Macgillivray, Zool. xviii. p. 7133 ; (Est. 
leucoptera, Salvin, Ibis, 1876, p. 393. 

Ad. (New Hebrides). Forehead, cheeks, throat, and under parts white ; 
upper parts slaty greyish black, the crown paler, the dorsal region, larger 
wing-coverts, and upper tail-coverts grey ; tail greyish black, the lateral 
feathers pale grey ; sides of breast slate-grey ; under wing-coverts and 
axillaries white ; bill black ; tarsus and proximal half of the two inner 
toes yellowish, the rest black. Culmen T3, wing 8*55, tail 3'92, the outer 
feathers 1*15 shorter than the middle ones, tarsus 1*0 inch. 

Hob. Western Pacific Ocean, New Hebrides, Fiji Islands ; 
south to about 68 S. ; has been once obtained near Aberystwith 
on the Welsh Coast. 

According to John Macgillivray, this Petrel breeds in burrows 
on the wooded mountain-tops of the interior of Aniteum, New 
Hebrides, but its eggs were not obtained. 

1180. JAPANESE PETREL. 
CESTRELATA LONGIROSTRIS. 

(Estrelata longirostris, Stejn. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mus. xvi. p. 618 (1893) ; 
Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 418. 

Ad. (Japan). Differs from (Est. brevipes in having the greater wing- 
coverts lighter slate-grey, distinctly though narrowly margined with 



(ESTRELATABUL WERIA 857 

white ; the feathers on the back with paler (white) and more distinct 
terminal margins, the dusky border to under side of wings narrower and 
interrupted along the outer margin, the inner webs of primaries with a 
conspicuous lengthened wedge of pure white. Culmen 0'95, depth of bill 
through middle 0'25, wing (primaries moulting), tail 3 '80, its gradation 
075, tarsus T25, middle toe with claw T40 inch. 

Hob. Japanese coasts. 

I have not been able to examine a specimen of this bird, and 
have therefore copied Mr. Ridgway's description. Only two 
specimens, in the Science College Museum, Tokyo, Japan, are 
known. 

It is possible that (Estrelala fisheri, Ridgway, which has 
occurred near Alaska, may possibly occur also on the Asiatic 
side. 



BULWERIA, Bp., 1842. 

1181. BULWER'S PETREL. 
BULWERIA COLUMBINA. 

Bulweria columlina (Webb and Berth.), Orn. Canar. p. 44, pi. 4, fig. 2 
(1841) ; Dresser, viii. p. 551, pi. 614, fig. 2 ; (Lilford), vi. p. 144, 
pi. 62 ; B. bulweri (Jard. and Selby), 111. Orn. ii. pi. 65 (1825-43) ; 
(Hewitson), ii. p. 522, pi. cxlv. fig. 3 ; (Gould), B. of E. v. pi. 449 ; 
Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 420 ; Ridgway, p. 69 ; Saunders, 
p. 749. 

g ad. (Dezertas). Entire plumage sooty brownish black, the upper 
parts darker, the under parts paler and browner ; wings blackish brown, 
the larger coverts dull light brown at the tips ; tail black, cuneate ; bill 
black ; legs brown ; iris deep brown. Culmen TO, wing 7'7, tail 4*5, the 
lateral feathers about 1*5 shorter than the middle ones, tarsus 11 inch. 

Hob. The temperate North Atlantic Ocean, chiefly near the 
Canaries and Madeira ; temperate North Pacific Ocean ; has 
once strayed to the British Isles, and is said to be of acci- 
dental occurrence at the Bermudas, and near the coast of 
Greenland. 

In habits it resembles 0. leucorrhoa &ndP.pelagica,smd is said 
to be to a large extent nocturnal. It breeds in holes or under 
rocks, depositing in June a single white egg, which measures 
about 1-74 by 1-24. 



858 FVLMARUS 



FULMARUS, Steph., 1826. 

1182. FULMAR. 
FULMARUS GLACIALIS. 

Fulmarua glacialis (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 213 (1766) ; (Naum.), x. 
p. 589, Taf. 276 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 512, pi. cxliv. fig. 2 ; (Gould), 
B. of E. v. pi. 446 ; (id.), B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 52 ; Dresser, viii. 
p. 535, pi. 617 ; Salvin, Cat. B.' Br. Mus. xxv. p. 425 ; Eidgway, 
p. 57 ; Lilford, iv. p. 150, pi. 65 ; F. minor (Kjserb.), J. f. 0. 1854, 
p. lix. ; Ridgway, p. 57. 

Pdtrel Fulmar, French ; Eis-Sturmvogel, German ; Noordsche- 
Stormwgel, Dutch ; Mltingr, Fill, Icel. ; Is-Stormfugl, Dan. ; 
Stormfugl, Havhest, Norweg. ; Stormfdgel, Swed. 

ad. (St. Kilda). Head, neck, and under parts white, the throat 
slightly tinged with yellow ; a dark spot in front of the eye ; upper parts 
blue-grey, darker on the wings and fading to greyish white on the tail ; 
culm en to nares sea-green ; nasal tube blackish olivaceous, rest of the 
bill greenish yellow (the whole bill sometimes dark) ; legs delicate 
French-grey ; iris dark hazel-brown. Culmen 1*8, wing 13*0, tail 5'2, 
tarsus 2'05 inch. This species has a dark phase of plumage in which the 
general colour is dull ashy grey, the under parts paler, as well as a much 
lighter form in which the mantle is nearly as light as the belly. 

Hob. North Atlantic Ocean. 

Essentially an oceanic bird the Fulmar is rarely seen near 
land except during the breeding season, or when driven in by 
stress of weather. It frequently attends fishermen when the 
lines are being hauled in, to share in the spoil, and is seldom 
molested by them. It breeds on high cliffs skirting the ocean, 
the nest being a hollow in the ground scantily lined with grass, 
and in May a single egg is deposited, which is white, rather 
rough in texture of shell, with a strong musky smell, and 
measures about 2'89 by 2*0. 

1183. SUBSP. FULMARUS GLUPISCHA. 

Fulmarus glupischa, Stejn., Auk, i. p. 234 (1884) ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 1064 ; Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 427 ; Kidgway, p. 57 ; 
F. pacificus (nee. Gmel.), (And.) Orn. Biogr. v. p. 331 (1839) ; 
Blakist. and Pryor, Trans. As. Soc. Jap. x. p. 106. 

Ad. (Kuriles). In the light phase of plumage differs only from F. 
glacialis in having the nasal tube, and the whole bill yellow ; in the dark 
phase much darker, being uniform dark sooty plumbeous. 



FULMARUS DIOMEDEA 859 

Hob. North Pacific Ocean ; Kamchatka, the Commander, 
Aleutian, and Kurile Islands ; on the American side south to 
Western Mexico. 

In habits and nidification this bird does not differ from F. 
glacialis, and its eggs are undistinguishable from those of that 
bird. 

DIOMEDEA, Linn., 1766. 

1184. SHORT-TAILED ALBATROSS. 

DIOMEDEA ALBATRUS. 

Diomedea albatrus, Pall. Spic. Zool. v. p. 28 (1780) ; David and Oust. 
Ois. Chine, p. 516 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 261 ; Tacz. F. 0. 
Sib. 0. p. 1068 ; Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 444 ; Ridgway, 
p. 51 ; D. brachyitra, Ternm. PI. Col. livr. 79 (1829) ; id. and 
Schleg. Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 132, pi. 87 ; Gould, B. of Austral, vii. 
pi. 39 ; D. derogata, Swinhoe, P.Z.S. 1873, p. 786. 

Ahodori, Jap. 

ad. (Japan). White, the head and neck tinged with buffy yellow ; 
wings and tail slaty brown ; quills with shafts yellowish white ; bill 
yellowish horn ; legs and feet bluish white. Culmen 5'55, wing 22'0, tail 
'25, tarsus 3'9 inch. Sexes alike. Young bird sooty brownish. 

Hob. North Pacific Ocean, on the Asiatic side from the 
Arctic Ocean down to Japan and China, and occurs, it is said, as 
far south as Australia ; on the American side from California to 
Alaska. 

Like its allies this is strictly an oceanic bird, coming to land 
only during the nesting season. It nests on the Bonin Islands, 
Japan, in November, and eggs from there in the British 
Museum are dull white spotted and blotched at the larger end 
with red, and in length vary from 4'4 to 4*9, and in breadth 
from 2-75 to 3'05. 



1185. BLACK-FOOTED ALBATROSS. 
DIOMEDEA NIGtRIPES. 

Diomedea nigripes, Aud. Orn. Biogr. v. p. 327 (1839) ; id. B. of Am. 
8vo ed. vii. p. 198 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 517 ; Seebohm, 
B. Jap. Emp. p. 263 ; Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 445 ; 
Kidgway, p. 51. 

Ad. (Japan). General colour sooty brown, the fore crown, neck, and 
under parts greyer ; feathers at the base of the bill and a triangular spot 



860 DIOMEDEA 



behind and below the eye dull white ; tail white at the base ; bill dusky 
purplish brown, legs and feet black. Gape 4*6, wing 18'0, tail 5'5, tarsus 
4'5 inch. The young bird has the crown and sides of the head whiter, 
the rump and upper tail-coverts white, or sooty brown and white inter- 
mixed. 

Hob. North Pacific Ocean ; the coasts of Japan and China ; 
on the American side from the coast of California, where it is 
abundant, to Alaska. 

The present species has been much confounded with D. 
albatrus, owing to the similarity of the young of that to the 
adult of the present species. I do not find any details respect- 
ing its nidification, but a single egg in the British Museum, 
obtained on Sulphur Island, Bonin group, Japan, on the 8th 
of June, is dull brownish white, without markings, and measures 
4-2 by 2-5. 

1186. BLACK-BROWED ALBATROSS. 
DIOMEDEA MELANOPHRYS. 

Dwmedea melanophiys, Boie, in Temm. PI. Col. 456 (1828) ; Gould, B. 
of Austral, vii. pi. 43 ; Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 447 ; 
Saunders, p. 753 ; Ridgway, p. 52. 

Ad. Head, neck, entire under parts, rump, and upper tail-CD verts white ; 
a short slaty greyish black band before and behind the eye ; back and 
scapulars slaty greyish brown, the wings dusky brown ; tail slate-grey, 
the shafts white ; bill yellowish horn, darker at the tip ; legs and feet 
yellow. Gape 5-2, wing 20'0, tail 8'0, tarsus 3'05 inch. 

Hctb. Southern Ocean, straying occasionally to the North 
Atlantic; one was obtained in 80 IT N. lat. and 4 E. long, 
in June, 1878; one near Linton in Cambridgeshire in July, 1897; 
and in 1893 one was shot near Myggenaes in the Faeroes, 
which for the past thirty to forty years had consorted with the 
Gannets on that island. 

Like its allies it is essentially an oceanic bird, and only 
frequents the land during the breeding season. It breeds on 
many islands in the Southern Ocean, in colonies, the nest 
being a pile of earth and moss about four inches high, and 
a single egg is usually deposited, though occasionally 2 are 
found in the same nest. These are dull white, with a well- 
marked cap of rufous specks and blotches at the larger end, 
and measure about 41 by 2-57. 

Diomedea exulans, Linn., is said to have been obtained on 
the coast of Norway, near Dieppe, Antwerp, and Chaumont ; 
Thalassogeron culminatus (Gould) is said to have been procured 



DIG MEDEA A LCA 861 



in Norway ; Tachypetes aquilus is stated to have been obtained 
on the Weser in 1792; Phccton cethereus, Linn., is said to have 
been obtained at Cradle} 7 , Lancashire, and to have been seen 
off Heligoland ; a specimen of Prion arid, Gould, in the Gould 
collection, is stated to have 'been obtained off Madeira ; and 
Daption capensis (Linn.) has been procured off the Irish, English, 
and French coasts ; but as all these records are more or less 
doubtful, and these species are strictly non-Holarctic, I have 
not deemed it necessary to include them. 

ALCA, Linn., 1766. 
1187. RAZORBILL. 
ALCA TORDA. 

Alca torda, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 210 (1766) ; Naum. xii. p. 606, Taf. 

336 ; Audubon, B. Am. vii. p. 247, pi. 466 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 468, 

pi cxxviii ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 401 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 47 ; 

Dresser, viii. p. 557, pi. 619 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. 

p. 565 ; Kidgway, p. 18 ; Saimders, p. 695 ; Lilford, vi. p. 79, 

pi. 36. 

Pingouin macropUre, French ; Gfazza-marina, Ital. ; Tordalk, 
German ; Alka, Klumba, Icel. ; AUc, Dutch ; Almindelig Alk, 
Dan. ; Bredncebbet Alke, Norweg. ; Tordmule, Swed. ; Ruokki, 
Finn. 

ad. (Greenland). Upper parts, wings, and tail glossy black ; sides 
of head and throat brownish black ; a white line from the ridge of the 
upper mandible on each side to the eye ; short secondaries tipped with 
white ; under parts white ; bill black with a curved vertical white line on 
each side ; legs and iris black. Gape 2'0, wing 8'1, tail 3'4, tarsus T35 
inch. Sexes alike. In winter the throat and sides of the head and neck 
are white, and the upper parts duller and browner. The young bird 
resembles the adult in winter, but has the bill shorter, weaker, and less 
elevated. 

Hal. The North Atlantic, not further than about 73 N., 
south to the Mediterranean ; the Azores and the Canaries ; on 
the American coasts to southern New England. 

The Razorbill is essentially a sea-bird, and on the water 
swims and dives with the greatest ease, and its flight is direct 
and rapid. Its food consists of small fish, which it obtains by 
diving. It breeds on the ledges of cliffs close to the sea, almost 
always in societies, frequently in countless numbers, generally 
in company with one or other of the species of Guillemot, de- 
positing in May, on the bare ground, a single egg, which is 
pyriform in shape, rather elongated, in ground-colour buffy 



862 ALGA 

stone or buffy white, sometimes with a faint greenish tinge, 
marked with purplish grey shell-markings and brownish black 
or black surface spots and blotches, which are more numerous 
at the larger end, and in size measures about 3'28 by 2*0. 
When held against the light the inner membrane of the empty 
egg is green. 

1188. GREAT AUK. 
ALGA IMPENNIS. 

Alca impennis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 210 (1766) ; Namn. xii. p. 630, 
Taf. 337 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 469, pi. cxxix. ; Gould, B. of E. v. 
pi. 400 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 46 ; Dresser, viii. p. 563, pi. 620 ; 
(Ogilvie Grant), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 563 ; (Kidgway), p. 19 ; 
Saunders, p. 697 j Lilford, vi. p. 81, pi. 37. 

Geir-fugl, Icel. 

Being undoubtedly an extinct species, the Great Auk is 
scarcely entitled to a place in the present work. It used 
formerly to inhabit the North Atlantic Ocean, south of the 
Arctic Circle. 

1189. THE GUILLEMOT. 
ALCA TROILE. 

Aka troile (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 220 (1766) ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 455, 
pi. cxxiv. ; (Gould), B. of E. v. pi. 396 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 48 ; 
Dresser, viii. p. 567, pi. 621 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Enip. p. 273 ; 
(Ogilvie Grant), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 573 j (Saunders), p. 699 ; 
(Lilford), vi. p. 83, pi. 38 ; Uria lomvia, Keys, and Bias. Wirbelth. 
p. 238 (1840, nee. Pall.) ; Naum. xii. p. 508, Taf. 331 ; U. ringvia, 
Briinn. Orn. Bor. p. 28 (1764) ; U. calif ornica (Bryant), P. Bost. 
Soc. viii. p. 142, figs. 3, 5 (1861) ; Eidgway, p. 18 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 
0. p. 1219. 

Guillemot troile, French ; Lumme, German ; Zcekoet, Dutch ; 
L&ngnefia, Langvia, Icel.; Langncebet Teiste, Dan.; Spidsalke, 
Norweg. ; Sillgrissla, Swed. 

Ad. (Yorkshire). Head, neck, upper parts, wings, and tail dark brown, 
the back tinged with slate ; secondaries tipped with white ; under parts 
below the neck white, the flanks streaked with dusky brown ; bill black ; 
legs and feet blackish olivaceous, the webs less black ; iris brown. Gape 
2*9, wing 7'7, tail 2'05, tarsus 1-05 inch. Sexes alike. In winter the 
upper parts are darker, the throat and sides of the head white, in places 
slightly mottled with brown, with a dark streak behind the eye through 
the white on the side of the head. The ringed variety, U. ringvia, differs 
only in having a narrow ring round the eye, and a streak passing from the 
eye along the side of the head, white. 



ALGA 863 

Hob. The North Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, and southern 
Baltic ; in winter south on the American side to New England, 
and on the European side down to about 30; the North 
Pacific Ocean south to Japan and Southern California. 

Like the Razorbill it is a marine species, keeping in vast 
companies, obtaining its food chiefly by diving, and like it 
breeds socially on the ledges of sea cliffs, generally those over- 
hanging the sea, the egg, for only 1 is deposited, being placed 
on the ground, no nest being made. The eggs vary greatly, 
the ground-colour from white to deep blue or greenish blue, 
and the markings, which are sometimes mere spots, and at 
others contorted and fantastic lines, from reddish brown to 
dark brown and blackish, and in size they vary from 3*5 by 
1-88 to 3-5 by 2-5. 

1190. BRUNNICH'S GUILLEMOT. 
ALGA LOMVIA. 

Alca lomvia (Pall.), Zoogr. Eoss. As. ii. p. 345 (1811) ; Eidgway, p. 18 ; 
(Ogilvie Grant), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 577 ; A. bruennichi 
(Sabine), Trans. Linn. Soc. xii. p. 538 (1817) ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 460, 
pi. cxxv. ; (Gould), B. of E. v. pi. 398 ; Dresser, viii. p. 575, pi. 622 ; 
(Saunders), p. 701 ; (Lilford), vi. p. 87, pis. 39, 40 ; A. arra (Pall.), 
Zoogr. Eoss. As. ii. p. 347 (1811) ; (Naum.) xii. p. 535, Taf. 333 ; 
(Tacz.) F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1217. 

Dickschnabel-Lumme, German ; Groote Zeekoet, Dutch ; Stut- 
nefia, Icel. ; Brunnichs Teiste, Dan. ; Lomvi, Norweg. ; Brunnichs- 
Grrisla, Swed. 

ad. (Greenland). Crown, nape, and upper parts glossy black, the 
head and neck with a faint greenish gloss ; wings and tail black, the 
secondaries tipped with white ; chin, throat, and sides of head brownish 
black ; under parts white ; bill black, stout, the ridge of the upper 
mandible yellowish white ; legs and feet plumbeous black, the upper parts 
of the toes and tarsus tinged with deep yellowish olive ; iris dark brown. 
Gape 2*25, wing 8*5, tail 2'2, tarsus 1-5 inch. Sexes alike. In winter the 
upper parts are duller and the chin and throat white. 

Hob. Arctic Ocean and North Atlantic, occasionally visiting 
the coasts of Norway, and of rare and accidental occurrence 
on the coasts of the British Islands, Denmark, Germany, and 
Holland ; North Pacific as far south as Japan. 

In habits and nidification this species does not differ from 
77. troile, and its eggs are similar, but as a rule somewhat blunter 
at the small end, and rather more brightly coloured. 



864 MERGULUS URIA 



MERGULUS, Vieillot, 1816. 

1191. LITTLE AUK. 
MERGULUS ALLE. 

Mergulus alle (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 211 (1766) ; (Naum.), xii. p. 552, 
Taf. 334 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 465, pi. cxxvii. fig. 1 ; (Gould), B. of 
E. v. pi. 402 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 50 ; Dresser, viii. p. 591, 
pi. 624 ; (Ogilvie Grant), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 569 ; 
(Bidgway), p. 19 j Saunders, p. 705 ; Lilford, vi. p. 94, pi. 42. 

Guillemot nain, French; Krdblent anther, German; Kleine 
Alk, Dutch ; Haftirdill, Halkion, Icel. ; Lille KrabbedyWcer, Dan.; 
Alkekonge, Norweg. ; Alkekung, Swed. ; Jaakyyhkynen, Finn. 

Ad. (Greenland). Head and neck sooty black with a brownish tinge ; 
upper parts of body and wing-coverts black glossed with purplish blue, 
the scapulars margined with white; wings and tail black, the short 
secondaries tipped with white ; under parts white, the flanks striped with 
black ; bill plumbeous black ; legs dark livid flesh-colour ; iris dark 
brown. Gape 0*9, wing 4'8, tail 1'4, tarsus 0*82 inch. Sexes alike. In 
winter the entire throat and sides of the neck are white, and the nape 
slightly marked with white. 

Hal. The Arctic Ocean north to Franz Josefs Land, east to 
Novaya Zemlya, west to Baffin's Bay, ranging south after the 
nesting season to the coasts of Great Britain, Scandinavia, the 
Baltic up to the Gulf of Bothnia, and the North Sea, and 
Atlantic south to the Canaries and Azores. 

In habits it is essentially a sea-bird. It feeds, usually in large 
flocks, on small Crustacea and probably also on small fish. At 
its breeding places, which are u often near the top of lofty cliffs, 
it is said to be very noisy, continually uttering its note, trrr, 
trrr, tet, tet, tet, trrr. It breeds in rocky places, depositing a 
single egg between the stones, or in clefts of the rocks. The 
eggs are pale greenish blue, sometimes almost white, occasion- 
ally dotted and spotted, chiefly at the larger end, with pale red, 
and measure about T88 by T31. 

UEIA, Brisson, 1760. 

1192. BLACK GUILLEMOT. 

URIA GRYLLE. 

Uria grylle, Linn. Syst. Nat i. p. 220 (1766); (Naum.), xii. p. 461, 
Taf. 330 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 462, pi. cxxvi. ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 399 ; 
id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 49 ; Dresser, viii. p. 581, pi. 623 ; Ogilvie 
Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 580 ; (Ridgway), p. 16 ; Saunders, 
p. 703 ; Lilford, vi. p. 91, pi. 41. 



URIA 865 



Guillemot grylle , French : Gryll-Teiste, German; Theista, Icel. ; 
Almindelig Teiste, Dan.; Teiste, Per-drikker, Norweg. ; Tobis- 
yrisla, Swed. ; Rislcila, Finn. 

$ ad. (Greenland). General plumage deep black, the upper parts 
with a greenish gloss, the under parts tinged with brownish ; central and 
larger wing-coverts white, but black on the concealed bases of the feathers, 
forming a large white alar patch ; bill black ; legs and feet rich vermilion 
or coral-red ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1'4, wing 6'4, tail 2 '2, tarsus T15 
inch. Sexes alike. In winter the crown is white marked with black ; 
back and rump black, the feathers margined with white, the latter nearly 
all white ; wings and tail as in summer ; rest of plumage white. 

Hob. North Atlantic east to the White Sea ; the Baltic and 
coasts of Scandinavia, Germany, and Northern France ; breeds 
on the coasts of Britain; on the American coasts, from S. 
Greenland and Labrador, south to New Jersey in winter. 

Like A. troile it is essentially a sea bird, usually found far 
out at sea, except during the breeding season, but it lives in 
pairs and does not breed in societies. It swims with ease, dives 
like a flash, and its flight is swift and direct. Its food consists 
of Crustacea and small fish, which it obtains chiefly by diving. 
Unlike A. troile it does not deposit its eggs on the bare ledges 
of cliffs, but in a cleft in the rock, or under a boulder, sometimes 
near the water's edge, and at others at a considerable altitude, 
and makes no nest. Its eggs, 2 to 3 in number, are usually 
deposited late in May or in June, and are white or greenish 
white with purplish grey shell-markings, and blackish brown 
surface spots and blotches, some being but scantily, others very 
richly marked. In size they measure about 2*41 by 1*62. 

1193. MANDT'S GUILLEMOT. 
URIA MANDTI. 

Uria mandti, Licht. in Mandt. Observ. &c. Diss. Inaug. p. 30 (1822) ; 
Dresser, viii. p. 587 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1221 ; Ogilvie Grant, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi.p. 584 ; (Ridgway), p. 16. 

<J ad. (Spitsbergen). Differs from U. grylle in having the bill slightly 
smaller, and the feathers constituting the white alar patch white to the 
base. Culmen 1-5, wing 6'4, tail 2-0, tarsus ri inch. In winter the upper 
parts are whiter than in U. grylle. 

Hob. Coasts of the circumpolar seas, to Franz Josef's Land, 
Spitsbergen, Novaya Zemlya, North Greenland, and Arctic 
America, south to Labrador and Hudson's Bay ; in the North 



866 URIA 

Pacific, Kamchatka, the Commander Islands, and Saghalien, 
and the northern coasts of E. Siberia. 

In habits and nidification this species does not differ from 
U. grylle, and its eggs resemble those of that species. 

1194. PIGEON-GUILLEMOT. 
URIA COLUMBA. 

Una columba (Pall.), Zoogr. Eoss. As. ii. p. 348 (1811) ; (Tacz.), F. 0. 
Sib. 0. p. 1222 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 275 (part) ; Eidgway, 
p. 17 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 586. 

< ad. (Bering Island). Differs from U. grylle in having the bill stouter 
and more obtuse at the tip, the plumage tinged with grey, the under wing- 
coverts smoky brown, the white alar patch divided on the outer half by 
a black V-shaped bar, and the basal part of the quills greyish on the inner 
web, tail composed of 14, not 12 feathers. Culmen 1*2, wing 7'2, tail 2'0, 
tarsus 1 '3 inch. 

Hcib. North Pacific, on the Asiatic side on the coasts of 
Kamchatka, the Commander Islands, the seas of Ochotsk and 
Japan, and the coasts of Japan and Corea ; on the American 
side from the Aleutian Islands to Southern California. 

In habits and nidification it does not differ from U. grylle, 
but its eggs are as a rule rather larger and more boldly 
marked. 

1195. SOOTY GUILLEMOT. 
URIA CARBO. 

Uria carlo (Pall.), Zoogr. Eoss. As. ii. p. 350, pi. Ixxix. (1811) ; Gould. 
B. of As. vii. pi. 71 ; Schrenck, Eeis. Amurl. i. p. 496, pi. xvi. 
fig. 1 (egg) ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 274 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. 
Sib. 0. p. 1224 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 589 ; 
(Eidgway), p. 17. 

<$ ad. (Japan). Differs from U. columla in having a more robust and 
longer bill ; general colour slaty black, paler below, tinged with brown on 
the shoulders, under wing-coverts, and axillaries ; orbital region white, 
white alar patch large ; feathers on the chin and throat and above the 
nasal opening whitish ; tail composed of 14 feathers. Culmen 2*0, 
wing 7-7, tail 2 -05, tarsus T5 inch. 

Hob. North Pacific from the Commander Islands, the Sea of 
Ochotsk, Kamchatka, the Kurile Islands, and coasts of Japan 
and Corea. 



URIA BRA CH YRHA MPHUS 867 

In habits and nidification it does not differ from U. grylle, 
but its eggs are a trifle larger and more boldly marked. 

1196. SUBSP. URIA SNOWI. 

Una snowi (Stejn.), Auk, xiv. p. 201 (1897) ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxvi. p. 588 ; (Gates), Cat. Birds' Eggs, B. Mus, i. p. 171, 
pi. xii. fig. 6. 

<$ ad. (Kuriles). Differs from U. columba in having on]y two or three 
narrow white bars on the wing composed of white tips to the wing-coverts ; 
soft parts as in U. columba. Culmen 1'6, wing 7'4, tail T95, tarsus 1'3 
inch. 

Hob. North Pacific from Southern Kamchatka to the Kurile 
Islands and Japan. 

In habits and nidification it does not differ from U. grylle, 
and its eggs resemble those of that species. 

BRACHYRHAMPHUS, Brandt, 1837. 

1197. PARTRIDGE AUK. 
BRACHYRHAMPHUS PERDIX. 

BracJiyrJiamphus perdix (Pall.), Zoogr. Ross. As. ii. p. 351, pi. Ixxx. 
(1811); Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1211; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxvi. p. 592 ; Ridgway, p. Ifi ; Alca marmorata (nee. Gmel.), 
Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 278. 

$ ad. (Kamchatka). Head, neck, and upper parts brown mottled with 
dull tawny buff and buffy white ; wings and tail blackish, the latter 
slightly tipped with greyish buff; chin and upper throat white very 
sparingly dotted with blackish ; rest of under parts white mottled with 
blackish brown ; bill plumbeous black ; legs and feet pale yellow, the 
webs blackish ; iris dark brown. Bill from feathers on forehead to tip 
0'75, wing 5'8, tail 1*5, tarsus 0'7 inch. Sexes alike. 

In winter the crown, neck, and sides of lower neck are deep slate, the 
wings darker, the middle tail-feathers blackish, the rest white; chin, 
throat, a collar across the nape, and under parts white. 

Hob. Asiatic coast of North Pacific from Kamchatka to the 
Sea of Ochotsk, Kuriles and Japan. 

Occurs off the islands and coasts of the North Pacific, usually 
in small flocks, and is essentially a sea-bird, swimming and 
diving with ease like the Little Auk. In holes in the ground 
it lays eggs pale yellowish white, with faint slaty and reddish 
brown dots, chiefly collected round the larger end, and measure 
about 2-46 by 1'66. 

3 L 



868 BRACHYRHAMPHU8SYNTHLIBORHAMPHUS 

1198. SHORT-BILLED AUK. 
BRACHYRHAMPHUS BREVIROSTRIS. 

Brachyrhamphus brevirostris (Vigors), Zool. Jour. iv. p. 357 (1828) ; 
(Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 279 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xvi. p. 593; B. kittlitzi, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. ii. 
p. 346 (.1837) ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1213 ; Kidgway, p. 15 ; Turner, 
Nat. Hist. Alaska, p. 120, pi. ii. 

< ad. (Kuriles). Differs from B. perdix in being much smaller, with a 
much smaller bill ; upper parts darker and more distinctly mottled with 
buff ; chin and throat white closely mottled with black ; rest of under 
parts white less closely spotted and mottled with black ; bill black ; legs 
and feet pale blue, darker posteriorly ; claws and iris black. Bill from 
feathers to tip 0'45, wing 5 '5, tail 1*1, tarsus 0*7 inch. Sexes alike. 

Hal. North Pacific from Kamchatka, the Aleutian Islands, 
and the Sea of Ochotsk, to Japan ; Unalaska, south to the 
coast of Mexico. 

In general habits it does not differ from B. perdix. Its eggs 
do not appear to be known, but doubtless resemble those of 
B. perdix except in being smaller. 

SYNTHLIBORHAMPHTJS, Brandt, 1837. 

1199. ANCIENT AUK. 
SYNTHLIBORHAMPHUS ANTIQUUS. 

Synthliborhamphus antiquus (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 554 (1788) ; Tacz. 
F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1215 ; Kidgway, p. 14 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. xxvi. p. 596 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 276. 

Umi-suzumi, Jap. 

(J ad. (Alaska). Crown, nape, hind neck, sides of head, chin, throat, 
sides of lower neck, and flanks black, the nape, sides of lower hind neck 
and fore back more or less strongly marked with white ; upper parts dark 
slate-grey ; wings and tail black washed with slate-grey ; under parts, 
including the sides of the neck, white ; bill whitish grey, brownish black 
along the culmen and towards the base ; legs and feet bluish white, the 
joints brownish black ; basal part of webs sooty black ; iris dark brown. 
Culmen from base of feathers 0'55, wing 5'3, tail T9, tarsus 1-05. Sexes 
alike. In winter the fore neck and throat are white, the chin dark grey. 
and the stripes on the sides of the head absent. 

Hob. North Pacific from Kamchatka to the Commanders, 
Aleutians, Kuriles, and Japan. 



S YNTHLIBORHA MPHUSSIMORHYNCHUS 869 

In habits not differing from BracJiyrJiamphus. It breeds' in 
holes in the ground, depositing in June 2 eggs, which are pale 
yellowish white faintly dotted with pale slate and reddish 
brown, and measure about 2*41 by T47. 

1200. JAPANESE AUK. 
SYNTHLIBORHAMPHUS WUMIZUSUME. 

Synthliborkamphus wumizusume (Temm.), PI. Col. v. pi. 121 (1835) ; 
(Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 277 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. 
xxvi. p. 598 ; Ridgway, p. 14 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1215 ; 
B. temmincM, G. R. Gray, Gen. of B. iii. p. 644 ; Elliot, B. N. Am 
ii. pi. Ixxi. 

Umi-suzumi, Jap. 

g ad. (Japan). Middle of crown and nape, lower hind neck, and a 
large frontal tuft, wings, and tail black ; chin, upper throat, and sides of 
head blackish slate-grey ; upper parts slate-grey ; sides of crown and of 
nape, and under parts white ; bill yellowish horn, blackish along the ridge 
of the culmen and towards the base ; legs and feet as in S. antiquus ; iris 
dark brown. Gape 1-25, wing 4'75, tail 1'4, tarsus 0'9. 

Hob. Coasts of Japan. 

In habits this species does not differ from its allies ; its eggs 
are as yet unknown. 

SIMORHYNCHUS, Merrem, 1819. 

1201. CRESTED AUK. 
SIMORHYNCHUS CRIST ATELLUS. 

Simorhynchus cristatellus (Pall.), Spic. Zool. fasc. 5, p. 20, pis. 3 and 5, 
figs. 7-9 (1769) ; (Schrenck), Reis. Amur. L. i. p. 500, pi. xvi. 
figs. 4, 5 (1859) ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mils. xxvi. p. 602 ; 
(Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 285 ; Ridgway, p. 13 ; S. tetraculus 
(Pall.), op. cit. p. 23, pis. iv. v. figs. 10-12 (1769). 

Eturop-umi-suzumi, Jap. 

$ ad. (Bering Island). Upper parts blackish tinged with slaty 
brown ; under parts dull slate-grey ; wings and tail blackish ; on the fore- 
head a large black recurved crest, and a white streak through and behind 
the eye where these feathers are much elongated ; basal portion of both 
mandibles bright orange, extremity light bluish horn ; inside of mouth 
flesh-colour ; legs and feet bluish slate, the webs darker ; iris nearly white. 
Culmen from feathers 0'5, wing 5'6, tail T65, tarsus 1*1 inch. 

3 L 2 



870 SIMORHYNCHUS 



Hob. North Pacific from Kamchatka to the Commander and 
Kurile Islands, and Japan ; Alaska. 

In habits not differing from its allies. It breeds in deep 
crevices in and under the rocks, depositing in June chalky white 
eggs, which vary in size from 2 '06 by T50 to 2*31 by 1*61. 

1202. WHISKERED AUK. 
SIMORHYNCHUS PYGlVLflBUS. 

Simorhy nchus pygtnceus (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 555 (1788); (Seebohm), 
B. Jap. Emp. p. 286 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 603 ; 
Kidgway, p. 13 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1235. 

ad. (Kuriles). Upper parts, wings, and tail black ; rump and upper 
tail-coverts dark slate ; lower abdomen white, the rest of the under parts 
sooty greyish black, becoming black on the upper throat and chin ; a 
patch in front of the eye, and long stripes of elongated feathers from the 
base of the gape and from behind the eye white ; a long recurved white 
crest above the eye, and a long black one on the forehead ; beak vermilion, 
the tip bluish ; legs and feet light bluish grey, the joints brownish violet ; 
iris white. Culmen from feathers 1/4, wing 4'6, tail 1'3, tarsus 1*0 inch 
Sexes alike. In winter the plumage scarcely differs. 

Hob. North Pacific from Kamchatka the Commander and 
Kurile Islands to Northern Japan ; Alaska. 

In general habits it does not differ from its allies, and I do 
not find any description of its nidification, but its egg is pure 
white, rather dull in grain, and measures 1*78 by 1/26. 

1203. LEAST AUK. 
SIMORHYNCHUS PUSILLUS. 

Simorhynchus pusillus (Pall.), Zoogr. Ross. As. ii. p. 373, pi. xc. (1811) ; 
(Elliot), B. N. Am. ii. pi. Ixviii. ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1229 ; 
Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 605 ; Eidgway, p. 13 ; 
(Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 287 ; Phaleris microceros, Brandt, Bull. 
Acad. St. Petersb. ii. p. 347 (1837). 

< ad. (St. Paul's, Alaska). Upper parts, wings, tail, chin, and a 
narrow band crossing the neck black ; rest of under parts white, the flanks 
marked with blackish ; forehead finely striped with pointed white feathers, 
and two or three white lines behind the eye ; bill dark reddish on the 
terminal half, basal half and tubercle dusky ; legs and feet light whitish 
cobalt-blue, the joints darker ; webs blackish ; iris white. Culmen 0'55, 
wing 3*9, tail T9, tarsus 0'8 inch. Sexes alike. In winter the tubercle at 
the base of the bill is absent, and the chin and upper throat are dark 
smoke-grey. 



SIMORHYNCHUSCERORHYNCHA 871 

Hob. North Pacific and the Arctic Ocean south to Japan ; 
Kamchatka, the Commander and Kurile Islands ; Alaska. 

In habits it does not appreciably differ from its allies. It 
breeds in crevices of rocks or under huge boulders, in June, 
laying a single dull white egg, very faintly marked with pale 
reddish brown at the larger end, which measures 1*62 by 1'07. 

1204. PARROQUET AUK. 
SIMORHYNCHUS PSITTACULUS. 

Simorhynchus psittaculus (PalJ.), Spicel. Zool. fasc. v. pis. ii. and v. 
figs. 4-6 ; (Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1227 ; (Elliot), B. N. Am. ii. 
pi. Ixx. ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 284 ; (Ogilvie Grant), Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 607 ; (Ridgway), p. 12. 

( ad. (Kuriles). Head, neck to upper breast, tipper parts, wings, tail, 
and flanks deep smoky black, rather browner on the neck ; rest of under 
parts white ; a band of narrow elongate white feathers from behind the 
eye across the ear-coverts ; bill salmon-red ; nasal shield darker, greyish 
brown ; soft part along the base of the upper tomia fleshy white ; feet 
bluish white tinged with yellow, on the joints a well-defined dusky spot ; 
webs blackish, along the toes bluish white ; sides of tarsus and toes black ; 
iris white. Gape TO, wing 6'1, tail 1*85, tarsus T25 inch. 

Hob. North Pacific from the Chukchi Peninsula to the 
Kuriles, but not on the coasts of Eastern Siberia, though it 
occurs on those of Kamchatka ; Commander Isles and Alaska. 

In habits it is said to resemble its allies. Its note is a clear 
whistle like that of Uria grylle and U. columba. It lays in 
June, in the crannies of almost inaccessible cliffs, its single 
egg, which is dull chalky white without any markings. A 
single egg in my collection measures 1*62 by 1*17. 

CERORHYNCHA, Bp., 1826. 

1205. HORNBILLED PUFFIN. 
CERORHYNCHA MONOCERATA. 

Cerorhyncha monocerata (Pall.), Zoogr. Koss. As. ii. p. 362 (1811); 
(Tacz.), F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1241 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 283 ; 
Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 609 ; Ridgway, p. 12. 

<J ad. (Japan). Upper parts generally, wings, and tail black ; sides of 
head, chin, neck, and upper breast, flanks, and under wing-coverts brownish 
smoke-grey ; rest of under parts white from the gape, and also from behind 



872 CERORHYNCHALUNDA 

the eye a line of long narrow white feathers ; bill orange-yellow, the 
cutting edges of the mandibles dusky ; ridge of culmen and anterior and 
posterior edges of horn black, corner of mouth white ; legs and feet whitish 
yellow, dusky at the joints, the back of metatarsi and soles blackish. 
Gape 1-76, wing 7*4, tail 2*0, tarsus 1'25 inch. Sexes alike. 

Hob. North Pacific from Kamchatka to Japan; the Com- 
mander Isles, the coasts of Russian Manchuria to Sidemi ; 
Alaska to Southern California. 

In habits it is said to resemble the Puffins. I do not find any 
description of its nidification, but 2 eggs in my collection are 
dull chalky white, and measure 2'72 by T77 and 2'56 by T92 
respectively. 

LUNDA, Pall., 1811. 

1206. TUFTED PUFFIN. 

LUNDA CIRRHATA. 

Lunda cirrhata (Pall.), Spic. Zool. fasc. v. p. 7, pis. 1 and 5, figs. 1-3 
(1769) ; id. Zoogr. Ross. As, ii. p. 363, pi. Ixxxii. ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 
0. p. 1243 j (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 281 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. 
B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 612 ; Eidgway, p. 10. 

Toporak, Russ. 

$ ad. (Bering Island). General colour deep black, the under parts 
below the breast duller and rather paler ; base of bill and anterior half of 
face white ; above the eye a long bunch of silky straw-coloured feathers ; 
terminal portion of bill deep orange-red, the basal part light olive-green, 
almost apple-green along the ridge of the culmen ; angle of mouth and a 
narrow strip of skin between the bill and feathering of the face, and ring 
round the eye vermilion ; legs and feet bright red ; iris white. Gape 1*85, 
wing 7; 8, tail 2-4, tarsus T25 inch. Sexes alike. In winter the sides of 
the head are dusky, and the straw-yellow tufts above the eyes are absent. 

Hob. North Pacific, from Kamchatka ; the Commander and 
Kurile Isles ; the Sea of Ochotsk to Japan ; on the American 
side from Alaska to Southern California ; of accidental occur- 
rence in Maine, U.S., and off Greenland. 

In habits it closely resembles our Puffin, and its note is an 
angry crrrr. It nests in crannies in the rocks, and its egg is 
dull chalky white, sometimes finely dotted with reddish brown, 
and measures about 2*86 by 1*92. 



FRATERCULA 873 



FRATERCULA, Briss., 1760. 

1207. PUFFIN. 
FRATERCULA ARCTICA. 

Fratercula arctica (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 211 (1766) ; (Naum.), xii. 
p. 577, Ta*f. 335 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 466, pi. cxxvii. fig. 2 ; Gould, 
B. of Gt. Brit. v. p. 51 ; Dresser, viii. p. 599, pi. 625 ; Ogilvie 
Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 616 ; Saunders, p. 707 ; Ridgway, 
p. 11 ; Lilford, vi. p. 96, pi. 43 ; Mormon fratercula, Temm. Man. 
d'Orn. p. 614 (1815); Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 403; F. glacialis, 
Steph. in Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii. part 1, p. 40, pi. iv. fig. 2 
(1826). 

Macareux, French ; Papagaio do mar, Portug. ; Frailecillo, 
Span. ; Polcinella di mare, Ital. ; Arktischer Lund, German ; 
Se&papagei, Dutch ; Lundi, Icel. ; So-papagdie, Dan. ; Z/undefugl, 
Norweg. ; Lunnefogel, Swed. 

$ ad. (Greenland). Crown brownish black ; sides of head to above the 
eye,'chin, and upper throat ashy grey ; neck collar narrowing to a thin band 
in front, back and upper parts, wings and tail deep black, the upper parts 
glossed with purple ; under parts white ; bill in spring and summer livid 
blue, the upper ridge and those crossing the bill orange-red, the fleshy part 
round the gape orange, the ridge at the base tinged with green ; legs bright 
orange ; iris grey ; a fleshy patch above and below the eye lead-blue. 
Gape 1'55, height of bill at base 1'5, wing 6'7, tail 2'0, tarsus T15 inch. 

Hob. Both sides of the North Atlantic, north to Greenland, 
east to Novaya Zemlya, breeding as far south as the north of 
France ; in winter ranging south to the Canaries. 

Essentially an ocean bird the Puffin is only seen near the land 
during the breeding season. It swims well and buoyantly, and 
flies swiftly. It dives with ease, feeding on small fish and 
mollusca, which it obtains by diving. It breeds in May, deposit- 
ing in holes in the ground or crevices in the rocks, a single egg, 
which is dull white with a rough surface, sometimes marked with 
pale brown, and measures about 2'50 by 1*61. 

1208. HORNED PUFFIN. 
FRATERCULA CORNICULATA. 

Fratercula corniculata (Naum.), Isis, 1821, p. 782, Taf. vii. figs. 3, 4 ; 
Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 280 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1248 ; 
Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 620 ; Kidgway, p. 11. 

Etopirika, Jap. 



874 FRATERCULACOLYMBUS 

ad. (Kuriles). Differs from F. arctica in having the sides of the 
head white, a narrow grey stripe behind the eye, the forehead and crown 
blackish grey, the black collar on the neck extended up to the chin ; a 
blackish elongated horn on the upper eyelid ; tip of bill to between the 
2nd and 3rd groove red, basal part pale chrome-yellow ; swollen angle of 
gape and inside of mouth orange ; legs orange-red ; iris brownish grey ; 
naked ring round the eye deep orange. Gape 1'5, heignt of bill at base 
1'8, wing 7 '3, tail 2'6, tarsus 1'2. Sexes alike. In winter the sides of the 
head are ashy grey, and the superciliary horns and basal shields on the bill 
fall off. 

Nab. North Pacific, north to 71 in the Arctic Ocean; Kam- 
chatka, the Commander and Kurile Islands, the Sea of Ochotsk, 
Alaska, and British Columbia. 

In habits and nidification it does not differ from F. arctica, and 
its eggs are ^indistinguishable from those of that species. In both 
Lunda and Fratercula the young birds resemble the adult in 
winter dress, but have a smaller bill, and the young in down are 
dark sooty brown with white or whitish bellies. 



COLYMBUS, Linn., 1766. 

1209. RED-THROATED DIVER. 

COLYMBUS SEPTENTRIONALIS. 

Colymbus septentrionalis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 220 (1766) ; Naum. xii. 
p. 434, Taf. 329 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 453, pi. cxxiii. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. 
of E. v. pi. 395 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 45 ; Dresser, viii. p. 621, 
pi. 628 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 512 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. 
B. Br. Hue. xxvi. p. 487 ; Saunders, p. 715 ; Lilford, vi. p. 105,. 
pi. 47 ; C. lumme, Briinn. Orn. Bor. p. 39 (1764) ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 
0. p. 1264 ; Ridgway, p. 8. 

Plongeon cat-mar in, French ; Mergulhao, Portug. ; Cardellot 
Span. ; Strolaga minore, Ital. ; Nordsee-taucher, German ; Rood- 
halzige Zeeduiker, Dutch ; L6mr, Icel. ; Nordisk Lorn, Dan. ; 
Smaalom, Norweg. ; Smdlom, Swed. ; Gakkur, Lapp. ; Kaakkuri, 
Finn. ; Abi, Jap. 

$ ad. (Greenland). Fore-crown, deep blue-grey streaked with black j 
hind crown, neck, and fore back black with white margins ; upper parts 
brownish black, finely spotted with white ; wings and tail blackish brown 
the latter tipped with dirty white ; sides of head, neck, and throat clear 
blue-grey ; on the throat a large triangular patch of rusty red ; flanks 
blackish brown ; rest of under parts white ; bill black ; legs blackish 



COLYMBUS 875 



brown, tinged with green on the outside, the middle of the webs dull 
fleshy yellow ; iris dark brown. Culmen 2'5, wing 1TO, tail 2'1, tarsus 
2'75 inch. Sexes alike. In winter the throat and sides of face are white. 

Hob. Northern portions of the Old and New Worlds; in 
Europe north to Iceland and Greenland, south in winter to the 
Mediterranean, Black Sea, and to Lower Egypt ; in Asia north 
to Kamchatka, south in winter to Japan and China ; in America, 
in winter, nearly across the United States. 

This species flies swiftly, but is less frequently seen on the 
wing than on the water ; there its movements are graceful and 
easy, and it dives with ease, remaining for some time below the 
surface. Its note is a loud weird shriek, like that of a drowning 
person. It nests on the borders of fresh- water lakes, the nest 
being merely a small collection of rushes or grass close to- 
the water, and its eggs, 2 in number, are usually deposited 
early in June, and are olivaceous brown or olivaceous, spotted 
and blotched with black, but sometimes plain unspotted 
olivaceous brown ; they measure about 2*85 by 1*79. 



1210. BLACK-THROATED DIVER. 
COLYMBUS ARCTICUS. 

Colymbus arcticus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 221 (1766) ; (Naum.), xii. p. 418. 
Taf. 328 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 451, pi. cxxiii. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of E. v. 
pi. 394 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 44 ; Temminck and Schlegel, 
Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 123 ; Dresser, viii. p. 615, pi. 627 ; Ogilvie 
Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 492 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1262 ; 
Saunders, p. 713 ; Kidgway, p. 7 ; Lilford, vi. p. 104, pi. 46. 

Plongeon a gorge noire, French ; Strolaga mezzana, Ital. ; Polar - 
taucher, German ; Parelduiker, Dutch ; Polar-lorn, Danish ; Stor- 
lom, Norweg. ; Stor-lom, Swed. ; Kuikka, Finn. ; Gagara polosa- 
taya, Russ. ; 0-hamu, Jap. 

ad. (Archangel.) Crown, nape, and hind neck ashy grey, darker on 
the forehead and brownish on the sides of the head ; upper parts glossy 
black marked with white cross bars ; wings and tail black, the former- 
spotted with white ; chin and throat black, tinged with purple, the sides 
of the throat striped with white, and a patch of white stripes on the upper 
throat ; under parts white, the flanks black ; bill bluish black, paler at 
the base ; outer tarsus, hind and outer toes, and two marks across the webs 
blackish brown tinged with green, the rest of the legs and the webs 
reddish white. Culmen 2'6, wing 11'7, tail 2'5, tarsus 2'9 inch. Sexes 



876 COLYMBUS 

alike. In winter the upper parts are dull blackish marked with brownish 
white ; the chin, throat, and under parts white ; the sides of the lower 
throat and breast striped with black. 

Hob. The northern portions of Europe, Asia, and America, 
but not in Iceland, migrating south in winter, in Europe to the 
Mediterranean, Black Sea, and Caspian, in Asia to Japan, and in 
America to the Northern United States east of the Rockies. 

In habits the present species closely resembles its allies, and 
like those its cry is loud and weird. It nests on the margins of 
lakes or on small islands, its nest being a scanty collection of 
herbage, and in May deposits 2 eggs., which resemble those of 
C. septentrionalis, but are darker and larger, measuring 3'22 by 
210. 

1211. GREAT NORTHERN DIVER. 
COLYMBUS GLACIALIS. 

Colymbus glacialis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 221 (1766) ; (Naum.) xii. 
397, Taf. p. 327 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 449, pi. cxxii. ; Gould, B. of E. v. 
pi. 393 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit, v. pi. 43 ; Dresser, viii. p. 609, pi. 626 ; 
Ogilvie Grant, Cat, B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 496 ; Saunders, p. 711 ; 
Lilford, vi. p. 97, pi. 44 ; Colymbus immer, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 
p. 222 (1766) ; Kidgway, p. 7 ; C. torquatus, Keyserl. and Bias. 
Wirbelth. p. 916 (1840). 

Plongeon imbrim, French ; Mergulhao, Portug. ; Patoula, 
Ahulla, Span.; Strolaga maggiore, Ital.; Eisseetaucher, Imber- 
gans, German ; Ijsduiker, Dutch ; Himbrimi, Icel. ; Islom, Dan., 
Norweg., and Swed. ; Morskaya-Gagdra, Russ. 

( ad. (Maine, U.S.) Differs from C. arcticus in being larger, in 
having the whole head and neck glossed with steel-blue and purple ; 
the upper parts black, glossed with steel-blue and purple and spotted 
with black ; on the upper and lower throat a transverse band of white 
stripes ; under parts white ; the sides of the lower throat and upper 
breast striped with purplish black ; flanks purplish black spotted with 
white, and a dark band across the crissum ; bill blackish horn, the tip and 
edge of mandibles plumbeous ; legs blackish, lighter on the inner side ; 
iris rich reddish. Culmen 4'4, wing 15 '8, tail 3'2, tarsus 3'6 inch. Sexes 
alike. In winter the upper parts are dark brown, the feathers margined 
with ashy grey, and the chin, throat, and under parts white, the longer 
under tail-coverts and a band across the vent brown. 

Hob. Northern North America, Greenland, Iceland, and the 
Faeroes, east to Novaya Zemlya ; in winter ranging south to 
the Mediterranean, the Gulf of Mexico, and California ; of 
regular occurrence in Scandinavia and Britain. 



COL YMBUS PODICIPES 877 



In habits it does not differ from its allies, but is as a ruk- 
rather more shy and wary. Its cry is very loud, wild, and 
weird, resembling that of a child being tortured. Its food 
consists chiefly of fish, which it captures by diving, and it is 
also said to devour small crabs. Its nest is a mass of herbage 
close to the water, usually on an island or the borders of an 
inland lake, and its eggs are dull brownish olivaceous, spotted 
and - blotched with blackish brown, and measure about 2'49 
by 2-26. 

1212. WHITE-BILLED DIVER. 
COLYMBUS ADAMSI. 

ColymbuB adamsi, G. R. Gray, P.Z.S. 1859, p. 167 ; Collett, Ibis, 1894, 
p. 269, pi. viii. ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 362 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 
0. p. 1259 ; Dresser, ix. p. 413, pi. 722 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. 
Mils, xx vi. p. 500 ; Saunders, p. 711 ; Ridgway, p. 7 ; Lilford, vi. 
p. 102, pi. 45. 

Bolchoi-Gagdra, Russ. ; OvanJcets joulcu> Chukch. 

cJ ad. (Russian America.) Differs from C. glacialis in having the white 
spots on the back and wings larger, the upper throat collar with fewer and 
larger stripes, and the bill long, straight, and whitish yellow. Culmen 4'3, 
gape 4'7, wing 15'25, tail 2 '6, tarsus 3'5 inch. 

Hob. North-western North America and Northern Asia, 
ranging west to Norway ; in winter occurring south to Japan 
and as a rare straggler in Britain. 

In general habits this species does not differ from C. glacialis, 
and its eggs resemble those of that species. 



PODICIPES, Lath, 1787. 

1213. GREAT CRESTED GREBE. 
PODICIPES CRISTATUS. 

Podicipes cristatus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 222 (1766) ; (Naum.), ix. 
p. 686, Taf. 242 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 441, pi. cxx. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. 
of E. v. pi. 388 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 38 ; Dresser, viii. p. 629, 
pi. 629 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 514 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 544 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1251 ; Blanf. F. Brit. 
Ind. Birds, iv. p. 473 ; Saunders, p. 717 ; Eidgway, p. 5 ; Lil- 
ford, vi. p. 109, pi. 48 ; P. australis, Gould, P.Z.S. 1844, p. 135 ; 
id. B. of Austral, vii. pi. 80. 



878 PODICIPES 



Grdbe huppd, French ; Mergulhao de crista, Portug. ; Somor- 
mujo, Span. ; Svasso maggiore, Ital. ; Gfehaubter-Steissfuss, German ; 
Fuut, Dutch ; Toppet-Lappedykker, Dan. ; Toplom, Norweg. ; 
Skcigg-Dopping, Swed. ; Silkkikuikka, Finn. ; Gfagara-khokhlataia, 
Russ. 

$ ad. (Volga). Crown and occipital tufts greyish -greenish black ; from 
the base of the upper mandible a reddish line passes over the eye to the 
white on the cheeks ; chin and fore part of the face white ; ruff light 
brownish red anteriorly ; greyish black posteriorly ; hind neck greyish black, 
the fore part white on the sides, tinged with buffy brown ; upper parts 
greyish black with some brownish grey margins ; anterior edge of wing, 
the short secondaries, and a few scapulars white ; under parts silvery 
white, the flanks buffy brown ; bill blackish brown, yellowish at the base 
and along the lower mandible ; a bare space from the eye to the mouth 
dusky green ; legs dusky green externally, greenish yellow internally ; 
iris carmine-red. Culmen 2*1, wing 7 '4, tarsus 2'5 inch. Female smaller 
and with the ruff and occipital tufts less developed. 

Hob. Central and Southern Europe, north to Britain and 
Scandinavia ; Africa, south to the Cape of Good Hope ; Asia, 
north to Mongolia, east to Japan, and south to India ; Austral ia r 
Tasmania, and New Zealand. 

Essentially a water bird this Grebe is an expert swimmer 
and diver, but clumsy on land. When alarmed it seeks safety 
by diving, but on the wing it is tolerably swift. Its food 
consists of small fish, frogs, insects, and larvae, which it captures 
chiefly under water. Its note is a loud, deep keck, keck, keck, and 
its pairing cry a loud kreworr, kreworr. Its nest is a heap of 
floating aquatic herbage, and its 3 or 4 eggs, which are usually 
deposited in May, are dull chalky white with a yellowish green 
tinge, and measure about 2'20 by 1'44. 



1214. RED-NECKED GREBE. 
PODICIPES GRISEIGENA. 

Podicipes griseigena (Bodd.), Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 55 (1783) ; Dresser, viii. 
p. 639, pi. 630 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 539 ; 
Saunders, p. 719 ; Kidgway, p. 5 ; Lilford, vi. p. 114, pi. 49 ; P. 
rubricollis, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 592 (1788) ; Gould, B. of E. v. 
pi. 389 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 39 ; Naum. ix. p. 720, Taf. 243 ; 
Hewitson, ii. p. 443, pi. cxx. fig. 1 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. 
p. 364 ; P. JwlbaUli, Keinhardt, Vidensk. Meddel. 1853, p. 76 ; 
Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p.. 542; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 1253 ; Ridgway, p. 5. 



POD WIPES 879 

Gr&be jou-gris, French ; Zambullidor, Span. ; Svasso collo- 
rosso, Ital. ; Rothhalsigcr-Lappcntauclier, German ; Roodhalsfuut, 
Dutch ; liodhalset-Lappedykker, Dan. ; Graastrubet-Lappedykker, 
Norweg. ; Grdstrupig-Dopping, Swed. ; Harmaakulkku-itiku, 
Finn. ; Pogannka-krasnochew, Russ. 

$ ad. (N. Russia). Crown, nape, and hind neck black ; chin, upper 
throat, and cheeks ashy grey, slightly bordered with white ; ruff but 
slightly developed ; fore part and sides of neck rich brownish red ; upper 
parts and wings blackish, the former with paler margins ; outer secon- 
daries white ; under parts silvery white, the flanks streaked with greyish ; 
bill black, the base of the gape yellow ; legs externally greyish black, inter- 
nally yellow ; iris carmine-red. Culmen T9, wing 7 '2, tarsus 2 '2 inch. 
Female similar but a trifle smaller. In winter the crown, nape, and 
upper parts are greyer, the upper throat white and the neck brownish 
grey. 

Hal. Europe, north to Greenland, south in winter to North 
Africa ; Asia, north to Kamchatka and the Commander Islands, 
south to Japan ; America from the fur countries south in 
winter to Pennsylvania ; a winter visitant to the British Islands. 

In general habits it resembles P. cristatus, and like that 
species frequents inland lakes in summer, and rivers and the 
sea coast on passage and in winter, but it is a lighter and 
quicker bird, and takes wing more readily. Its nest and eggs 
also resemble those of P. cristatus, but the eggs, 3 to 4 in 
number, and laid in May, are smaller, measuring about 2*0 
by 1-35. 

Examples from North America and Eastern Asia are, as a 
rule, larger, and have a longer bill, and have therefore by 
several authors been separated under the name of P. holbcelli 
(first described from Greenland), but I do not see any valid 
reason for separating them even subspecifically. 



1215. SCLAVONIAN GREBE. 
PODICIPES AURITUS. 

Podicipes auritus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. p. 222 (1766) ; Gould, B. of Gt, 
Brit. v. pi. 40 ; Dresser, viii. p. 645, pi. 631 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 1256 ; Ogilvie Grant. Cat. B. Br. Mus. p. 527 ; Ridgway, p. 5 ; 
Saunders. p. 721 ; Lilford, vi. p. 115, pi. 50 ; P. cornutus, Gmel. 
Syst. Nat. i. p. 591|(1788) ; Naum. ix. p. 739, pi. 244 ; Hewitson, 
ii. p. 444, pi. cxxi. fig. 3 ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 390 ; David and 
Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 513 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Enip. p. 367. 



880 PODIC1PES 



Grebe cornu, French ; Somorerujo, Span. ; Svasso forestiero, 
Ital. ; Gekornter Lappentaucher, German ; Kuif duiker, Dutch ; 
Sefond, Flor-godi, Icel. ; Hornet- Lappedykker, Dan. ; Sortkravet- 
Toplom, Norweg. ; Svarthake-Dopping, Swed. ; Mustakulkku- 
uikku, Finn. 

ad. (Greenland). Crown and forehead black ; lores and a broad 
band of feathers passing through the eye, forming an elongated tuft on 
each side of the head ochreous chestnut ; chin and ruff brownish black ; 
upper parts brownish black tinged with grey ; short secondaries chiefly 
white ; neck in front rich chestnut-red ; flanks dull chestnut ; rest of 
under parts silvery white ; bill dark horn ; the base and tip pink ; legs 
dull greyish black ; a narrow ring encircling the pupil of the eye white, 
the outer ring crimson. Culmen I'l, wing 5*7, tarsus 1*8 inch. Female 
similar but duller, with the ruff less developed. In winter the crown, 
hind neck, and upper parts are deep sooty brown, some of the dorsal 
feathers edged with slaty-grey ; chin, sides of head, throat, and under 
parts silvery grey, the flanks tinged with brownish grey. 

Hob. Europe, north to Southern Greenland and Iceland, 
south in winter to the Mediterranean and Caspian ; in Asia, 
north to Dauria and the Commander Islands, south and east to 
Japan and China (rarely) ; North America from the fur countries 
to the United States. 

In habits it resembles its larger allies, but is more active, 
and not so clumsy on land, as it can walk, and even run, with 
tolerable ease. Its nest is a mere collection of herbage, usually 
floating on the water, and its 2 to 4 eggs, which are usually 
deposited in May, are yellowish white with a faint bluish tinge, 
dull and chalky in texture of shell, and measure about 1*75 
by 1-23. 

1216. EARED GREBE. 
PODICIPES NIGRICOLLIS. 

Podicipes mgricollis, E. L. Brehm, Yog. Deutschl. p. 963 (1831); 
Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 41 ; Dresser, viii. p. 651, pi. 632 ; 
David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 513 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. 
p. 366 ; Blaiif. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, p. 474 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. 
Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 532 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. p. 1258 ; Saunders, 
p. 723 ; Lilford, vi. p. 117, pi. 51 ; P. auritus, Lath. (nee. Linn.), 
Ind. Orn. ii. p. 781 (1790) ; ii. (Naum.), ix. p. 768, Taf. 246 ; 
Hewitson, ii. p. 445, pi. cxxi. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 391. 

Grebe oreillard, French ; Mergulhdo, Portug. ; Svasso piccolo, 
Ital. ; Geohrter Steissfuss, German ; Geoorde-Fuut, Dutch ; Oret- 
Lappedykker, Dan. ; Sorthalset-Toplom, Norweg.; Svarthalsad- 
JJapping, Swed.; Ouchastaya-Gagara, Russ. 



POD WIPES 881 



$ ad. (Sarepta). Differs from P. auritus in having the head, neck, and 
upper parts black ; a broad stripe from the eye covering the auriculars 
warm golden yellow, the flanks fox-red, and the lower abdomen greyish 
black ; bill upcurved, black, reddish at the base ; legs dull greenish black ; 
iris bright red. Culmen 0*92, wing 4'9, tarsus T6 inch. Sexes alike. In 
winter the golden stripe is absent, and the chin and throat are white. 

Hob. Central and Southern Europe, rare in Sweden, Finland , 
and Britain, but has bred in Denmark ; Africa in winter ; Asia 
north to Dauria, east to Japan, south to China and India. 

In habits and nidification this Grebe resembles P. auritus. 
Its call-note is a soft," clear bib, bib, and its pairing cry a clear 
bide wide wide wide wide. Its 4 to 5 eggs, which are laid in 
May, resemble those of P. auritus, and measure about T6(> 
by 1-17. 

1217. LITTLE GREBE. 
PODICIPES FLUVIATILIS. 

Podicipes fluviatilis (Tunstall), Orn. Brit. p. 3 (1771) ; Dresser, viii. 
p. 659, pi. 633 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 507 ; 
Saunders, p. 725 ; P. minor (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 591 1788 j 
(Naum.), ix. p. 785, Taf. 247 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 446, pi. cxxi. fig. 1 ; 
Gould, B. of E. v. pi. 392 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pi. 42 ; Seebohm, 
B. Jap. Emp. p. 367 ; Lilford, vi. 119, pi. 52. 

Le Castagneux, French ; Mergulhao al$a-cu, Portug. ; Zam- 
bullidor, Span. ; Tuffetto, Ital. ; Kleiner- Steissfuss, German \ 
Dodaers, Dutch; Lille- Lappedykker, Dan.; Liden-Toplom, 
Norweg. ; Smd-Dopping, Swed. ; Pikku-uikku, Finn. ; El-ghotis, 
Moor. ; Kaitsumuri, Jap. 

ad. (Alexandria). Crown, nape, hind neck, chin, and lores blackish 
brown ; sides of head, neck, and entire throat rich chestnut-red ; upper 
parts blackish tinged with grey ; short secondaries white, externally mar- 
gined with dark grey ; breast and flanks blackish grey ; rest of under 
parts dark silvery grey ; bill blackish, the base of the gape lemon-yellow ; 
legs and feet dull horny greenish ; iris bright brown. Culmen 0'97, 
wing 3'9, tarsus 1'4 inch. Sexes alike. In winter the rufous is lacking, 
the chin and upper throat being white, the sides of head and lower throat 
rufous buff. 

Hob. Europe generally, from Scandinavia and Britain to 
North Africa ; Asia Minor, and Central Asia east to Japan, 
but not ranging north to Siberia. In India and S. Africa it is 
replaced by a nearly allied subspecies, P. capensis, Lichtenstein, 
(P. albipennis, Sharpe). 



882 PODICIPES 



In general habits the Little Grebe does not differ from its 
allies, but does not take wing so readily as the two preceding 
species, preferring to seek safety by diving. It frequents 
inland lakes and ponds, especially where there is abundant 
cover, and is shy and wary. It feeds on insects, larvae, small 
fish, and frogs, and occasionally on vegetable matter. Its call- 
note is a soft and not unpleasant bib-bibib, uttered several times 
in succession. Its nest is a large mass of aquatic herbage 
placed either near, or floating on, the water ; its eggs, 3 to 6 
in number, which are usually laid late in April or early in May, 
resemble those of P. nigricollis, but are much smaller, measuring 
about 1*55 by T04. After a very short period of incubation 
the eggs of all the Grebes become very discoloured, and are 
sometimes dark brown. The young of all our Grebes resemble 
the adult in winter dress but are duller, and the young in 
down are blackish or brownish above, striped with rufous or 
whitish brown, the under parts white. 



APPENDIX 



Since this work was commenced many sub-species have 
been described, only some of which have been included or 
referred to, and it appears that two species have been in- 
advertently omitted. These two are the following, viz. : 

MYIOPHONEUS, Temminck, 1823. 

1218. HIMALAYAN WHISTLING THRUSH. 

MYIOPHONEUS TEMMINCKI. 

Myiophoneus temmincL'i, Vigors, P.Z.S. 1831, p. 171 ; Gould. Cent. 
Himal. B. pi. 21 ; Severtz. Turk. Jevot. p. 65 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. 
Mus. vii. p. 8 ; Gates, F. Brit. Ind. Birds, i. p. 178 ; M. cceruleus, 
Horsf. and Moore, Cat. i. p. 199 (nee. Scop.). 

Kastura, in the N.W. Himalayas. 

<J ad. (Himalayas). Plumage generally blackish blue, the feathers 
tipped with silvery blue ; lores and base of forehead black, the forehead 
above [cobalt-blue ; wings and tail cobalt-blue on the outer webs ; lesser 
wing-coverts broadly margined with cobalt-blue ; median wing-coverts 
with whitish tips ; bill yellow, the culmen and base of upper mandible 
blackish ; legs black ; iris brown. Culmen T45, wing 7 f O, tail 5'7, tarsus 
2'0 inch. Sexes alike. The young bird lacks the silvery blue tips to the 
feathers, and has the underparts dull black. 

Hob. The Himalayas from the Hazara country and Gilgit to 
Assam ; Arrakan and probably the whole country west of the 
Irrawady river ; Karennee and the Karen hills ; Turkestan and 
Afghanistan. 

Frequents hill-streams and torrents, in summer up to 11,000 
feet, and perches on rocks and crags ; its food consists largely 
of snails, and its note is a loud and pleasing whistle. It 
breeds from April to June, and places its massive cup-shaped 

3 M 



884 APPENDIX 



nest, which is constructed of roots and moss, in a crevice 
of a rock, or in the root of some upturned tree in the river- 
bed near or under a waterfall, and lays 3 to 5 eggs, which are 
pale greenish grey or greyish white minutely speckled with 
pink, pale purplish-pink, or pinkish-brown dots. Examples in 
my collection are almost uniform greyish white, the dots being 
scarcely visible, and in size vary from T57 to 1*87 in length 
and from 0'95 to 1*0 in breadth. 

1219. JAPANESE WREN. 
TROGLODYTES FUMIGATUS. 

Troglodytes fumigatus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. iii. p. 161 (1835) ; David and 
Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 225 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. vi. p. 276, 
pi. xvi. fig. 2 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 89 ; Tacz. F. 0. Sib. 0. 
p. 206 ; T. dauricus, Dyb. and Tacz. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 1884, 
p. 155. 

Misosazai, Jap. 

$ ad. (Japan). Differs from T. parvulus in being more rufous and 
much darker and, as a rule more distinctly barred both on the upper and 
under parts ; bill brown, the lower mandible yellowish ; feet rufous, the 
claws yellowish ; iris brown. Culmen 0'5, wing 2*1, tail T2, tarsus 07 
inch. Examples, even from the same locality, vary considerably in colour 
some being paler than others. 

Hob. Eastern Siberia, Northern China, Corea, and Japan. 

In its general habits this species is said to resemble T. 
parvulus, but is wilder ; it is found high up in the mountains 
of Japan in the summer, and in winter frequents bushes near 
streams in the lowlands. Its song is described by Mr. Jouy as 
low, delicious, and warbling, similar to that of the American 
Winter Wren. 

Taczanowski separates the form from Dauria, the Ussuri 
country, and Corea, subspecifically under the name T. dauricus, 
but I doubt if the slight differences in colour justify this. Dr. 
Stejneger also considers the form from Bering Island as 
separable, and described it (Zeit. Gesammt. Orn. 1884, p. 11) 
under the name T. pallescens, and he likewise separates 
under the name T. fumigatus kurilensis (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 
1888, p. 548) the Wren from the Kurile Islands. 

The nest of this Wren resembles that of T. parmdus and its 
eggs 6 to 7 in number, are laid late in April or in May, and 
also resemble those of that species, being white faintly dotted 
with red, and average 0'7 by 0'52. 



APPENDIX 885 

Of the sub-species not included I may name the following, 
viz. : 

Turdus coburni, Sharpe, Bull. B.O.C. xii. p. 28 (1901), of 
which I have examined the type, appears to me to be merely a 
pale variety of T. iliacus. Cinclus olympicus, von Madarasz, Orn. 
Monatsb. xi. p. 6 (1903), from Cyprus, appears to be an insular 
form of C. cashmiriensis, and Cinclus bilkevitchi, Zarudny, Orn. 
Jahrb. viii. p. p. 57 (1902), seems also to be very close to that 
sub-species. 

Saxicola albicollis has been separated into two forms, the 
eastern and western. Of these the eastern form Saxicola 
amphileuca, Ehr. (Symb. Phys. fol. b. b. (1829) ), inhabits Asia 
Minor, Transcaspia, Palestine, Syria, Arabia, Egypt, ranging 
as far west as Albania, Dalmatia, and Greece, and as far east 
probably as Persia, whereas the western form Saxicola albicollis 
(Vieill.), Nouv. Diet. xxi. p. 424 (1818), is found west of Greece 
to Spain, Morocco, and Algeria. The difference between these 
two consists in the eastern form having a black line across the 
forehead, in being as a rule rather smaller in size, and in having 
generally the white in the plumage less tinged with pale rufous, 
whereas the western form has the forehead white without any 
black line, and the white portions of the plumage are more 
tinged with rufous. It has also the under-surface of the quills 
as a rule paler, but this character I find on examining a series 
so variable that it can scarcely be taken into consideration. 

Of Saxicola lugens also an eastern and western form have been 
recognised, the former as S. lugens, and the latter as S. halopkila, 
Tristram, but I have not yet been able to examine a sufficiently 
large series to be quite sure if this view is correct. 

Saxicola semenovi, Bianchi and Zarudny, Ann. Mus. Zool. 
Acad. Imp. St. Petersburg, v. No. 1, pp. 187, 189 (1900), from 
Eastern Persia, appears to be very close to, if not identical with 
S. chrysopygia. Cyanecula discessa, von Madarasz, Term. Fuzetek, 
xxv. p. 489 (1902), and Sylvia clara, Kleinsch. Orn. Monatsb. 
ix. p. 167 (1901), I have not seen, but the latter appears to 
be very close to Sylvia hortensis. Parus corsus, Kleinsch., from 
Corsica, seems to be scarcely separable from Parus major. 
Parus atlas, Meade Waldo, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club. xii. p. 27 
(1901), from the Atlas Mountains, and Parus moltchanovi, 
Menzbier, Bull. B.O.C. xiii. p. 49 (1903), from the Crimea, are 
both local forms of Parus phceonotus. Motacilla sicbpcr sonata, 
Meade Waldo, Bull. B.O.C. xii. p. 27 (1901), is 'a form of M. 
personata from Morocco. Cotile mauritanica, Meade Waldo, 
Bull. B.O.C. xii. p. 2T (1901), from Morocco, is described as 

3 M 2 



886 APPENDIX 



.being nearest to C. minor, but much paler. Loxia guillemardi, 
von Madarasz, Orn. Monatsb. xi. p. 5 (1903), is a form or race 
of Loxia curvirostra from Cyprus. Garrulus glaszneri, von 
Madarasz, Orn. Monatsb. x. p. 163 (1902), from Cyprus, of 
which I have examined a skin in the Tring Museum, differs 
slightly from G-. glandarins in being darker, with no white on 
the forehead, the chin and extreme upper throat white, but the 
rest of the under parts uniform dark to the vent. Culmen 
0*94, wing 5*8, tail 5*2, tarsus T22 inch. Asio canariensis, von 
Madarasz, Orn. Monatsb. ix. p. 54 (1901), is the short-eared owl 
from the Canaries which I do not consider as separable from 
A. accipitrinm. Scops semenovi, Zarudny and Harms, Orn. 
Monatsb. x. p. 49 (1902), from Baluchistan, is described as being 
closely allied to Scops brucii. Strix ernesti, Kleinschm. Orn. 
Monatsb. ix. p. 168 (1901), is the dark race of Aluco flammeus 
from Sardinia, and Accipiter wolterstorffi, Kleinschm. Orn. 
Monatsb. ix. p. 168 (1901), is described as being a .small dark 
form of Accipiter nisus from Sardinia. 

Sub-species described under trinomial titles I have not 
considered it necessary to include. 



ENGLISH INDEX 



ACCENTOR, Alpine . . . 
Accentor, Black-throated 
Accentor, Brown . . . 
Accentor, Himalayan . 
Accentor, Japanese . . 
Accentor, Koslov's . . . 
Accentor, Mountain . 
Accentor, Red-breasted . 
Accentor, Rufous-breasted 
Albatross, Black-browed . 
Albatross, Black-footed . 
Albatross, Short-tailed . 
Auk, Ancient .... 
Auk, Crested .... 

Auk, Great 

Auk, Japanese .... 

Auk, Least 

Auk, Little 

Auk, Parroquet .... 
Auk, Partridge .... 
Auk, Short-billed . . . 
Auk, Whiskered . . . 
Avocet . 



BABBLER, Chinese .... 
Babbler, David's .... 
Babbler, White-browed . 

Bee-eater 

Bee-eater, Blue-cheeked . 
Bee-eater, Green .... 

Bittern 

Bittern, American .... 
Bittern, Chestnut .... 
Bittern, Chinese, Little . . 

Bittern, Little 

Bittern, Schrenck's, Little . 

Blackbird 

Blackcap 

Blood-Pheasant .. . . . . 

Blood -Pheasant, Chinese 
Blood-Pheasant, Grey-necked 
Blue-Chat, Hodgson's . . . 



PAGE 

148 Blue-Chat, Siberian . . . 

152 Bluetail, Redflanked . . . 

153 Blue-throat, Red-spotted . 

150 Blue-throat, White-spotted 

155 Brambling 

155 Brant, Black 

153 Broadbill, Indian .... 

151 Bulbul, Brown-eared . . . 

151 Bulbul, Dusky 

860 Bulbul, Palestine .... 

859 Bulbul, Red- vented . . . 

859 Bulbul, White-cheeked . . 

868 Bulbul, White-eared . . . 

869 Bullfinch 

862 Bullfinch, Azorean .... 

869 Bullfinch, Beavan's . . . 

870 Bullfinch, Cassin's .... 
864 Bullfinch, Crimson-winged . 

871 Bullfinch, Desert .... 

867 Bullfinch, Mongolian Desert 

868 Bullfinch, Oriental .... 
870 Bullfinch, Persian Desert . 
752 Bunting, Black -faced . . . 

Bunting, Black- headed . . 
Bunting, Chestnut .... 

145 Bunting, Chinese Meadow . 
147 Bunting, Cinereous . . . 

146 Bunting, Cirl 

465 Bunting, Corn 

466 Bunting, Cretzschmar's . . 

467 Bunting, Godlevski's Meadow 

578 Bunting, Grey-headed . . 

579 Bunting, Grey-necked . . 

577 Bunting, House- .... 
576 Bunting, Janko\ 7 ski's . . . 
575 Bunting, Japanese .... 

578 Bunting, Japanese Grey . . 
17 Bunting, Japanese Meadow - 
84 Bunting, Japanese Reed- 

675 Bunting, Japanese Yellow . 

675 Bunting, Lapland .... 

676 Bunting, Little 

61 Bunting, Meadow- .... 



PAGE 

70 
69 
62 
61 
311 
595 
464 
226 
222 
223 
225 
224 
224 
333 
337 
337 
336 
328 
329 
331 
335 
330 
350 
346 
348 
366 
352 
354 
343 
358 
369 
360 
357 
345 
365 
350 
361 
365 
370 
351 
373 
363 
368 



888 



ENGLISH INDEX 



Bunting, Pine 

Bunting, Red-headed . . . . 

Bunting, Reed- 

Bunting, Rose 

Bunting, Rustic 

Bunting, Siberian Meadow . . 

Bunting, Snow 

Bunting, Striped 

Bunting, White-capped . . . 
Bunting, Yellow-breasted . 
Bunting, Yellow-browed . . . 
Bunting, Yellow-throated . . 
Bush-Babbler, Algerian . . . 
Bush-Babbler, Indian . . . . 
Bush-Babbler, Palestine . . . 
Bush-Chat, Hodgson's . . . 
Bush-Warbler, Chinese . . . 
Bush -Warbler, Japanese . . . 
Bush-Warbler, Large-billed 
Bush- Warbler, Short-tailed 
Bush- Warbler, Spotted . . . 

Bustard 

Bustard, Houbara 

Bustard, Little 

Bustard, Macqueen's . . . . 

Bustard, Siberian 

Buzzard 

Buzzard, Himalayan Rough- 
legged 

Buzzard, Hone}' 

Buzzard, Long-legged . . . 
Buzzard, Rough-legged . 

Buzzard, Upland 

Buzzard-Eagle, Grey-faced . . 



CAHOW 

Canary Bird 

Capercailly 

Capercailly, Siberian ... 
Chaffinch . . .' . . . . 
Chaffinch, Algerian . . . . 
Chaffinch, Canariaii . . . , 
Chaffinch, Teydean ... 

Chat, Canarian 

Chat, Hodgson's Blue . 

Chat, Hodgson's Bush- . . . 

Chat, White-throated . . 

Chiffchaff 

Chiffchaff, Siberian ... 

Chough , 

Chough, Alpine 

Chough, Brown Ground- . . , 
Chough, Henderson's Ground- . 
Chough, Pander's Ground- . . 
Chough, Persian Ground- . 
Chough, White-tailed Ground- 
Citril-Finch . 



PAGE 

359 
347 
370 
372 
362 
364 
374 
344 
367 
349 
356 
355 
144 
145 
144 
45 
138 
139 
129 
140 
128 
723 
726 
725 
727 
724 
509 

515 
538 
512 
514 
511 
513 



854 

281 

695 

697 

306 

309 

307 

310 

44 

61 

45 

68 

97 

98 

405 

406 

409 

408 

406 

407 

408 

278 



Coot 

Coot, Crested .... 
Cormorant .... . 
Cormorant, African . . 
Cormorant, Pallas's 
Cormorant, Pelagic . . 
Cormorant, Pygmy . . 
Comorant, Red-faced . . 
Comorant, Temminck's . 

Corn Crake 

Courser, Cream-coloured . 
Crake, Baillon's .... 
Crake, Button .... 

Crake, Corn- 

Crake, Little .... 
Crake, Ruddy .... 
Crake, Siberian Ruddy . 
Crake, Spotted .... 
Crane, Black-necked . . 
Crane, Canadian . . . 
Crane, Common . . . 
Crane, Demoiselle . . . 
Crane, Hooded .... 
Crane, Manchurian . . 

Crane, Sarus 

Crane, Siberian .... 
Crane, White-necked . . 
Creeper, Himalayan Tree- 
Creeper, Tree- .... 
Creeper, Wall- .... 
Crossbill, Common . . 
Crossbill, Two-barred . 
Crossbill, White-winged . 

Crow, Black 

Crow, Grey 

Crow, Jungle .... 

Cuckoo 

Cuckoo, Black-billed . . 
Cuckoo, Great Spotted . 
Cuckoo, Greyheaded . . 
Cuckoo, Hawk- .... 
Cuckoo, Himalayan . . 
Cuckoo, Hodgson's Hawk 
Cuckoo, Indian .... 
Cuckoo, Yellow-billed 
Curlew, Australian 
Curlew, Common . . 
Curlew, Eskimo . . ' *?. 
Curlew, Pigmy . . . 
Curlew, Slender-billed 
Curlew, Stone .... 



DIPPER, Black-bellied 
Dipper, Brown . . , . 
Dipper, European . . 
Dipper, Pallas' . . 
Dipper, Sombre . . 



PAGE 

. 716 

. 717 

555, 557 

. 559 

. 557 

. 558 

. 560 

. 557 

. 556 

. 711 

. 730 

. 707 

. 709 

. 711 

. . 708 

. 710 

. 710 

. 706 

. 718 

. 720 

. 717 

. 721 

. . 720 

. 719 

. 721 

. 723 

, . 722 

. . 194 

. . 192 

194 



343 
342 
421 
421 
422 
468 
475 
472 
471 
473 
490 
474 
471 
474 
804 
803 
800 
774 
802 
727 



24 

27 
25 
28 

28 






ENGLISH INDEX 



889 



Diver, Black-throated 
Diver, Great Northern . 
Diver, Red-throated . 
Diver, White-billed . . 

Dotterel 

Dotterel, Eastern . . . 
Dove, Canarian .... 
Dove, Chinese Turtle . . 
Dove, Collared Turtle . 
Dove, Eastern Ring . . 
Dove, Eversmami's Turtle 
Dove, Hill, Rock . . . 
Dove, Indian Brown Turtle 
Dove, Indian Stock . . 
Dove, Isabelline Turtle . 
Dove, Japanese .... 
Dove, Madeiran . . . 
Dove, Red Turtle . . . 

Dove, Ring 

Dove, Rock 

Dove, Senegal Turtle . . 

Dove, Stock 

Dove, Surat Turtle . . 
Dove, Turtle .... 
Dove, White-backed . . 

Duck, Bar's 

Duck, Buffle-headed . . 
Duck, Dipper .... 
Duck, Harlequin . . . 
Duck, Long-tailed . 
Duck, Mandarin . . 
Duck, Marbled .... 
Duck, Ring- billed . . . 

Duck, Scaup 

Duck, Spirit 

Duck, Steller's 

Duck, Tufted .... 
Duck, White-eyed . . . 
Duck, White-headed . . 

Duck, Wild 

Dunlin . 



EAGLE, Bald 

Eagle, Bonelli's . . . . 
Eagle, Booted .... 
Eagle, Corean Sea- . . . 
Eagle, Golden .... 
Eagle, Greater Spotted . 
Eagle, Imperial .... 
Eagle, Kamchatkan Sea- . 
Eagle, Lesser Spotted 
Eagle, Nepalese Hawk . 

Eagle, Sea- 

Eagle, Short-toed . . . 
Eagle, Steppe .... 
Eagle, Tawny .... 
Eagle, White-shouldered 



PAGE 

875 
876 
874 
877 
743 
736 
643 
648 
649 
646 
648 
641 
650 
642 
647 
646 
644 
651 
645 
639 
650 
642 
651 
646 
641 
621 
623 
623 
624 
625 
603 
6t7 
605 
618 
623 
630 
619 
620 
634 
604 
769 



525 
516 
515 
526 
522 
517 
521 
526 
518 
528 
524 
527 
519 
520 
522 



Egret, Cattle . . , 
Egret, Great White , 
Egret, Japanese . . , 
Egret, Little ... 
Egret, Smaller White 

Eider , 

Eider, King . . , 
Eider, Pacific . . . 
Eider, Spectacled . . 
Eider, Steller's . . . 



FALCON, Barbary .... 
Falcon, Eastern Red-legged 
Falcon, Eleonora's .... 
Falcon, Greenland .... 

Falcon, Iceland 

Falcon, Peregrine .... 
Falcon, Red-legged . . . 
Falcon, Shanghar .... 

Fieldfare 

Fieldfare, Redtailed . . . 
Finch, Altai Ground- . . . 

Finch, Citril 

Finch, Hodgson's Ground- . 
Finch, Nepal Rose .... 
Finch, Red-fronted . . . 

Finch, Scarlet 

Finch, Serin 

Fire-crested Wren .... 

Flamingo 

Flycatcher, Brown .... 
Flycatcher, Chinese Paradise 
Flycatcher, Corean . . . 
Flycatcher, Indian Paradise 
Flycatcher, Japanese Blue . 
Flycatcher, Japanese Paradise 
Flycatcher, Mugimaki . . 
Flycatcher, Narcissus 
Flycatcher, Pied .... 
Flycatcher, Red-breasted 
Flycatcher, Siberian . . . 
Flycatcher, Spotted . . . 
Flycatcher, White-collared . 

Francolin 

Francolin, Senegal .... 
Fulmar 



PAQii 

570 
566 
568 
568 
567 
631 
632 
632 
633 
630 



546 
551 
549 
540 
541 
544 
550 
544 
8 
9 

302 
278 
302 
276 
282 
321 
280 
93 
587 
252 
262 
260 
260 
258 
261 
257 
259 
254 
256 
251 
253 
255 
681 
682 
858 



GADWALL 

Gallinule, Allen's . . . 
Gallinule, Green-backed . 
Gallinule, Indian . . . 
Gallinule, Purple . . 

Gannet 

Garganey 

Godwit, Bar-tailed . . 
Godwit, Black-tailed . . 



605 
714 
713 
713 
712 
561 
609 
797 
798 



890 



ENGLISH INDEX 



Gold-crest, Canarian .... 92 

Gold-crest, Madeiran .... 94 

Golden-crested Wren .... 91 

Golden-eye 621 

Golden-eye, Barrow's .... 622 

Goldfinch 274 

Goldfinch, Asiatic 275 

Goosander 635 

Goose, Bar-headed 593 

Goose, Bean 589 

Goose, Bernacle 596 

Goose, Brent 594 

Goose, Chinese 593 

Goose, Emperor 598 

Goose, Grey-Lag 588 

Goose, Hutchins's 595 

Goose, Lesser White-fronted . 592 

Goose, Pink-footed .... 590 

Goose, Red-breasted .... 596 

Goose, Snow 597 

Goose, White-fronted .... 591 

Goshawk 529 

Grebe, Eared 880 

Grebe, Great Crested .... 877 

Grebe, Little 881 

Grebe, Red-necked .... 878 

Grebe, Sclavonian 879 

Greenfinch 283 

Greenfinch, Chinese .... 284 

Greenshank 786 

Greenshank, Nordmann's . . 787 

Griffon, Himalayan .... 499 

Grosbeak, Allied 288 

Grosbeak, Chinese 286 

Grosbeak, Japanese .... 285 

Grosbeak, Pine 338 

Grosbeak, White-winged . , 288 

Ground-Finch, Altai .... 302 

Ground-Finch, Hodgson's . . 302 

Grouse, Black 698 

Grouse, Georgian Black . . . 699 

Grouse, Menzbier's Hazel . . 701 

Grouse, Mongolian Hazel . . 701 

Grouse, Red 693 

Grouse, Siberian Spruce . . . 700 

Grouse, Willow 692 

Guillemot 862 

Guillemot, Black 864 

Guillemot, Briinnich's . . . 863 

Guillemot, Mandts .... 865 

Guillemot, Pigeon ..... 866 

Guillemot, Sooty ..... 866 

Gull, Adriatic 825 

Gull, Audouin's 831 

Gull, Black-headed .... 824 

Gull, Black-tailed 832 

Gull, Bonaparte's 826 

Gull, Brown -headed . 825 



n 11 r* FMfm 

Gull, Common 829 

Gull, Cuneate-tailecl .... 821 

Gull, Glaucous 837 

Gull, Glaucous-winged . . . 838 

Gull, Greater Black-backed . . 836 

Gull, Great Black-headed . . 827 

Gull, Herring 832 

Gull, Iceland 838 

Gull, Ivory 821 

Gull, Lesser Black-backed . . 834 

Gull, Little 828 

Gull, Sabine's 820 

Gull, Saunders's 827 

Gull, Siberian 835 

Gull, Slaty-backed 836 

Gull, Slender-billed .... 830 

Gyrfalcon 539 

Gyrfalcon, Altai 542 

Gyrfalcon, Lorenz's . - 542 



HARRIER, Eastern Marsh . . 504 

Harrier-Hen 507 

Harrier, Marsh 503 

Harrier, Montagu's .... 505 

Harrier, Pallid 506 

Harrier, Pied 508 

Hawfinch 287 

Hawk, Levant Sparrow . . . 531 

Hawk, Many-banded .... 533 

Hazel-Hen 700 

Hedge-Sparrow 154 

Hemipode, Andalucian . . . 703 

Hemipode, Burmese .... 704 

Heron, Black-necked .... 566 

Heron, Buff-backed .... 569 

Heron, Chinese Pond .... 572 

Heron, Grey 564 

Heron, Japanese Night . . . 574 

Heron, Little Green .... 575 

Heron, Night 573 

Heron, Pond 572 

Heron, Purple .565 

Heron, Squacco 571 

Hobby 548 

Hoopoe 467 

Hypocolius, Grey 250 



IBIS, Glossy 586 

Ibis, Japanese 585 

Ibis, Red-cheeked 586 

Ibis, Sacred 584 

Ibis, White 584 

Ibis-bill 805 



ENGLISH INDEX 



891 



JACKDAW 419 

Jackdaw, Daurian 419 

Jay 411 

Jay, African 412 

Jay, Algerian Black-headed . 414 

Jay, Brandt's 413 

Jay, Japanese . 415 

Jay, Lidth's 415 

Jay, Persian 412 

Jay, Siberian 410 

Jay, Syrian 413 

Jay, Turkish Black-headed . . 414 



KESTREL 552 

Kestrel, Lesser 553 

Kingfisher 458 

Kingfisher, Black-capped . . 462 

Kingfisher, Himalayan Pied . 460 

Kingfisher, Pied 459 

Kingfisher, Ruddy 460 

Kingfisher, Smyrna . .... 461 

Kite 534 

Kite, Black 535 

Kite, Black-eared 536 

Kite, Black-winged .... 537 

Kite, Yellow-billed .... 537 

Kittiwake 822 

Kittiwake, Red-legged ... 823 

Knot 775 

Knot, Eastern . 776 



PAGE 

Lark, Thick -billed 377 

Lark, White-winged .... 385 

Laughing Thrush, Elliott's . . 147 

Linnet 312 

Linnet, Aleutian Ground- . . 305 

Linnet, Brandt's Ground- . . 303 

Linnet, Giglioli's Ground- . . 304 

Linnet, Japanese Ground- . . 305 

Linnet, Siberian Ground- . . 303 

Linnet, Tibetan Ground- . . 306 



MAGPIE 

Magpie, Azure-winged 
Magpie, Chinese Blue . 
Magpie, Eastern Blue 
Magpie, Moorish 



417 

. 416 

. 417 

. 416 
418 

Marsh-Warbler ...... 118 

Martin, Black-chinned . . . 271 

Martin, Crag- ...... 273 

Martin, House- ...... 269 

Martin, Pale Crag- ..... 273 

Martin, Sand- ...... 271 

Merganser, Hooded .... 637 

Merganser, Red-breasted ... 636 

Merlin ......... 547 

Minivet, Ashy ...... 263 

Minivet, Short-billed .... 263 

Monal ......... 673 

Monal, Chinese ...... 674 

Moorhen ........ 715 



LAMDRAIL 

Lanner 

Lapwing 

Lapwing, Grey-headed . . 
Lapwing, Red- Wattled . . 
Lark, Algerian Shore- . . 
Lark, Andalucian Short- toed 
Lark, Atlas Mountain Shore- 
Lark, Bifasciated .... 

Lark, Black 

Lark, Calandra 

Lark, Crested 

Lark, Desert 

Lark, Dupont's 

Lark, Eastern Calandra . . 
Lark, Eastern Shore- . . . 
Lark, Elwes's Shore- . . . 
Lark, Gould's Desert- . . 
Lark, Lesser Short-toed . . 
Lark, Long-billed Calandra . 
Lark, Mongolian .... 
Lark, Pale Short-toed . . 
Lark, Pallas's Short-toed . 

Lark, Shore- 

Lark, Short-toed .... 



711 NIGHTINGALE 71, 84 

546 Nightingale, Persian .... 72 

749 Nightingale, Thrush .... 72 

748 Nightjar, Egyptian .... 435 

747 Nightjar, European .... 432 

380 Nightjar, Indian 434 

395 Nightjar, Russet-necked . . . 433 

381 Nightjar, Sykes's 436 

375 Noddy 819 

386 Nutcracker 409 

382 Nuthatch 188 

390 Nuthatch, Chinese ... 190 

397 Nuthatch, Corsican . . 190 

376 Nuthatch, Krueper's . . 189 

384 Nuthatch, Mongolian . . 191 
381 Nuthatch, Northern . . 186 

379 Nuthatch, Rock 191 

398 

394 ORIOLE, Black-naped .... 228 

383 Oriole, Golden 226 

385 Oriole, Indian 227 

396 Ortolan 356 

395 Osprey 554 

378 Ousel, Water 60 

393 Owl, African Eared .... 485 



892 



ENGLISH INDEX 



Owl, Barn 

Owl, Collared 

Owl, Eagle 

Owl, Eastern Little . . . 
Owl, Egyptian Eagle- . . . 

Owl, Hairy 

Owl, Hawk- 

Owl, Japanese, Eagle- . . 

Owl, Lapp 

Owl, Little 

Owl, Long-eared .... 

Owl, Pigmy 

Owl, Rock Eagle- .... 
Owl, Rough -footed Scops 

Owl, Scops- 

Owl, Short-eared .... 

Owl, Snowy 

Owl, Tawny 

Owl, Tengmalm's . . . . 

Owl, Ural 

Oyster-catcher 

Oyster-catcher, African Black 



PARTRIDGE 

Partridge, Barbary . . 
Partridge, Chukar . . . 
Partridge, Daurian . . 
Partridge, Greek . . . 
Partridge, Kansu . . . 
Partridge, Mongolian . . 
Partridge, Red-legged 
Partridge, Seesee . . . 
Partridge, Tibetan . . . 
Pelican, Dalmatian . . 
Pelican, Roseate 
Peregrine, Lesser . . . 
Petrel, Bulwer's . . . 
Petrel, Capped .... 
Petrel, Collared . . . 
Petrel, Fork -tailed . . 
Petrel, Frigate .... 
Petrel, Harcourt's . . 
Petrel, Japanese . . . 
Petrel, Japanese, Black . 
Petrel, Leach's .... 
Petrel, Soft-plumaged 
Petrel, Sooty .... 
Petrel, Storm ... 
Petrel, Swiiihoe's . . . 
Petrel, Wilson's . . . 
Phalarope, Grey . . 
Phalarope, Red-necked . 

Pheasant 

Pheasant, Blood . . . 
Pheasant, Chinese Blood . 
Pheasant, Golden . . . 



PAGE 

497 Pheasant, Grey-necked Blood 

494 Pheasant, Japanese . . . 
489 Pheasant, Lady Amherst's . 
497 Pheasant, Mongolian . . ,* 

492 Pheasant, Moupin .... 

495 Pheasant, Murghab . . 

481 Pheasant, Persian .... 

491 Pheasant, Ring-necked . \ .'j* 

479 Pheasant, SevertzofFs . . 

496 Pheasant, Shaw's . . . - ..'- 

483 Pheasant, Scemmerring's . 

493 Pheasant, Strauch's . 

492 Pheasant, Tibetan .... 
489 Pheasant, Vlangal's . . . 
486 Pigeon, Bolle's 

484 Pigeon, Siebold's Green . 

480 Pigeon, Wood . . . . ? 

476 Pintail 

482 Pipit, Blyth's 

477 Pipit, Brown Rock . . . . 

751 Pipit, Canarian 

752 Pipit, Hodgson's . . 

Pipit, Petchora 

Pipit, Red-throated . . 
Pipit, Richard's . . , -i; -, 

682 Pipit, Rock 

679 Pipit, Tawny 

678 Pipit, Tree- 

683 Pipit, Water 

677 Plover, Black -headed . . . 

684 Plover, Caspian 

678 Plover, Eastern Golden . . 

679 Plover, Golden 

680 Plover, Greater Sand . . . 

684 Plover, Grey 

563 Plover, Kentish 

562 Plover, Killdeer . . 

545 Plover, Kittlitz's .... 

857 Plover, Little Ringed . . . 

855 Plover, Long-billed Ringed . 

856 Plover, Ringed 

847 Plover, Semipalmated . v '?: 

849 Plover, Sociable 

845 Plover, Spur-winged . . 
856 Plover, White-tailed . . . 

846 Pochard 

844 Pochard, Red-crested . .->.y 

855 Pratincole ;* 

846 Pratincole, Nordmann's . . 
843 Ptarmigan, Alpine . . . .& 

847 Ptarmigan, Rock .... 

848 Pucras, Chesnut-bellied . . 

755 Pucras, Meyer's 

754 Pucras, Mongolian .... 

658 Puffin Vd 

675 Puffin, Hornbilled . . ..<*] 

675 Puffin, Horned 

668 Puffin, Tufted 



PAGE 

676 
664 
669 
665 
686 
660 
661 
665 
662 
660 
667 
66:i 
687 
664 
644 
639 
645 
613 
220 
220 
211 
215 
217 
213 
219 
216 
218 
211 
214 
744 
736 
732 
731 
734 
733 
737 
741 
742 
740 
739 
738 
740 
745 
745 
746 
617 
616 
728 
730 
693 
694 
670 
671 
670 
873 
871 
873 
872 



ENGLISH INDEX 



893 



QUAIL 685 



RAIL, Water 704 

Raven 423 

Raven, Brown-necked . . . 424 

Raven, Fantail 425 

Raven, Irby's 425 

Razorbill 861 

Redbreast 63 

Redbreast, Japanese .... 65 

Redbreast, Persian .... 64 

Redbreast, Temminck's ... 64 

Redpoll, Greenland . . . . 317 

Redpoll, Lesser 316 

Redpoll, Mealy 315 

Redshank 783 

Redshank, Spotted .... 784 

Redstart 48, 50 

Redstart, Black 54 



Redstart, Blue-fronted 
Redstart, Blue-headed . 
Redstart, Daurian . . . 
Redstart, Ehrenberg's . 
Redstart, Eversmann's . 
Redstart, Gould's . . . 
Redstart, Giildenstadt's . 
Redstart, Hodgson's . . 
Redstart, Indian . . . 
Redstart, Plumbeous . . 
Redstart, Prjevalsky's 
Redstart, White-capped . 
Redstart, White-throated 
Redwing 



58 
57 
52 
50 
53 
55 
53 
51 
50 
58 
54 
60 
56 
6 

Reedling, Bearded 156 

Reed- Warbler 117 

Reed- Warbler, Blyth's ... 116 
Reed- Warbler, Clamorous . . 120 
Reed-Warbler, Eastern Great . 120 
Reed- Warbler, Great .... 119 
Reed-Warbler, Schrenk's . . 121 

Reeve 781 

Ring-Dove 645 

Ring-Dove, Eastern .... 646 

Ring Ousel 19 

Robin, Swamp 5 

Rock-Dove 639 

Rock-Dove, Hill 641 

Rock Thrush 28 

Rock Thrush, White-throated . 22 

Roller 462 

Roller, Indian 463 

Rook 426 

Rook, Eastern .427 

Rose-finch 324 

Rose-finch, Brandt's .... 323 
Rose-finch, Caucasian .... 319 
Rose-finch, Edwards' .... 326 



Rose-finch, Hodgson's. . 
Rose- finch, Long-tailed . 
Rose-finch, Nepal . . . 
Rose-finch, Redbreasted . 
Rose-finch, Sinaitic . . 
Rose-finch, Stoliczka's 
Rose-finch, Three-banded 
Rose-finch, Vinous . . 
Rose-finch, White-browed 
Ruby -Throat, Himalayan 
Ruby-Throat, Siberian . 
Ruby-Throat, Tibetan . 
Ruff 



SAKER 

Sanderling 

Sand-Grouse, Black-bellied . 
Sand-Grouse, Coronetted 
Sand-Grouse, Pallas's . . 
Sand-Grouse, Pintailed . . 
Sand-Grouse, Senegal . . . 
Sand-Grouse, Singed . . . 
Sand -Grouse, Tibetan . . . 
Sandpiper, Baird's . . 
Sandpiper, Bartrauvs . . . 
Sandpiper, Bonaparte's . . 
Sandpiper, Broad-billed . . 
Sandpiper, Buff-breasted 
Sandpiper, Green, .... 
Sandpiper, Grey-rumped 
Sandpiper, Marsh .... 
Sandpiper, Pectoral . . . 
Sandpiper, Purple .... 
Sandpiper, Sharp-tailed . 
Sandpiper, Solitary ... 
Sandpiper, Spoon-billed . . 
Sandpiper, Spotted . . . 
Sandpiper, Terek .... 
Sandpiper, Wandering . . 
Sandpiper, Western Semipal- 

mated 

Sandpiper, Wood .... 
Scoter, American .... 

Scoter, Black 

Scoter, Kamchatkan . . . 

Scoter, Surf 

Scoter, Velvet 

Scrub-Warbler, Algerian 
Scrub- Warbler, Streaked . 

Sea-Eagle 

Sea-Eagle, Pallas's .... 

Serin Finch 

Serin, Tristram's .... 

Shag 

Shearwater, Eastern Dusky . 
Shearwater, Flesh-coloured . 
Shearwater, Great .... 



PAG a 

325 

332 

276 

31 

322 

320 

323 

325 

327 

67 

6# 

66 

780 



543 
779 
652 
653 
657 
654 
655 
656 
658 
767 
782 
768 
764 
782 
789 
793 
787 
766 
776 
767 
790 
780 
792 
794 
794 

77S 
790 
628 
627 
627 
629 
626 
143 
142 
524 
523 
280 
281 
558 
854 
853 
851 



894 



ENGLISH INDEX 



Shearwater, Japanese. . . . 

Shearwater, Manx 

Shearwater, Mediterranean . . 
Shearwater, Slender-billed . . 

Shearwater, Sooty 

Sheldrake, Burrow 

Sheldrake, Ruddy 

Shikra 

Shortwing, Hodgson's. . . . 

Shoveller 

Shrike, Algerian Grey . . . 
Shrike, American Grey . . . 
Shrike, Bay-backed .... 
Shrike, Brown Red-tailed . . 
Shrike, Bull-headed .... 
Shrike, Finsch's Grey .... 
Shrike, Great Grey .... 
Shrike, Grey-backed .... 
Shrike, Grimm's Grey . . . 

Shrike, Hooded 

Shrike, Indian Grey .... 
Shrike, Isabelline . . . 
Shrike, Japanese Red-tailed . 
Shrike, Lesser Grey .... 
Shrike, Long-tailed Grey . . 

Shrike, Masked 

Shrike, Mongolian Grey . . . 

Shrike, Pallid 

Shrike, Philippine Red-tailed . 
Shrike, Radde's Grey .... 
Shrike, Red-backed . . . 
Shrike, Rufous-backed . . . 
Shrike, Severtzoff's Rufous. . 
Shrike, Southern Grey . . . 
Shrike, Thick-billed .... 
Shrike, White-winged . . . 

Shrike, Woodchat 

Siskin 

Siskin, Himalayan 

Siskin, Tibetan 

Skua, Arctic 

Skua, Buffon's . 

Skua, Great . 

Skua, Pomatorhine 

Skylark 

Skylark, Indian 

Smew 

Snipe, Double 

Snipe, Jack 

Snipe, New Holland .... 

Snipe, Painted 

Snipe, Pin-tailed 

Snipe, Red-breasted .... 
Snipe, Semipalmated .... 

Snipe, Single 

Snipe, Solitary ...... 

Snipe, Summer 

Snipe, Swinhoe's 



PACK 

852 
849 
852 
853 
851 
601 
602 
530 
59 
606 
235 
231 
237 
240 
242 
234 
228 
245 
233 
248 
233 
238 
241 
236 
230 
247 
231 
232 
242 
244 
237 
245 
240 
234 
243 
230 
246 
276 
277 
278 
841 
842 
839 
840 
387 
389 
638 
758 
763 
762 
757 
761 
795 
796 
759 
763 
791 
762 



Snow -Finch 
Snow-Finch, 
Snow-Finch. 



Adams's . . . 

Blanford's . 
Snow-Finch, David's . . . 
Snow-Finch, Mandelli's . . 
Snow-Finch, Red-necked 
Snow-Partridge, Altai . . 
Snow-Partridge, Caspian 
Snow-Partridge, Caucasian . 
Snow-Partridge, Himalayan 
Snow-Partridge, Tibetan 
Snow -Pheasant, Harman's . 
Snow-Pheasant, Manchnrian 
Snow-Pheasant, Pallas's . . 
Snow-Pheasant, Tibetan . 
Snow-Pheasant, White-tailed 
Sparrow, Afghan .... 
Sparrow, Desert .... 
Sparrow, Desert Rock . . 
Sparrow, House .... 
Sparrow, Italian .... 

Sparrow, Rock 

Sparrow, Russett .... 
Sparrow, Saxaul .... 
Sparrow, Spanish .... 

Sparrow, Tree 

Sparrow, Yellow-throated . 

Sparrow- Hawk 

Sparrow-Hawk, Besra. . . 
Sparrow-Hawk, Levant . . 

Spoonbill 

Spoonbill, Black-faced . . 

Starling 

Starling, Daurian .... 

Starling, Grey 

Starling, Purple- winged . . 
Starling, Red-cheeked . . 
Starling, Rose-coloured . 
Starling, Sardinian . . . 
Stilt, Black-winged . . . 
Stint, American .... 
Stint, Eastern Little . . . 

Stint, Little 

Stint, Long->toed .... 
Stint, Temminck's .... 

Stock -Dove 

Stock-Dove, Indian . . . 

Stonechat 

Stonechat, Indian .... 
Stonechat, Moussier's . . . 

.Stonechat, Pied 

Stonechat, White-tailed . . 

Stork, Black 

Stork, Japanese 

Stork, White 

Suthora, Chinese .... 
Suthora, Grey-crowned . 
Suthora, Spectacled . . . 



TAOE 

297 
299 
301 
301 
299 
300 
691 
689 
688 
690 
690 
673 
672 
672 
671 
671 
291 
294 
296 
289 
290 
295 
293 
292 
291 
293 
297 
531 
532 
531 
582 
583 
399 
403 
402 
400 
404 
401 
401 
753 
772 
771 
770 
772 
773 
642 
642 
45 
46 
48 
47 
47 
581 
581 
580 
185 
186 
185 






ENGLISH INDEX 



895 



Swallow 

Swallow, Red-rumped 

Swamp Robin 

Swan, Bewick's 

Swan, Mute 

Swan, Whooper 

Swift 

Swift, Alpine 

Swift, Madeiran .... 
Swift, Needle-tailed . . . 

Swift, Pallid 

Swift, Siberian 

Swift, White-romped . . 

TEAL 

Teal, American 

Teal, Baikal 

Teal, Blue-winged .... 

Teal, Falcated 

Tern, Aleutian 

Tern, Allied 

Tern, Arctic 

Tern, Asiatic Little . . . 

Tern, Black 

Tern, Caspian 

Tern, Common 

Tern, Gull-billed .... 

Tern, Little 

Tern, Nordmann's .... 

Tern, Panayan 

Tern, Roseate 

Tern, Royal 

Tern, Sandwich 

Tern, Sooty 

Tern, Whiskered .... 
Tern, White -winged Black . 
Thrush, Black-throated . . 

Thrush, Blue 

Thrush, Dusky 

Thrush, Elliot's Laughing . 
Thrush, Gould's .... 
Thrush, Grey-cheeked . . 
Thrush, Grey Japanese . . 

Thrush, Hermit 

Thrush, Himalayan Whistling 
Thrush, Japanese Brown 
Thrush, Kessler's .... 

Thrush, Mistle 

Thrush, Mistletoe .... 
Thrush, Mongolian Song . 

Thrush, Pale 

Thrush, Red-throated . . 

Thrush, Rock 

Thrush, Siberian .... 
Thrush, Solitary .... 

Thrush, Song 

Thrush, Swainson's . . . 
Thrush, Swinhoe's . . ". . , 



PAGE 

264 

267 

5 

600 
598 
599 
427 
430 
429 
431 
428 
430 
429 

611 
612 
612 
610 
608 
817 
811 
808 
816 
805 
813 
809 
814 
815 
810 
818 
810 
814 
812 
818 
807 
806 
14 
22 
7 

147 

10 

5 

18 

4 

883 

12 

11 

15 

1 

3 

15 

14 

21 

19 

23 

2 

4 

12 



Thrush, White's 

Titlark 

Titmouse, Algerian Blue . . . 
Titmouse, Algerian Coal . . 

Titmouse, Azure 

Titmouse, Black-crested . . . 

Titmouse, Blue 

Titmouse, Coal ...... 

Titmouse, Crested 

Titmouse, Great 

Titmouse, Himalayan Crested . 
Titmouse, Indian Grey . . 
Titmouse, Japanese . . . . 
Titmouse, Long-tailed 

Titmouse, Marsh 

Titmouse, Mongolian Crested . 
Titmouse, Mongolian Long- 
tailed 

Titmouse, Mongolian Marsh 
Titmouse, Northern Marsh . . 
Titmouse, Penduline . . . . 
Titmouse, Persian Coal . . . 
Titmouse, Red-bellied . . . 
Titmouse, Siberian . . . . 

Titmouse, Sombre 

Titmouse, Songaran Marsh . 
Titmouse, Turkish Long-tailed. 

Titmouse, Varied 

Titmouse, White-browed 
Titmouse, Yellow-breasted . . 

Tree -Creeper 

Tree-Creeper, Himalayan . . 

Turnstone 

Turtle-Dove 

Turtle-Dove, Chinese . . . . 
Turtle-Dove, Collared . . . 
Turtle-Dove, Eversmann's . 
Turtle-Dove, Indian Brown . 
Turtle-Dove, Isabelline . . . 

Turtle-Dove, Red 

Turtle-Dove, Senegal . . . . 
Turtle-Dove, Surat . . . . 
Twite . . 



VULTURE, Bearded 
Vulture, Black . . 
Vulture, Egyptian , 
Vulture, Griffon 



WAGTAIL, Black-headed . . . 
Wagtail, Blue-headed . . . 
Wagtail, Eastern Yellow . . 

Wagtail, Forest 

Wagtail, Grey 

Wagtail, Grey-headed . . . 
Wagtail, Hodgson's .... 
Wagtail, Hodgson's Yellow- 
headed . 



PAGE 

16 
210 
178 
166 
175 
182 
177 
164 
180 
161 
181 
163 
162 
157 
167 
182 

161 
170 
168 
183 
166 
174 
172 
171 
170 
160 
174 
173 
176 
192 
194 
750 
646 
648 
649 
648 
650 
647 
651 
650 
651 
313 

502 
500 
501 
499 

207 
205 
208 
209 
202 
206 
199 

204 



896 



ENGLISH INDEX 



I'AGE 

Wagtail, Japanese Pied . . . 198 

Wagtail, Large Pied .... 199 

Wagtail, Masked ..... 201 

Wagtail, Pied 197 

Wagtail, Streak-eyed .... 202 

Wagtail, White 200 

Wagtail, White faced ... 198 

Wagtail, White-headed . . . 209 

Wagtail, Yellow 208 

Wagtail, Yellow-headed . . . 203 

Wall-Creeper 194 

Warbler, Aquatic 122 

Warbler, Armand's .... 126 

Warbler, Barred 73 

Warbler, Bonelli's 95 

Warbler, Booted 113 

Warbler, Bowman's 82 

Warbler, Cetti's 137 

Warbler, Dartford . . . 81, 87 

Warbler, Desert ..... 79 

Warbler, Dusky 125 

Warbler, Dybowski's .... 126 

Warbler, Eastern Grasshopper . 132 

Warbler, Eversmann's ... 99 

Warbler, Fantail 140 

Warbler, Garden ... 74, 78, 85 

Warbler, Grasshopper . . . 131 

Warbler, Gray's Grasshopper . 135 

Warbler, Grey -backed . . . 115 

Warbler, Icterine 107 

Warbler, Indian Hill .... 125 

Warbler, Lanceolated . . . 132 

W'arbler, Large-billed, Bush . 129 

Warbler, Marmora's .... 89 

Warbler, Marsh- 118 

Warbler, Melodious .... 108 
Warbler, Menetries' .... 80 
Warbler, Middendorff' s Grass- 
hopper 134 

Warbler, Moustached ... 128 

Warbler, Olivaceous .... 110 

Warbler, Olive-tree .... 109 
Warbler, Orphean .... 85, 86 

Warbler, Paddy-field .... 115 

Warbler, Palestine .... 87 

Warbler, Pallas's Grasshopper . 133 

Warbler, Prjevalsky's Crested . 91 

Warbler, Radde's 127 

Warbler, Reed . . . .79, 85, 117 

Warbler, River 135 

Warbler, Rufous 114 

Warbler, Ruppell's .... 86 

Warbler, Sardinian .... 83 

Warbler, Savi's 136 

Warbler, Sedge 123 

Warbler, SevertzofFs .... 90 

Warbler, Spectacled .... 80 

Warbler, Spotted-Bush . . . 128 



PAGE 

Warbler, Subalpine .... 81 

Warbler, Sykes's 112 

Warbler, Taezanowski's . . . 130 

Warbler, Thick-billed . ; . 124 

Warbler, Tristram's .... 88 

Warbler, Upcher's Ill 

Warbler, Western Olivaceous . 110 

Warbler, Yellow -browed . . 104 

Water-Rail 704 

Waxwing 249 

Waxwing, Japanese .... 250 

Wheatear 29 

Wheatear, Arabian .... 38 

Wheatear, Black 35 

Wheatear, Black and White . 33 

Wheatear, Black-eared ... 37 

Wheatear, Black-throated . . 37 

Wheatear, Desert 39 

Wheatear, Eastern Pied ... 32 

Wheatear, Ehrenberg's ... 30 

Wheatear, Hooded .... 32 

Wheatear, Indian Pied ... 33 

Wheatear, Isabelline .... 41 

Wheatear, Mourning .... 42 

Wheatear, Pied 31 

Wheatear, Retl-rumped ... 40 

Wheatear, Red-tailed ... 43 

Wheatear, Russet 36 

Wheatear, Seebohm's .... 30 

Wheatear, Strickland's ... 36 

Wheatear, White-headed . 34 

Wheatear, White-rumped . . 34 

Whimbrel 801 

Whimbrel, Little 800 

Whinchat 43 

White-eye, Chinese .... 221 

White-eye, Japanese .... 221 
Whitethroat .... 74, 79, 80, 82 

Whitethroat, Himalayan . . 75 

Whitethroat, Least .... 77 

Whitethroat, Lesser .... 76 

Whitethroat, Siberian ... 77 

Wigeon 614 

Wigeon, American 615 

Willow- Warbler, Blyth's . . 103 

Willow. Warbler, Bright Green. 101 

Willow-Warbler, Brooks's . . 107 

Willow-Warbler, Greenish . . 101 

Willow -Warbler, Large -crowned 106 

Willow- Warbler, Large-billed . 103 

Willow-Warbler, Middendorffs 102 

Willow- Warbler, Pale-legged . 102 

Willow- Warbler, Pallas's . . 105 

Willow- Warbler, Plain ... 98 

Willow- Warbler, Swinhoe's. . 100 

Willow- Warbler, Temminck's . 105 

Willow- Warbler, Tickell's . . 99 

Willow-Wren . 94 



ENGLISH INDEX 



897 



PAGE 

Woodcock 756 

Woodlark 389 

Wood- Wren 95 

Wood-Owl, Biddulph's ... 478 

Wood-Owl, Himalayan ... 478 

Wood-Pigeon 645 

Woodpecker, Algerian Green . 454 
Woodpecker, Algerian Pied . 440 
Woodpecker, Barred .... 444 
Woodpecker, Brown-fronted . 446 
Woodpecker, Caucasian Pied . 439 
Woodpecker, Chinese Pied . . 442 
Woodpecker, Darjeeling Pied . 442 
Woodpecker, Great Black . . 437 
Woodpecker, Greek Pied . . 448 
Woodpecker, Green .... 453 
Woodpecker, Grey-headed Green 456 
Woodpecker, Himalayan Pied . 441 
Woodpecker, Japanese Green . 454 
Woodpecker, Japanese Pied . 440 
Woodpecker, Japanese Pigmy . 451 
Woodpecker, Japanese White- 
backed 448 

Woodpecker, Middle -spotted . 449 



PAGE 

Woodpecker, Moorish Pied . . 441 

Woodpecker, Perny's Pied . . 443 

Woodpecker, Pied 438 

Woodpecker, Richard's . . . 437 

Woodpecker, Sharpe's Green . 454 

Woodpecker, Sind Pied . . . 443 

Woodpecker, Swinhoe's Pigmy . 450 

Woodpecker, Syrian Pied . . 444 

Woodpecker, Three-toed . . 452 

Woodpecker, White-backed . 447 

Woodpecker, White-winged . 439 
Woodpecker, Yellow-billed Green 455 

Wren 195 

Wren, Fire-crested .... 93 

Wren, Golden-crested .... 91 

Wren, Japanese . . . . . 884 

Wren, Northern 197 

Wren- Warbler, Streaked . . 141 

Wren, Wood- 95 

Wryneck 457 



YELLOWHAMMER 353 

Yellowshank 788 



GENERAL INDEX 



PAGE 

i, Cyanecula .... 62 

abyssinica, Galerita .... 392 

abyssinicus, Cypselus .... 429 

Acanthyllis 431 

acatoptricus, Tetrao .... 699 

accedens, Parus 169 

Accentor 148 

Accipiter 531 

accipitrinus, Asio 484 

Acredula 157 

Acrocephalus 115 

acuflavida, Sterna 812 

.acuminata, Tringa 767 

acuta, Dafila 613 

acutirostris, Calandrella . . . 393 

.adalberti, Aquila . ... . . 522 

adamsi, Alaudula 396 

adamsi, Colymbus 877 

adamsi, Montifringilla . . . 299 

Adelura 57 

Aedon 114 

.aedon, Lusciniola 124 

^Egialitis 734 

^Egithalus 183 

segocephala, Limosa . . . 797, 799 

segyptiacus, Turtur .... 650 

^egyptius, Caprimulgus . . . 435 

segyptius, Merops 466 

segyptius, Milvus 537 

segyptius, Pluvianus .... 744 
seruginosus, Circus .... 503, 507 

sesalon, Falco 547 

^thereus, Phaeton 861 

sethiopica, Ibis 584 

^Ethyia 616 

Aex 603 

affinis, Corvus 425 

affinis, Cypselus 429 

affinis, Larus 835 

affinis, Ninox 495 

.affinis, Parus 170 

affinis, Phylloscopus .... 99 

affinis, Poecile 91 

.affinis, Pycnorhamphus . . . 288 



affinis, Salicaria 128 

affinis, Sterna 811 

affinis, Sylvia ...... 77 

africana, ^Ethyia 620 

africana, Fringilla 309 

africana, Strix ...... 498 

africana, Turnix 703 

africanus, Charadrius .... 731 

africanus, Cypselus .... 431 

africanus, Phalacrocorax . . . 559 

agilis, Anthus 212 

agricola, Acrocephalus . . . 115 

akahige, Erithacus .... 65 

alaschanica, Ruticilla .... 54 

Alauda 387 

alaudarius, Falco 552 

alaudipes, Certhilauda . . . 375 

alba, Ardea 566, 568 

alba, Ciconia 580 

alba, Motacilla 200 

albatrus, Diomedea .... 859 

albatus, Chen - 597 

albellus, Mergus 638 

albescens, Certhia 194 

albescens, Chen 598 

albescens, Tringa 771 

albicans, Aquila 520 

albicilla, Haliaetus .... 524 

albicilla, Muscicapa .... 257 

albicollis, Cinclus 26 

albicollis, Muscicapa .... 255 

albicollis, Saxicola .... 37, 885 

albidior, Picoides 452 

albifrons, Anser 591 

albifrons, Sitta 187 

albigula, Otocorys .... 380, 381 

albigularis, Saxicola .... 68 

albinigra, Saxicola 33 

albipennis, Podicipes .... 881 

albisuperciliaris, Rhopophilus . 146 

albiventris, Loxia 340 

alboides, Motacilla .... 199 

albus, Lagopus . . . 692, 696, 699 

albus, Larus 821 

3 N 



900 



GENERAL INDEX 





PAGE 




PAGE 


Alca 


. . 861 


anatum, Falco 


544 


Alcedo 


. . 458 


andalusica, Turnix 


703 


alchata, Pterocles . . 


. . 654 


anglica, Sterna 


814 


aldrovandi, Scops . . . 


. . 486 


anglorum, Puffinus 


849 


aleutica, Sterna .... 


. . 817 


angustirostris, Marmaronetta . 


607 


alexandrina, ^Egialitis . 


. . 737 


angustirostris, Phalaropus . . 


754 


algeriensis, Ammomanes . 


. . 397 


Anous 


819 


algeriensis, Lanius . . . 


. . 235 


Anser , . . 


588 


algirus, Gecinus . . 


. . 454 


Anthus . . 


210 


alicise, Turdus .... 


. . 5, 6 


antigone, Grus f ' 


721 


alle, Mergulus .... 
alleni, Lagopus .... 


864 
. . 692 


antiquorum, Phuenicopterus 
antiquus, Synthliborhamphus . 


587 
868 


alleni, Porphyrio . . . 


. . 714 


aphrodite, Parus . . . . . 


162 


alpestris, Hirundo . . 


. . 268 


apiaster, Merops 


465 


alpestris, Otocorys . . . 


. . 378 


apivorus, Pernis 


538 


alpestris, Parus .... 


. . 168 


apus, Cypselus 


427 


alpestris, Turdus . . . 


. . 20 


aquaticus, Acrocephalus . . . 


122 


alpicola, Montifringilla . 


. . 298 


aquaticus, Anthus .... 214, 


216 


alpina, Tringa .... 


769, 770 


aquaticus, Cinclus 


25 


alpinus, Accentor . . . 


. . 148 


aquaticus, Rallus 


704 


alpinus, Cypselus . . . 


. . 430 


Aquila 


517 


alpinus, Pyrrhocorax . . 


. . 406 


aquilinus, Buteo 


511 


alpinus, Tetrao .... 


. . 693 


aquilus, Tachypetes .... 


861 


Alseonax 


. . 252 


arabs, Eupodotis 


726 


altaica, Fringalauda , . 


. . 302 


aralensis, Sylvia 


79 


altaicus, Accentor . . . 


. . 150 


aranea, Sterna 


815 


altaicus, Falco .... 


. . 542 


arborea, Alauda 


389 


altaicus, Tetraogallus . . 


. . 691 


arboreus, Anthus . . . . .-!'' 


211 


althaea, Sylvia .... 


. . 75 


arcadica, Strix ^' 


493 


alticola, Certhia . . . 


. . 194 


arcadicus, Falco . . . .'..-' 


549 


Aluco 


. . 497 


Archibuteo 


514 


aluco, Strix 


. . 476 


arctica, Fratercula 


873 


amaurotis, Hypsipetes 
ambiguus, Carpodacus 


. . 226 

. . 328 


arctica, Sterna 
arctica, Strix 


808 
480 


americana, ^Ethyia . . 


. . 617 


arcticus, Colymbus .... 


875 


americana, Certhia 


. . 193 


arcticus, Puffinus 


849 


americana, Clangula . . 


. . 621 


arctoa, Leucosticte 


303 


americana, Fulica . . . 


. . 717 


arcuata, Emberiza 


361 


americana, Mareca . . . 


. . 614 


Ardea 


564 


americana, (Edemia . . 


. . 628 




575 


americana, Tringa . . 


. . 770 




779 


americanus, Coccyzus . . 


. . 474 


arenarius, Caccabis .... 


678 


americanus, Lanius 


. . 231 


arenarius, Caprimulgus . . . 


436 


americanus, Otus . . . 


. . 484 


arenarius, Lanius 


238 


amherstise, Chrysolophus 


. . 669 


arenarius, Pterocles .... 


652 


ammodendri, Passer . . 


. . 292 


arenicola, Galerita 


391 


Ammomanes 


. . 397 


arenicolor, Ammomanes , . . 


398 


Ammoperdix 


. . 680 


arenicolor, Caprimulgus . . . 


435 


ampelinus, Hypocolius . 


. . 250 




832 


Ampelis 


. . 249 


Argya 


144 


amphileuca, Saxicola . . 


. . 885 


ariel, Prion 


861 


amurensis, Aquila . . . 


. . 519 


armandi, Lusciniola .... 


126 


amurensis, Ardetta 


. . 575 


arquatus, Numenius . . . . 


803 


amurensis, Falco . . . 


. . 551 


arra, Alca 


863 


amurensis, Motacilla . 


. . 198 


arundinaceus, Acrocephalus 117, 


119 


amurensis, Sitta . . . 


. . 187 


arvensis, Alauda 


387 


ansestheta, Sterna . . . 


. . 818 


ascalaphus, Bubo 


492 


Anas 


. . 604 


asiatica, ^gialitis 


736 






GENERAL INDEX 



901 



PAGE 

asiatica, Sitta 187 

asiaticus, Cinclus 27 

Asio 483 

assimilis, Lanius 232 

assimilis, Parus 169 

assimilis, Puffinus 854 

Astur 529 

ater, Milvua 535 

ater, Parus 164 

Athene 496 

atlas, Otocorys 381 

atlas, Parus 885 

atra, Fulica 716 

atricapilla, Halcyon .... 462 

atricapilla, Muscicapa . . . 254 

atricapilla, Sylvia 84 

atricapillus, ygithalus . . . 184 

atricapillus, Astur 530 

atricapillus, Garrulus .... 413 

atriceps, Parus 163 

atricollis, Ardea 566 

atrigularis, Accentor , . . . 152 

atrigularis, Turdus .... 14 

atrogularis, Saxicola .... 39 

audouini, Larus 831 

auduboni, Puffinus 854 

auduboni, Turdus 5 

aurantiaca, Pyrrhula .... 338 

aurantiiventris, Ligurinus . . 284 

auratus, Charadrius .... 731 

aurea, Oreocincla 16 

aureola, Emberiza 349 

auricapillus, Regulus .... 91 

auricapillus, Siurus .... 222 

auriceps, Dendrocopus . . . 446 

auriculatus, Lanius .... 246 

aurifrons, Serinus 281 

aurita, Saxicola 37 

auritum, Crossoptilum . . . 672 

auritus, Podicipes .... 879, 880 

auritus, Turdus 3 

auritus, Turtur 647 

aurorea, Ruticilla 52 

australasiana, Grus .... 720 

aus